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Translocation Transpiration and Tropic Movements Click to edit Master subtitle style

Plant Hormones

Ms.Praveena G. Bhandari, Shri M. and N. Virani Science College, Rajkot.

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Plant Hormones
Hormone = Gr. to excite 1) active in small amounts 2) produced in one part of plant (i.e. source) & transported to another for action(i.e. target) 3) action is specific for that site Cause physiological or developmental responses (stimulatory or inhibitory)
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Each has a Multiplicity of Effects


Depending on site of action Developmental stage of plant Concentration of hormone

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General plant hormones


Auxins (cell elongation) Gibberellins (cell elongation + cell division translated into growth) Cytokinins (cell division + inhibits senescence) Abscisic acid (abscission of leaves and fruits + dormancy induction of buds and seeds) Ethylene (promotes senescence, epinasty, and fruit ripening)

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Auxin

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Auxins

Types of auxins used in horticulture

Natural auxin is indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) IAA is broken down in sunlight Synthetic auxins used in horticulture: Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) Shoot and root tips (apical meristems) Young, expanding leaves Young seeds
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Site of auxin production in plants:


Action of auxins
Stimulate cell elongation -Bend toward light because more auxin remains in cells on opposite side of light source Etiolated plants have long internodes because auxin not quickly broken down

Promotes apical dominance Pinching bud removes source of auxin and releases axillary buds from apical dominance Promotes growth of adventitious roots

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Loosening of cell wall

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Action of auxins

Auxin concentration determines if action is stimulatory or inhibitory Low concentration promotes adventitious root growth, but high concentration inhibits root growth of cuttings 2, 4-D is used as herbicide by applying at high concentrations
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Gibberellin

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Discovered in association with Foolish disease of rice (Gibberella fujikuroi)

uninfect ed

infect ed

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Gibberellins

Types of gibberellins used in horticulture


Several different gibberellins (GA) produced by Large, complicated molecules not synthesized plants Commercial gibberellins produced by fungus

Site of gibberellin production in Shoot plants:and root tips (apical meristems)


Young, expanding leaves Embryos Fruits Tubers

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Action of gibberellins

Stimulate cell elongation


Dwarf plants treated with gibberellins produce normal growth (Fig.) Applied to grapes to elongate the peduncle (stem of flower cluster) and pedicels (stem of single flower), making looser cluster (Fig.)

Promotes cell division in vascular cambium seed germination Promotes Influences flower and fruit development

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Dwarf pea plant treated with gibberellin

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Effect of Gibberellin

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Cytokinins

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Cytokinins

Types of cytokinins used in Several natural horticulture forms


Zeatin first cytokinin isolated Synthetic cytokinins used in horticulture: Benzyladenine (BA)

Site of cytokinin production in plants:


Embryos Young leaves and fruit Apical meristems of roots

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Function of cytokinins

Actions of cytokinins in plants


Promotes cell division (cytokinesis) Contributes to cell enlargement (in leaves) Stimulates differentiation of cells (with auxins)

High cytokinin and low auxin promotes shoot initiation in tissue culture, whereas reverse combination promotes root formation of both hormones Moderate levels

promotes callus growth

Delays senescence in leaves (maintains and promotes synthesis of chlorophyll)


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Ethylene

H \

/ C = C / \ H H
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Ethylene

Gas at physiological temperatures

Liquid form used in horticulture (ethephon)

Site of ethylene production in plants:


Throughout plants

Actions of ethylene in plants


Inhibits root and shoot elongation by blocking transport of auxins from apical meristems Stimulates leaf curling (epinasty)

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Function of Ethylene

Actions of ethylene in plants

Induces adventitious root formation by blocking (and accumulating) auxin at tip of stem cutting Enhances flow of latex in rubber trees Enhances flowering in pineapples Used as a harvest aid for cherries Stimulates abscission of leaves and fruit

Promotes senescence of flowers Promotes fruit ripening (apple, tomato, citrus, coffee)

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Abscisic acid

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Abscisic acid

General growth inhibitor Similar structure as gibberellins


Site of abscisic acid production in All organs (e.g. roots, leaves, stems, fruits) plants: Actions of abscisic acid in plants

Counteracts effects of auxins and gibberellins Maintains dormancy in seeds and buds Stimulates guard cells to close stomatas (to conserve water)

Produced in response to stress


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Translocation
Transport in Plants
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Transport in plants

Water and dissolved nutrients move upwards from the roots.

Carbohydrates produced in leaves move to rest of plant Movement of carbohydrates through vascular system is called translocation.
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How do plants transport carbohydrates?


