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HYPOTHALAMUS & THALAMUS

Objectives
At the end of this presentation, student should be able to:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

List the components of the Diencephalone Identify the nuclei of the Hypothalamus Know the multifaceted functions of the hypothalamus Relate hypothalamic functions to hypothalamic nuclei Know the afferent and efferent pathways traversing the hypothalamus Identify the nuclei of the Thalamus Know the function of the Thalamus

References

FitzGerald MJT, Gruener G. and Muti E. (2007) Clinical Neuroanatomy and Neuroscience. 5th edition, international edition. Saunders Elsevier. Chapters 26 & 27 (pp. 289-301). Guyton, (2006) Chapter 58, pp. 730-734.

Diencephalon

Sits on top of the brain stem Enclosed by the cerebral hemispheres Made of four parts:
Thalamus Hypothalamus Epithalamus Subthalamus

Location of the Hypothalamus and Thalamus in the Brain

Copyright 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

HYPOTHALAMUS

Hypothalamus (Hypo means below) is the most ventral part of the diencephalon Less than 1% of total brain volume The main function of the Hypothalamus is to maintain HOMEOSTASIS by acting on 3 major systems Considered an integrative center that protects survival functions and propagation of the species Inferior to the thalamus. Consists of mammillary body, median eminence, infundibulum, and a number of nuclei.
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HYPOTHALAMUS FUNCTIONS
Homeostasis is maintained by the hypothalamus via: 1. Endocrine Secretions: pituitary hormones 2. Autonomic Function: through direct projections to preganglionic autonomic neurons located in the brain stem and spinal cord 3. Control of Emotions and Drives: numerous interconnections with the limbic system which generates behaviors 6 involved in rage, aggression, escape,

Hypothalamic Nuclei

1) ENDOCRINE SECRETION
1.

The Parvocellular (small cells) neuroendocrine system (true neurons & endocrine cells from Preoptic N., VMN, and Arcuate N.)

Tuberoinfundibular tract Ca+2-dependent exocytosis of Releasing & Inhibiting Hormones to Anterior Pituitary
(CRH; TRH; GHRH; GHIH; PRH; PIH; LHRH)

1.

The Magnocellular (large cells) neuroendocrine system (from Paraventricular N. and Supraoptic N.)

Hypothalamichypophyseal Tract ADH (vassopressin) (water resorption) Oxytocin (lactation, Parturition, male-female

Hypothalamic Neuroendocrine cells (?) 2 different hypothalamichypophysial communication systems:

Tuberoinfundibular tract to Hypothalamichypophysial portal system to the Anterior Pituitary (Adenohypophysis) Hypothalamichypophysial tract to the Posterior Pituitary (Neurohypophysis)
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2) Control of Autonomic Centers Hypothalamus projects to:


Parasympathetic Vagal nuclei in the brain stem Preganglionic sympathetic neurons through the spinal cord

Stimulation of the Anterior (Rostoral) Hypothalamus produces parasympathetic effects:


Slowing the heart Constriction of the pupil Salivary secretion Intestinal peristalsis

Stimulation of the Posterior (Caudal) Hypothalamus produces sympathetic effects:


Increase heart rate Increase BP Dilation of Pupil Intestinal stasis

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3) Other Functions
I.

Temperature Control

Rostral Hypothalamus (Heat Loss Center): warm blood, antipyretics or stimulation of heat receptors cause vasodilatation and sweating reduces body Temp. Caudal Hypothalamus (Heat Conservation Center): cool blood, pyrogenics or stimulation of cold receptors increases body Temp.

I.

Food Intake (i.e. hunger)

Apstat is the Appetite set point Apstat is set by Lateral N. + Ventromedial N FEEDING CENTER (Lateral N.) SATIETY CENTER (Ventromedial N.) Fat cells in the overfed state will release a protein called leptin or (OB), after the gene name), which passes through the BBB, binds to Leptin Receptor A and B in the hypothalamus, reduces appetite and stimulates metabolism Leptin regulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis and the thyroid hormones (TH) metabolism Increased Leptin receptor density has recently been 13 reported in the astrocytes of the dorsomedial

Other Functions( 3
IV. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII.

