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Natasharina Amanina Zuhair Akashah Ismail

Prepared by: Fatin Athira Mohamed Salah Nur Fazlina Hafizuddin Abdullah Iylia Mardhiah Saqer Al-thaybi Sara Soraya Motlaq Attibi

OBJECTIVES
Definition Flora In Oral Cavity Microbial Flora At Different Parts Of The Mouth Development & Changes Of Flora Role Of Flora Oral Infection Oral Infection Control

OBJECTIVES
Definition Flora In Oral Cavity Microbial Flora At Different Parts Of The Mouth Development & Changes Of Flora Role Of Flora Oral Infection Oral Infection Control

DEFINITION
Flora of the mouth refers to the bacteria and other microorganisms that can live inside the mouth cavity. Saliva contains approximately 108 bacteria flora / milliliter. The organisms present at any time, exist in balance with each other, and any change in this balance may result in disease

OBJECTIVES
Definition Flora In Oral Cavity Microbial Flora At Different Parts Of The Mouth Development & Changes Of Flora Role Of Flora Oral Infection Oral Infection Control

FLORA IN ORAL CAVITY

Bacteria

Fungi

Viruses

FLORA IN ORAL CAVITY Bacteria


Gram +ve cocci Staphylococci especially S. epidermidis Gram ve cocci COMMENSAL Neisseria

Streptococci (viridans, mitis, salivarius, Vellionella mutans) Capnocytophagia Gram +ve bacilli Actinomyces Diphtheroids Nocardia Spirochetes Borrelia Treponema Branhamella catarrhalis Gram ve bacilli Bacteroids Fusibactericm

FLORA IN ORAL CAVITY


Fungi
Candida: the commonest fungus present in oral cavity. May cause infection in diabetic patients, cancer, immune deficiency disorders as AIDS and after heavy doses heavy doses of antibiotics.

Viruses
Little is known about the role of virus in normal oral flora. Some viruses as herpes simplex, measles and mumps can be found in oral lesions during the course of the disease.

OBJECTIVES
Definition Flora In Oral Cavity Microbial Flora At Different Parts Of The Mouth Development & Changes Of Flora Role Of Flora Oral Infection Oral Infection Control

MICROBIAL FLORA AT DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE MOUTH


Strept. Salivarius: on dorsal surface of the tongue Strept. Sangius: colonize the smooth surface of teeth Strept. Mitior: is the predominant on the buccal mucosa Strept. Mutans: colonize the occlusal pits and fissures of crowns Bacteroides melaninogenicus and oral spirochetes: on the gingival crevice

OBJECTIVES
Definition Flora In Oral Cavity Microbial Flora At Different Parts Of The Mouth Development & Changes Of Flora Role Of Flora Oral Infection Oral Infection Control

DEVELOPMENT & CHANGES OF FLORA


At birth: Oral cavity is usually sterile.

Within the first day (with the first feeding), resident flora begins to colonize the mouth.
Within a week: S. salivarius and S. mitior are detected. After short duration: Veillonella appear. With the emergence of teeth: an increase in the number of anaerobic organisms as fusibacterium and bacteroids.

DEVELOPMENT & CHANGES OF FLORA


Also after eruption of teeth : facultative anaerobes appear. By the end of the first year, the overall of infants is similar to that of adults by the appearance of S.mutans and S.sanguis. By the puberty: two groups of organisms colonize the gingiva as oral Spirochetes and Bacteroides.

OBJECTIVES
Definition Flora In Oral Cavity Microbial Flora At Different Parts Of The Mouth Development & Changes Of Flora Role Of Flora Oral Infection Oral Infection Control

ROLE OF FLORA
Advantages
The presence of oral flora provides protection from overgrowth by pathogenic bacteria Saliva contains digestive enzymes and a number of antimicrobial compounds including IgA, lysozyme, and lactoferrin. Prevent colonization by pathogens by competing for attachment sites or for essential nutrients. Synthesize and excrete vitamins in excess of their own needs, which can be absorbed as nutrients by their host. Stimulate the development of certain tissues

ROLE OF FLORA
Disadvantages
The organisms present at any time exist in balance with each other, when any change in this balance, this may result in disease Oral streptococci may be introduced into wounds created by dental manipulation or treatment. Strep. Sanguis and Strep. mutans responsible for plague Strep. mutans appears to be important in the initiation of dental caries because its activities lead to colonization of the tooth surfaces, plague formation and localized demineralization of tooth enamel.

OBJECTIVES
Definition Flora In Oral Cavity Microbial Flora At Different Parts Of The Mouth Development & Changes Of Flora Role Of Flora Oral Infection Oral Infection Control

ORAL INFECTION
Predisposing factors
Physiological factor: as old age Pregnancy: leading to gingivitis Trauma: opportunistic infection Malnutrition: deficiencies of iron, vitamin B12 AIDS: opportunistic infections Chemotherapy: opportunistic infectious, candidosis and caries

ORAL INFECTION
Dental plaque
Dental plaque is material adhering to the teeth. The dominant bacterial species in dental plaque are Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mutans, both of which are considered responsible for plaque.

Dental caries
Dental Caries is the destruction of parts of teeth due to bacterial activities. Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis and lactobacilli are most consistently been associated with the initiation of dental caries, but other lactic acid bacteria are probably involved as well.

ORAL INFECTION
Periodontal Diseases
Periodontal Diseases are bacterial infections that affect the supporting structures of the teeth (gingiva, cementum, periodontal membrane and alveolar bone). The most common form, gingivitis, is an inflammatory condition of the gums. Bacteria in these lesions are very complex populations consist of Gram-positive organisms (including Actinomyces and streptococci) and Gram-negative organisms (including spirochetes and Bacteroides)

OBJECTIVES
Definition Flora In Oral Cavity Microbial Flora At Different Parts Of The Mouth Development & Changes Of Flora Role Of Flora Oral Infection Oral Infection Control

ORAL INFECTION CONTROL


Oral hygiene and thrush control
Regular oral hygiene is an essential infection control technique for thrush. Good oral hygiene includes regular brushing and flossing and regular dental checkups.

Diet and Thrush


Candida albicans grow better in an environment with plenty of sugar. So, people practicing thrush infection control should watch their diet for foods that are high in sugar or yeast.

ORAL INFECTION CONTROL


Xerostomia and Oral Thrush
Xerostomia, diabetes, some medications and smoking increase the risk of oral thrush outbreaks and dental caries. If medication causes dry mouth, switching to a different medication may solve the problem. Dry mouth can be treated by drinking extra water or using mouth moisturizer.

ORAL INFECTION CONTROL


Other Methods of Infection Control
Breastfeeding helps bolster a baby's immune system, so preventing oral thrush. People with suppressed immune systems may require regular antimicrobial drugs as part of oral thrush infection control. Also avoid long courses of antibiotics which may predispose to oral thrush.

Exercise, healthy eating habits and good oral hygiene can all strengthen the immune system, lowering the risk of oral thrush infection.