Carbohydrates produced in photosynthetic organs (usually leaves) and often stored in roots. Movement of carbohydrates is through phloem
Sieve cells: living cells stacked on top of each other Sieve-tube members: similar to sieve cells but found only in angiosperms (flowering plants)
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Phloem consists of two types of cells:

Source and Sink


Source: where the sugar starts its journey (either where it is produced or stored). Sink: where sugar ends up (either where it is needed or will be stored).
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Mass-flow or pressure-flow hypothesis:

How do plants transport carbohydrates?

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Sap
Sap

consists of sugar dissolved in water at high concentrations: usually between 10% and 25%. this is highly concentrated, plants have to use active transport to work against a diffusion gradient as part of the sap-moving process.

Since

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Pressure-flow theory

This theory explains how sap moves in a plant from source to sink:

Sugars begin at a source and are pumped into phloem tube cells. Osmosis moves water into the cells and raises pressure. Pressure moves the sap.

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Pressure-flow- 1
The leaf is a source of sugar, since it makes sugar by photosynthesis. Glucose and fructose made by photosynthesis are linked to make sucrose, which does not move easily through the cell membranes.
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Pressure-flow -2

Active transport is used to load sucrose into phloem tubes against a diffusion gradient. As sugar is loaded into the cell, what else moves in on its own? What will happen to the pressure in the cell?

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Pressure-flow -3
The high concentration of sucrose in the sieve tube cells of the phloem causes water to move in by osmosis, which raises pressure in the cell. What happens to the sap?
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Pressure-flow - 4
A

developing fruit is one example of a sink. Sucrose may be actively transported out of phloem into the fruit cells. In a root, sucrose is converted into starch, which keeps sugar moving in by diffusion.

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Pressure-flow - 5
As

the sugar concentration drops in the sieve tube cells, osmosis moves water out of the tube.

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Pressure-flow - 6
As

water moves out by osmosis, the pressure in the sieve tube cells drops. The pressure difference along the column of sieve tube cells keeps the sap flowing.
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Pressure-flow Review

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Nutrients required by plants in relatively large Macronutrients (required


amounts) 9 macronutrients including:

Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium

Micronutrients (required in trace amounts)

7 micronutrients including: Chlorine Iron

Manganese
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Experiment
Is suspected nutrient essential ?

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Transport in plants
Nutrients

required by plants

Most nutrients needed by plants obtained from soil Most roots found in topsoil Mineral particles (nutrients) Living organisms (particularly detritivores) Humus (partly decayed organic matter) Some plants in acidic bogs obtain Nitrogen by trapping and digesting insects (e.g. Venus flytrap) Legumes house Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules Most plants have mycorrhizal fungi that enhance nutrient uptake by increasing surface area of roots
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Transport in plants
How

do plants get nutrients and water Water absorbed by root hairs (projections into roots? of epidermis cells) Root hairs greatly increase surface area over which to absorb water Root hairs have greater osmotic potential than soil

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Transport in plants
How

do plants get nutrients and water into vascular system of root hairs and move between Water and ions enter roots?
or through membranes of cells of cortex

Casparian strips block water movement; force water through cell membranes of endoderm

Endodermal cells selects nutrients that enter vascular tissue (xylem)


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Transport in plants
How

do plants get nutrients and water up xylem?includes 2 types of dead, hollow, tubular cells Xylem

Vessel members: slightly large diameter; cells stacked Tracheids: smaller diameter; side to side overlap Vessel members only occur in angiosperms .

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Transport in plants
How

do plants get nutrients and water up xylem? molecules sticks to walls of xylem Water

(adhesion) and to each other (cohesion)

Water moves through xylem in unbroken column

Air on leaf surfaces causes water to evaporate, creating a pull on the water column Essentially, osmotic pressure of air is greater than osmotic pressure within leaves Process of evaporative water loss in plants 4/23/12 is called transpiration

Water transport in 3 parts


Transpiration

(or evapo-transpiration) is the transport of water and minerals from roots to leaves. It involves three basic steps: 1.Absorption at the roots. 2.Capillary action in the xylem vessels. 3.Evaporation at the leaf.

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4-step

Mineral and water uptake by Roots


process: -Active transport of minerals into root hairs. -Diffusion to the pericycle. -Active transport into the vascular cylinder. -Diffusion into the xylem.

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Casparian Strip
The

Casparian strip controls water movement into the vascular cylinder of the root. Water cannot move between cells. It must move through the cells by osmosis.

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Microbial helpers
Mycorrhizal

fungi help plants absorb minerals by extending the surface area of roots.

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Microbial helpers
Nitrogen-fixing

bacteria in root nodules help plants acquire nitrogen. N-fixing bacteria are associated mostly with legumes and alder trees.
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Step 2: Capillary action


Cohesion:

polar water molecules tend to stick together with hydrogen bonds. Adhesion: water molecules tend to stick to polar surfaces.