Water Intake (i.e. thirst) (zona incerta neurons) Emotions (Rage and fear) Sleeping and Waking (superchiasmatic N. + Pineal gland) Sexual Arousal (INAH3 cells in the Preoptic N.) Memory (Mammillothalmic tract to Mammillary bodies of the limbic system ) Regulation of Plasma Volume (i.e. via Circumventricular feedback loop) see figure
Median eminence, neurhypophysis, lamina terminalsis
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Overall, the hypothalamus controls the

SET POINT for: 1. Blood pressure 2. Body temperature 3. Fluid and electrolyte balance 4. Body weight
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Mapping the Functions of Hypothalamus to its Individual Nuclei


.No
1 2 3

Anterior
Preoptic Supraoptic

Middle

Posterior

Paraventricu Posterior lar Dorsomedial Mammillary Lateral Tuberomammill ary Ventromedia Dorsal l Arcuate

Superchiasm atic 4 Paraventricul ar 5 Anterior

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Localizing Hypothalamic Functions to its Nuclei

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Hypothalamic Nuclei: Preoptic Region

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Hypothalamic Nuclei: Anterior (Supraoptic) Region

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Hypothalamic Nuclei: Middle (Tuberal) Region

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Hypothalamic Nuclei: Posterior (Mammillary) Region

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Afferent Projections to the Hypothalamus


Hypothalamic control of Homeostasis is maintained through major afferents: (Vagus-RF-limbic-eye-blood) 1. Nucleus Tractis Solitaris (visceral sensory from the Vagus) 2. Reticular Formation (skin temperature is relayed to the hypothalamus) 3. Limbic System: Amygdala, hippocampus, and olfactory cortico-hypothalamic projections via the fornix regulate eating and reproduction 4. Retina: optic nerve to the superchiasmtic N. which regulates circadian rhythms 5. Blood (Hypothalamic Thermoreceptors, 24

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Efferent Projections from the Hypothalamus The two main outputs for the hypothalamus are:
The two main outputs for the hypothalamus are:
1.

Neural signals to the Autonomic Nervous System:

Lateral hypothalamus projects to Autonomic Vagal Parasympathetic centers in the lateral Medulla Lateral hypothalamus projects to the preganglionic nuclei in the spinal cord Controls heart rate, vasoconstriction, digestion, sweating

1.

Endocrine Signals to the pituitary:

Stimulation of Anterior/Posterior Pituitary gland

Therefore, the hypothalamus maintains homeostasis by

controling:

Every gland, Blood pressure Body temperature Sexual drive

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Thalamus

Largest component of the diencephalone Large ovoid mass of gray matter. THE Relay Area of almost all sensory neurons in the brain Lateral Geniculate (Latin for Kneelooking structure) (vision) Medial Geniculate (hearing)

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Thalamic Nuclei & their Relays

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Thalamic Nuclei & their Relays in 3D

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Thalamus

5 specific (relay) nuclei are reciprocally connected to motor or sensory areas of the cerebral cortex 6 association nuclei are reciprocally connected to association areas of the cortex Non specific nuclei not connected with any specific motor or sensory nuclei
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THALAMIC FUNCTIONS
1. 2.

3.
4.
1. 2.

Most sensory (Vision, hearing, taste, and touch )stimuli project to the thalamus, which in turn projects to the cerebrum. Injury to the thalamus can cause deafness, blindness, or loss of any other sense, except smell. Thalamus also influences moods and activities associated with strong emotion. The thalamus is believed to PROCESS and RELAY information Regulation of sleep and wakefulness. The physical site for consciousness believed to exist through
strong Thalamic nuclei reciprocal connections with the cerebral cortex, forming thalamo-cortico-thalamic circuits

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