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From Republic to Empire

Ancient Rome HIS 101 - Week 4

Italian Peninsula
Etruscans in fertile Northern region Greek Colonies in the South Phoenicians (Carthage) on Islands Latins in center City State of Rome

Early Rome

Orphaned twins Romulus & Remus as mythological founders 753 BCE Etruscans create a city on 7 hills along Tiber River 509 BCE last Etruscan king, Tarquin the Proud, expelled and Roman Republic begins

Etruscan Metalwork

Etruscan Art

Etruscan Influences

Oligarchic government of 2 kings Fasces as symbol of royal power The Etruscan Arch and engineering Aspects of religion, mysticism and divination

Greek Influences
Art - sculpture, realism, mosaics, frescoes Architecture - columns, temples Philosophy - Stoicism Literature, Theater & Poetry Greco-Roman Tradition begins Wealthy Romans educated by Greeks, often in Greece Greek slaves highly coveted by aristocracy

Phoenician Influence
Latin & Roman Alphabet Ship Building Technology Trade Routes

Early Conquests on Peninsula


Rome starts as modest City State Conquers neighboring Latin tribes Absorbs Greek Colonies after Peloponnesian Wars Conquers Etruscan lands to dominate entire peninsula

Roman Forum

Center of Roman life, equivalent of Greek Agora Found in all Roman towns & cities Marketplace, Temples for Worship, home of the Senate, monuments to leaders & heros

SPQR

Senatus Populus que Romanus The Senate and People of Rome Citizenship open to all free, propertied males Conquered peoples encouraged to Romanize

The Republic
2 Consuls, elected by Senate serve for 1 year Consul as Executive Consul could name a Dictator during time of crisis for 6 months only Senate made up of 300 Aristocrats, mostly former consuls Council of Plebs added to represent commoners Praetors, Censors and Quaestors also powerful positions

Roman Society
Plebes - common people Patricians - wealthy elite Paterfamilias - male head of household Latifundia - massive agricultural estates/plantations Slavery - huge numbers of debt slaves, could gain freedom & citizenship

Punic Wars
Series of 3 wars from 264 to 146 BCE Increasing Roman wealth, power & territory challenged Carthage Bold attacks by Hamilcar and Hannibal Barca Romans lay siege to Carthage and burn to ground Salt sowed into earth to prevent revival of Carthage

Roman Republic Expansion

Roman Legion

Largest, most organized, well trained professional standing army in the world at time Adopted all strategies, practices and technology encountered Key to acquiring wealth, maintaining status and rising in Rome Organized in Greek Phalanx formation

Spartacus
Deserted Roman army in Macedonia, became outlaw, captured & enslaved as Gladiator Led 70,000 slaves on 3 year rebellion Largest slave rebellion in human history Rebels elude Romans for years, pillaging countryside Pompey & Crassus used legion to trap rebels, Spartacus never found dead or alive 6,000 Rebels caught and crucified along Appian Way

First Triumvirate

Crassus, wealthiest man in Rome Pompey, military hero of east, defeated Spartacus Caesar, military hero of Gaul, most popular general Power-sharing agreement following Spartacus rebellion and civil unrest, famines, Civil War

Gaius Julius Caesar

From wealthy Patrician family, trained a priest, educated in Greec Famed for pomp, presence and vengeful spirit Part of First Triumvirate due to popularity among soldiers & plebes Conquered Gaul Marched legion across the Rubicon River Won Civil War, declared himself Dictator for life

Vini! Vidi! Vici!

Follows Pompey to Egypt, presented w/ his head on arrival Forms alliance with Cleopatra, adds Egypt as Roman Province Conquers Syria, Asia Minor & Palestine - declares I Came, I Saw, I Conquered Returns to Rome with largest territory to date

Cicero
Romes greatest orator and supporter of the Republic Supported Pompey during civil war Leader of the Senate Ousted conspiracies, ended corruption Warned of empire and death of the Republic

Brutus & Cassius lead plot to assassinate Julius Caesar Conspirators allowed to continue by Cicero Julius Caesar stabbed to death on Senate Floor Ides of March March 15th, 44 BCE Caesars death does not bring Republic back, but plunges Rome into further chaos

Augustus
Born Octavius of the Juliae, Nephew of Julius Caesar Defeats Marc Anthony & Lepidus (2nd Triumvirate) to emerge as sole ruler First Emperor of Rome Takes the title Caesar Augustus Begins era of Pax Romana Ruled for 41 years, 27 BCE to 14 CE

Imperial Rome
Senate & Council of Plebs preserved as body of debate with little to no power Imperium power retained permanently by Augustus Consulship abolished Economy fueled by conquest and expansion Heavy reliance on slave labor in Roman lands Conquered peoples allowed to retain identity, gods, culture but must bow to Caesar