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Capillary action
Cohesion

and adhesion cause water to crawl up narrow tubes. The narrower the tube the higher the same mass of water can climb. Maximum height: 32 feet.
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Cohesion-tension theory
Cohesion

between water molecules creates a water chain effect. As molecules are removed from the column by evaporation in the leaf, more are drawn up.

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Back to the roots...


Pressure

differences created by transpiration draws water out of the roots and up the stems. This creates lower water pressure in the roots, which draws in more water.

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Part 3: Evaporation
Evaporation

at the surface of the leaf keeps the water column moving. This is the strongest force involved in transpiration.

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Transpiration
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Definition
Transpiration

is the evaporation of water from the aerial parts of plants.

Of all the water plant absorbs, over 95-99% is transpired to the air as water vapor.

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Aerial parts of whole young plant Lenticels (lenticular transpiration) 0.1% -woody stems have loosely packed cork cells through which gas exchange occurs-a little water is lost here. Cutin (cuticular transpiration) 3%~10% -the waxy layer,some water is lost through diffusion. Stomatum (stomatal transpiration) ~ 90% -in the leaves, controlled by guard cells.
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From where water is transpired?

Stomatal Transpiration

Stomatum (stomatal transpiration) ~ 90%


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Stomatal transpiration
Cuticle
Prevents water loss

Mesophyll
Site of photosynthe sis

Cuticle Stomata
Openings allow gases and water to move in and out of

Guard Open and cells

close the 4/23/12 stomata

Importance of transpiration
O2 H2O CO2

Photosynthesis is a process involves using CO2 and H2O releasing O2 , used to make Carbohydrates Guard cells prevent excess water loss through transpiration.
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Factors influencing stomatal aperture


Light Temp. CO2 Water content Plant hormone

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1. Light
Stomata of most plant open in the day and close at night, while CAM plants are just the opposite. Stomata opening are sensitive to red light and blue light, and blue light is more effective, it stimulates opening by a bluelight receptor: zeaxanthin.

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2. Temperature
Stomatal aperture increase with temp. within 20- 30 (the optimal).

3.CO 2 Low CO2 conc. promotes stomatal


opening, while high CO2 conc. inhibits stomatal opening through its acidification of the guard cell .
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4. Water content
Stomata

open when the leaf contains enough water. When there is a water shortage, they close.

5. Plant hormones Cytokinins promotes opening of stomata.


Abscicic acid inhibits opening of stomata.
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Factors that influence transpiration


Transpiration from the leaf depends on two major factors:
1.

2.

The driving force of transpiration is the Difference in water vapor gradient Diffusional resistance comprises stomatal resistance and boundary layer resistance
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vapor pressure gradient.

Diffusional resistance
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Transpiration rate =Driving force/resistance


water vapor inside the leaf - water vapor of the air

=
stomatal resistance + boundary layer resistance

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Environmental factors that affect the rate of transpiration


1. Light Plants transpire more rapidly in the light than in the dark. This is largely because light stimulates the opening of the stomata , Light also speeds up transpiration by warming the leaf .
Contd

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2. Temperature Plants transpire more rapidly at higher temperatures because water evaporates more rapidly as the temperature rises. 3. Humidity When the surrounding air is dry, diffusion of water out of the leaf goes on more rapidly.
Contd

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4. Wind When a breeze is present, the humid air is carried away and replaced by drier air. 5. Soil water A plant cannot continue to transpire rapidly if its water loss is not made up by replacement from the soil.

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Guttation

Guttation release of water droplets at leaf tips; occurs when too much water is absorbed by plant & when humidity is high
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Tropic responses
Directional movements by growth in response to a directional stimulus Click to edit Master subtitle style

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Phototropism

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Growth movement

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Phototropisms
Phototropic

responses involve bending of growing stems toward light sources.


Individual leaves may also display phototrophic responses.
auxin most likely involved

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Plants Respond to Gravity


Gravitropism

is the response of a plant to the earths gravitational field.


present at germination
auxins play primary role

Four steps
gravity perceived by cell signal formed that perceives gravity signal transduced intra- and intercellularly differential cell elongation

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Gravitropism

Increased auxin concentration on the lower side in stems causes those cells to grow more than cells on the upper side. stem bends up against the force of gravity
negative gravitropism

Upper

side of roots oriented horizontally grow more rapidly than the lower side roots ultimately grow downward
positive gravitropism

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Gravitropism = Geotropism

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Plants Respond to Touch


Thigmotropism

is directional growth response to contact with an object.


tendrils

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Thigmotropism

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SEISMONASTY - a nastic response resulting from contact or mechanical shaking Mimosa pudica L. (sensitive plant)

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NYCTINASTY
sleep

movements prayer plant lower leaves during the day and raises leaves at night shamrock (Oxalis) legumes

Credit: (http://employees.csbsju.edu/ssau pe/biol327/Lab/movie/movies.htm)

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Q.N0.1
Plants

synthesize auxin from the amino acid A)cystine. B)phenylalanine. C)ornithine. D)tryptophan. E)lysine.

