Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 78

BIOLOGY

CONCEPTS & CONNECTIONS Fourth Edition


Neil A. Campbell Jane B. Reece Lawrence G. Mitchell Martha R. Taylor

CHAPTER 24 The Immune System


Modules 24.1 24.2
From PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts & Connections
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Continuing Problem of HIV Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is epidemic throughout much of the world

14,000 people are infected with the AIDS virus every day
HIV is the virus that causes AIDS HIV is transmitted mainly in blood and semen Former L.A. Laker Magic Johnson is one of 900,000 Americans who are HIV-positive
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Our immune system is a specific defense system


It backs up several mechanisms of nonspecific resistance

HIV attacks the immune system


It eventually destroys the bodys ability to fight infection

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Basic Mechanisms of Defense


There are three basic lines of defense against disease
Vertebrate have all three lines of defense

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Basic Mechanisms of Defense


The 1st line of defense: nonspecific external barriers
Prevent microbes from entering the body

Examples: skin and mucous membranes

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Basic Mechanisms of Defense


The 2nd line of defense: nonspecific internal barriers
Occurs when microbes breach nonspecific external barriers Broad internal responses to microbe infection Examples: phagocytic white blood cells, inflammation, fever

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Basic Mechanisms of Defense


The 3rd line of defense: specific immune response
Immune cells selectively destroy specific invading microbes and toxins Invaders are remembered, allowing for a rapid future response to invasion

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES AGAINST INFECTION 24.1 Nonspecific defenses against infection include the skin and mucous membranes, phagocytic cells, and antimicrobial proteins The bodys first lines of defense against infection are nonspecific
They do not distinguish one infectious microbe from another

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Skin and Mucous Membranes


The skin is important in blocking microbe entry and suppressing microbe growth
Skin is a barrier to microbes

Skin is continually shed, removing microbes that gain a foothold on skin


Many skin secretions contain natural antibiotics

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Skin and Mucous Membranes


Mucous membranes have effective microbe defense mechanisms
Mucous membrane secretions contain antibacterial enzymes (example: lysozymes) Mucus traps microbes entering the nose or mouth Respiratory tract cilia sweep mucus and microbes away from lungs
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Nonspecific Internal Defenses


Broad defenses that attack microbes that penetrate the skin
Three major categories of nonspecific internal defenses
Phagocytic cells and natural killer cells The inflammatory response Fever
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Macrophages wander in the interstitial fluid


They eat any bacteria and virus-infected cells they encounter

Figure 24.1A
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Natural Killer Cells


A type of white blood cell
Attack body cells that are cancerous or infected with virus
Secrete enzymes that poke holes in the cell membrane of virally-infected or cancerous cells

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Fever
Helps combat large-scale infection by elevating body temperature

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Fever
Some cells release cytokines in response to infection
Antibacterial cytokines
Macrophages release endogenous pyrogens: elevate body temperature Other cytokines: decrease iron in the blood Both act to slow bacterial reproduction

Antiviral cytokines: Interferon, which helps cells resist viral attack


Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Interferon and complement proteins are activated by infected cells


VIRUS
1

Viral nucleic acid


6 Antiviral proteins block

viral reproduction
New viruses

2 Interferon

genes turned on

mRNA
3 5 Interferon

Interferon molecules

stimulates cell to turn on genes for antiviral proteins


4

HOST CELL 1 Makes interferon; is killed by virus


Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

HOST CELL 2 Protected against virus by interferon from cell 1

Figure 24.1B

24.2 The inflammatory response mobilizes nonspecific defense forces Tissue damage triggers the inflammatory response
Skin surface
Pin Phagocytes Bacteria Chemical signals White blood cell Phagocytes and fluid move into area Swelling

1 Tissue injury; release of


chemical signals such as histamine

2 Dilation and increased leakiness


of local blood vessels; migration of phagocytes to the area

3 Phagocytes (macrophages and


neutrophils) consume bacteria and cell debris; tissue heals Figure 24.2

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The inflammatory response can


disinfect tissues

limit further infection

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

24.3 The lymphatic system becomes a crucial battleground during infection The lymphatic system is a network of lymphatic vessels and organs
It returns tissue fluid to the circulatory system It fights infections

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Adenoid Tonsil Right lymphatic duct, entering vein Thoracic duct Appendix Spleen Lymph nodes Thoracic duct, entering vein Thymus

LYMPHATIC VESSEL VALVE Blood capillary Tissue cells Interstitial fluid

LYMPHATIC CAPILLARY

Masses of lymphocytes and macrophages

Bone marrow

Lymphatic vessels

Figure 23.3
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

This lymphatic vessel is taking up fluid from tissue spaces in the skin
It will return it as lymph to the blood
Lymph contains less oxygen and fewer nutrients than interstitial fluid
LYMPHATIC VESSEL VALVE