Hebrew Problem
Pompey defiled temple and entered Holy of Holies Monotheistic people refused to worship Roman gods and Caesar Resilient, rebellious culture refuses to submit Rome installs puppet king Herod Radical Rabbi Jesus of Nazareth presents threat to Herod and Rome Jesus crucified under Roman law and justice

Jewish Revolt
Jews refuse to submit to Roman rule and continue to challenge Roman-Jewish War begins 66 CE Titus destroys Jerusalem & 2nd Temple in 70 CE 100,000 Jews killed, others enslaved or scatter Beginning of Jewish Diaspora Jewish rebels hold out for 3 more years until 73 CE Final battle at Masada, Romans lay siege to mountain fortress Romans build massive rampart to reach top, to find all 936 Jews committed suicide

Pax Romana

Peace of Rome 27 BCE to 180 CE; 200 years of peace, prosperity, wealth & massive building

Roman Denar/Dinar

Titus
Arch of Titus in Roman Forum Considered to be a Good Emperor by Tacitus Conquered the Jews Emperor during eruption of Mt. Vesuvius @ Pompeii (79 CE) Emperor during massive Fire of Rome (80 CE)

Arch of Titus Details

5 Good Emperors

Trajan

2nd Good Emperor after Nerva, before Hadrian Ruled over largest Roman territory ever Conquered Central Europe and Persia

Hadrian

Conquered Brittania and built wall to repel Scots Rebuilt Pantheon and other large buildings Travelled entire Roman Empire east to west Built massive mausoleum on west bank of Tiber, turned into the Papal Fort, called the Castel SantAngelo today.

Virgil
Author of the Aeneid, the epic poem of Rome 12 books, first 6 based on Odyssey, last 6 on Illiad Friend & supporter of Octavian Encouraged by then Augustus to immortalize the glory of Rome in epic poetry

Roman Historians

Livy - Wrote The History of Rome covering founding of city in 753 through reign of Augustus, favored Republic. Tacitus - Senator & Historian who decried corruption of Emperors and favored Republican traditions in Histories and The Annales Roman Historians paid and protected by Emperors and Senators, history full of bias and propaganda

Seneca
Leading Stoic philosopher of Rome Emphasized practical steps reader could confront problems Wrote tragedies, dialogies and one satirical comedy Suggested a stoic approach to death

Pantheon
Temple to all Roman Gods First Pantheon destroyed by fire of 80 CE, rebuilt by Hadrian in 125 Best preserved Roman building Converted to a church in 600s In continual use since construction in 125 CE

Pantheon Faade & Aerial View

Pantheon Interior

Roman Temple of Vesta

Roman Engineering

Aqueducts used to transport water from mountains to cities Bridges & roads built all over empire to facilitate trade and movement of legions Invented modern form of concrete for construction Built elaborate bath houses with heating, plumbing, steam

Key Bridge in DC

Roman Roads

All Roads Lead to Rome Connected Roman cities & facilitated trade Provided quick access for Roman Legion

Roman City

City grid utilized in all Roman towns and Cities Patricians lived in elaborate villas centered around an open courtyard Entire city oriented and organized to support trade and defense

Colosseum

Built 70-80 CE, begun by Vespasian, finished under Titus Seated 50 - 80,000 and used for over 500 years Hosted Gladiatorial combat as well as animal fights, man vs. animal fights and even mock naval battles Had a retractable awning for shade, great ventilation and exits

Gladiators

Slaves or prisoners of war Fights rarely to the death, public execution of criminals much more common Various types of gladiators with different weapons and armor matched up Gladiators were celebrities in Rome, with dedicated followings Female gladiators fought each other & animals

Roman Entertainment
Circus used for Chariot & Horse Races Mixed gender & class seating in Circus, segregated in Colosseum Bread given out for free Paid entry, wine for sale Circus Maximus biggest in entire empire

Roman Baths

A series of baths were used; Frigidarium, Tepidarium & Calidarium Saunas, Steam Baths, Exercise and Debate Elaborate bath houses for Patricians included temples, artwork, sculpture

Roman Bath Details

Baths of Caracalla

Pompeii
Destroyed by eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in 79 CE Entire town preserved as it was that day Many people killed by gas & pyroclastic flow immediately Best preserved Roman Town

Ruins of Pompeii

Ruins of Pompeii

Early Christianity

Christianity seen as superstitious and a threat to Roman unity. Romans did not trust Christians, thought them impious, atheistic and suspicious Outlawed from 30 CE until 311 CE Persecutions and Crucifictions create martyrs Christians forced underground to worship in Catacombs, ancient tombs Despite this, or because of it, religion grows steadily throughout empire.

The Divided Empire