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Q.N0.2
__________________

is produced in large quantities in the climacteric phase of fruit ripening. A)Auxin B)Abscisic acid C)Cytokinin D)Ethylene E)Gibberellin

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Q.N0.3
Auxin

is synthesized in plants from A)adenine B)proline C)aspartane D)phenylalanine E)tryptophan

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Q.N0.4
_______________

stimulates the production of hydrolytic enzymes. A)Ethylene B)Auxin C)Gibberellins D)Cytokinin E)Indoleacetic acid

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Q.N0.5
Environmental

signals influence the distribution of an auxin in a plant by A)decreasing the cell's sensitivity to the auxin B)causing auxin to migrate to the lighted portion C)destroying the auxin D)causing auxin to migrate into the shaded portion E)causing the plant to produce more auxin
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Q.N0.6
________________

, in combination with auxin, stimulates cell division in plants and determines the course of differentiation. A)Ethylene B)Indoleacetic acid C)Gibberellins D)Abscisic acid E)Cytokinin

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Q.N0.7
Auxin

walls. A)plasticity B)thickness C)porosity D)layers E)rigidity

increases the _______________ of cell

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Q.N0.8
"Foolish

by A)auxins B)gibberellins C)cytokinins D)ethylene E)abscisic acid

seedling" disease in rice is caused

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Q.N0.9
In

vascular plants, most cytokinins are produced in the A)roots B)shoots C)flowers D)leaves E)lateral branches

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Q.N0.10
Ripening

of fruits, such as bananas, is hastened by A)gibberellins B)abiscisic acid C)cytokinin D)indoleacetic acid E)ethylene

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Q.N0.11
_______________

of plants are reversible and allow the plant to advantageously orient leaves. A)Thigmotropisms B)Turgor movements C)Photoropisms D)Gravitropisms E)Abscisions

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Q.N0.12
One

of the most important uses of auxins is the _______________ of abscission. A)initiation B)acceleration C)stimulation D)prevention E)reinforcing

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Q.N0.13
Which

of the following plant hormones in incorrectly paired with its function? A)auxins -- responsible for apical dominance B)abscisic acid -- regulates the rate of transpiration C)cytokinins -- delays senescence (aging and decay) D)ethylene -- promotes ripening E)gibberellins -- promotes bud and seed dormancy
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Q.N0.14
Lateral

stem development is controlled by the relative levels of :A)cytokinins and auxins B)abscisic acid and auxins C)auxins and gibberellins D)auxins and ethylene E)cytokinins and ethylene

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Q.N0.15
The

hormone responsible for phototropic responses in the growing tips of plants is: A)auxin B)cytokinin C)gibberellin D)ethylene E)abscisic acid

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Q.N0.16
Tomatoes

can be artificially ripened through the use of: A)auxin B)cytokinins C)gibberellins D)ethylene E)abscisic acid

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Q.N0.17
Roots

grow downward as a weak _______________ response. A)negative phototropic B)positive phototropic C)negative gravitropic D)negative thigmotropic E)positive thigmotropic

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Q.N0.18
A

sunflower plant bends towards the sun. It is ______ response. A)Thigmonastic B)seismonastic C)thermonastic D)photonastic

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Q.N0.19
The

leaves of mimosa are sensitive to ______. A) light B)touch C) heat D)smell

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Q.N0.20
Which

of the following shows thigmonastic response ?

A) Sun flower B) Insectivorous plants C) Lotus D) Bryophyllum

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Q.N0.21
Unlike

tropisms, nastic movements are in response to A)darkness B)wind C)non-directional stimuli D)directional stimuli

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State TRUE / FALSE


1.A hormone originating in the terminal bud of a plant suppresses the growth of lateral buds. A)True B)False 2.The response of a plant to touch is called thigmotropism. A)True B )False 3.Plant hormones can stimulate certain physiological processes while inhibiting others. A)True B)False
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Last Question

If you were an aquatic plant where would your stomata be?


Fringed Waterlily

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Stomata are found only on the upper epidermis because the lower epidermis is submerged in water.

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Any Question ????

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Thank YOU !!!!


All THE BEST !!!!

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