Tissue cells Interstitial fluid

Blood capillary

LYMPHATIC CAPILLARY
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 23.3B

Lymph nodes are key sites for fighting infection


They are packed with lymphocytes and macrophages

Masses of lymphocytes and macrophages Outer capsule of lymph node

Macrophages

Lymphocytes

Figure 23.3C, D
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

SPECIFIC IMMUNITY 24.4 The immune response counters specific invaders

Our immune systems responds to foreign molecules called antigens


Infection or vaccination triggers active immunity The immune system reacts to antigens and remembers an invader We can temporarily acquire passive immunity
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Key Characteristics
The immune response involves specialized white blood cells called lymphocytes
The immune system: lymphocytes, the chemicals they produce, and the organs that they live in

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

24.5 Lymphocytes mount a dual defense Two kinds of lymphocytes carry out the specific immune response
B cells secrete antibodies that attack antigens T cells attack cells infected with pathogens
Figure 24.5
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

BONE MARROW

Stem cell THYMUS Via blood Immature lymphocytes

Antigen receptors

B cell HUMORAL IMMUNITY Via blood

T cell CELLMEDIATED IMMUNITY

OTHER PARTS OF THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

Lymph nodes, spleen, and other lymphatic organs

Final maturation of B and T cells in lymphatic organ

An immune response has three steps


First: recognizing an invader Second: launching an attack Third: remembering specific invaders to ward off future infections

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Step 1: Recognizing an Invader


Foreign invaders exhibit characteristic antigens
Foreign molecules that are particular to an invading microbe or toxin Immune cells respond to the presence of antigens

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Antibodies and T-cell Receptors


Antibodies and T-cell receptors recognize and bind to foreign antigens

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Antibodies
Antibodies are proteins that can be attached to B cells or free-floating in the blood

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Antibodies
Antibodies
Y-shaped molecules made of light peptide chains and heavy peptide chains

Both chains have constant and variable regions that form highly specific antigen binding sites Each type of antibody is unique to the B cell that makes them
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

24.10 Antibodies are the weapons of humoral immunity An antibody molecule

Figure 24.10A
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Antibodies
There are five different classes of antibodies, which perform various functions
Inactivate their antigens by binding them and causing them to clump together Assist white blood cells to engulf microbes Activate natural killer cells Bind to blood proteins of the complement system
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Antibodies
Some classes of antibodies can cross the placenta and provide immunity to a developing child Another class is secreted in breast milk Both help the newborn, whose immune system is not fully developed

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

24.6 Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them Antigenic determinants (epitopes) are the molecules to which antibodies bind
Antibody A molecules

Antigenbinding sites

Antigen

Antigenic determinants

Antibody B molecule Figure 24.6


Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Immune Cells Launch an Attack


Once an invading antigen has been detected, two forms of attack occur

Humoral immunity Cell-mediated immunity

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

24.7 Clonal selection musters defensive forces against specific antigens When an antigen enters the body, it activates only lymphocytes with complementary receptors
B and T cells multiply into clones of specialized effector cells that defend against the triggering antigen This is called clonal selection

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Humoral Immunity
Provided by B cells and circulating antibodies
Attack antigens circulating in the bloodstream and lymph Each B cell has a unique antibody attached to its surface that will only bind with properly shaped antigens

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Humoral Immunity

1.

The mechanism of humoral immunity occurs in the following series of steps


Attached B cell antibodies bind to an invading antigen in the blood

2. Bound B cell divides rapidly forming many identical copies (clonal selection) 3. B cell clones differentiate to form memory B cells and plasma cells
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Antigen molecules

Variety of B cells in a lymph node

Antigen receptor (antibody on cell surface)

Cell growth division, and differentiation

Clone of many effector cells secreting antibodies

Endoplasmic reticulum

Antibody molecules

Figure 24.7
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Humoral Immunity
Memory B cells: saved to fight future infection Plasma cells: mass-produce the specific antibody into the blood

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

24.11 Antibodies mark antigens for elimination Antibodies may


block harmful antigens on microbes clump bacteria or viruses together precipitate dissolved antigens activate complement proteins

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Binding of antibodies to antigens inactivates antigens by

Neutralization (blocks viral binding sites; coats bacterial toxins) Virus

Agglutination of microbes Bacteria

Precipitation of dissolved antigens

Activation of complement
Complement molecule

Bacterium Enhances Phagocytosis

Antigen molecules

Foreign cell Leads to Cell lysis

Hole

Macrophage

Figure 24.11
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

24.8 The initial immune response results in a type of memory In the primary immune response, clonal selection produces memory cells
These cells may confer lifelong immunity

Figure 24.8A
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

When memory cells are activated by subsequent exposure to an antigen, they mount a more rapid and massive secondary immune response

Unstimulated lymphocyte

First exposure to antigen

FIRST CLONE

Memory cells

Second exposure to antigen

Effector cells

SECOND CLONE

More memory cells New effector cells

Figure 24.8B
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

24.9 Overview: B cells are the main warriors of humoral immunity Triggered by a specific antigen, a B cell differentiates into an effector cell
The effector cell is called a plasma cell The plasma cell secretes antibodies

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

PRIMARY RESPONSE (initial encounter with antigen)

Antigen Antigen receptor on a B cell Antigen binding to a B cell

Cell growth, division, and differentiation

Clone of cells Plasma cell Antibody molecules

Memory B cell

SECONDARY RESPONSE (can be years later) Cell growth, division, and further differentiation Larger clone of cells Plasma cell

Later exposure to same antigen

Memory B cell Antibody molecules


Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 24.9

24.12 Connection: Monoclonal antibodies are powerful tools in the lab and clinic These molecules are produced by fusing B cells specific for a single antigenic determinant with easy-to-grow tumor cells

Antigen injected into mouse

Tumor cells grown in culture

B cells (from spleen)

Tumor cells

Cells fused to generate hybrid cells Single hybrid cell grown in culture Antibody

Figure 24.12A
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Hybrid cell culture, producing monoclonal antibodies

These cells are useful in medical diagnosis


Example: home pregnancy tests

They are also useful in the treatment of certain cancers

Figure 24.12B
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

24.13 T cells mount the cell-mediated defense and aid humoral immunity Provided by T cells, which attack cancer cells and cells that have been invaded by viruses Three types of T cells are involved
Helper T cells Cytotoxic T cells Memory T cells

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Cell-Mediated Immunity
Helper T cells
Bind to antigens presented by a macrophage that consumed them

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Cell-mediated immunity
An antigenpresenting cell (APC) first displays a foreign antigen and one of the bodys own self proteins to a helper T cell
Microbe

Macrophage (will become APC) Antigen from microbe (nonself molecule) Self protein

Self protein displaying antigen

T cell receptor

3
Helper T cell

Binding site for self protein

4
APC Binding site for antigen Figure 24.13A
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Cell-Mediated Immunity
Helper T cells
Produce cytokines that stimulate T cell division and differentiation

Will form memory T cells and cytotoxic T cells


Will also stimulate division of B cells (humoral response) that are bound to an antigen
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The helper T cells receptors recognize the selfnonself complexes on the APC
The interaction activates the helper T cells

The helper T cell can then activate cytotoxic T cells with the same receptors
Self protein displaying an antigen T cell receptor Interleukin-2 stimulates cell division Cytotoxic T cell
Cell-mediated immunity (attack on infected cells)

APC

Helper T cell

Interleukin-2 activates other T cells and B cells


Humoral immunity (secretion of antibodies by plasma cells)

B cell Interleukin-1 activates helper T cell


Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 24.13B

Cytotoxic T cells
Bind directly to cancerous or virally-infected cells

Release proteins that poke holes in cancer/infected cell membrane, killing the cell

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Cell-Mediated Immunity
Cytotoxic T cells bind to infected body cells and destroy them
1 Cytotoxic T cell binds
to infected cell

2 Perforin makes holes

in infected cells membrane

3 Infected cell is destroyed

Foreign antigen INFECTED CELL

Hole forming

Perforin molecule

Cytotoxic T cell

Figure 24.13C
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Cell-Mediated Immunity
Memory T cells
Dormant helper T cells that fight future infection by the antigen that produced it

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

24.14 Cytotoxic T cells may help prevent cancer Cytotoxic T cells may attack cancer cells
The surface molecules of cancer cells are altered by the disease

Figure 24.14
Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

24.15 The immune system depends on our molecular fingerprints The immune system normally reacts only against nonself substances
It generally rejects transplanted organs The cells of transplanted organs lack the recipients unique fingerprint of self proteins

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

DISORDERS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 24.16 Connection: Malfunction or failure of the immune system causes disease Autoimmune diseases
The system turns against the bodys own molecules

Immunodeficiency diseases
Immune components are lacking, and infections recur

Physical and emotional stress may weaken the immune system


Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

24.17 Connection: Allergies are overreactions to certain environmental antigens Allergies are abnormal sensitivities to allergens in the surroundings

B cell (plasma cell) Histamine Antigenic determinant Mast cell

Allergen (pollen grain)

B cells make antibodies

Antibodies attach to mast cell

Allergen binds to antibodies on mast cell

Histamine is released, causing allergy symptoms

SENSITIZATION: Initial exposure to allergen

LATER EXPOSURE TO SAME ALLERGEN Figure 24.17

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

24.18 Connection: AIDS leaves the body defenseless The AIDS virus attacks helper T Cells
This cripples both cell-mediated and humoral immunity

So far, AIDS is incurable


Drugs and vaccines offer hope for the future

Practicing safer sex could save many lives

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings