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H OW THE END OF WORLD WAR II GAVE RISE TO COLD WAR . E XPLAIN UNI - POLARITY, BI POLARITY, UNI - MULTIPOLARITY.

E XPLAIN THE ROLE OF BRICS . P HASES OF DTENTE .


Presented By- Group 3

O RIGINS OF THE C OLD WAR

O RIGIN

OF THE

C OLD WAR

The Cold War (1945-91) was one of perception where neither side fully understood the intentions and ambitions of the other. This led to mistrust and military build-ups. As early as 1925 Stalin stated that he viewed international politics as a bipolar world in which the Soviet Union would attract countries gravitating to socialism and capitalist countries would attract states gravitating toward capitalism.

D EVELOPMENT

Various events before the Second World War demonstrated the mutual distrust and suspicion between the Western powers and the Soviet Union

General philosophical challenge the Bolsheviks made towards capitalism. Western support of the anti-Bolshevik White movement in the Russian Civil War 1926 Soviet funding of a British general workers strike causing Britain to break relations with the Soviet Union Stalin's 1927 declaration of peaceful coexistence with capitalist countries "receding into the past" American refusal to recognize the Soviet Union until 1933 Stalinist Moscow Trials of the Great Purge

I NVASION OF G ERMAN ARMY IN USSR

When the German Army invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, the Allies decided to help the Soviet Union.
Stalin remained highly suspicious.

He felt that the Western Allies had deliberately delayed opening a second antiGerman front in order to step in at the last moment and shape the peace settlement.
Thus, Soviet perceptions of the West left a strong undercurrent of tension and hostility between the Allied powers.

E ND OF WWII AND POST


WAR

The Allies disagreed about how the European map should look, and how borders would be drawn, following the war. The western Allies desired a security system in which democratic governments were established as widely as possible. Given the Russian historical experiences of frequent invasions and the immense death toll and the destruction the Soviet Union sustained during World War II, the Soviet Union sought to increase security by dominating the internal affairs of countries that bordered it. The Western Allies were themselves deeply divided in their vision of the new post-war world.

D EVELOPMENT OF THE C OLD WAR

United States

U.S. thought that Soviet expansion would continue and spread throughout the world. They saw the Soviet Union as a threat to their way of life; especially after the Soviet Union gained control of Eastern Europe.

Soviet Union

They felt that they had won World War II. They had sacrificed the most (25 million vs. 300,000 total dead) and deserved the most. They wanted to economically raid Eastern Europe to recoup their expenses during the war. They saw the U.S. as a threat to their way of life; especially after the U.S. development of atomic weapons.

C OLD WAR M OBILIZATION BY THE U.S.

Alarmed Americans viewed the Soviet occupation of eastern European countries as part of a communist expansion, which threatened to extend to the rest of the world. In 1946, Winston Churchill gave a speech at Fulton College in Missouri in which he proclaimed that an Iron Curtain had fallen across Europe. In March 1947, U.S. president Harry Truman proclaimed the Truman Doctrine.

T HE T RUMAN D OCTRINE (1947)

Reasoning

Threatened by Communist influence in Turkey and Greece Two hostile camps speech

Financial aid to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation Sent $400 million worth of war supplies to Greece and helped push out Communism

The Truman Doctrine marked a new level of American commitment to a Cold War.

T HE P OLICY OF C ONTAINMENT

Definition:

By applying firm diplomatic, economic, and military counterpressure, the United States could block Soviet aggression.

Formulated by George F. Kennan as a way to stop Soviet expansion without having to go to war. NSC-68

The Containment Doctrine would later be expanded in 1949 in NSC68, which called for a dramatic increase in defense spending From $13 billion to $50 billion a year, to be paid for with a large tax increase. NSC-68 served as the framework for American policy over the next 20 years.

T HE M ARSHALL P LAN (1947-48)


War damage and dislocation in Europe invited Communist influence Economic aid to all European countries offered in the European Recovery Program The goals of the United States were to rebuild a war-devastated region, remove trade barriers, modernize industry, and make Europe prosperous again.

$13 billion to western Europe


Soviets refused The blame for dividing Europe fell on the Soviet union, not the United States. And the Marshall Plan proved crucial to Western Europes economic recovery.

This boom helped push communist groups out of power and created an economic divide between the rich west and poor east as clear as the political one.
Soviets came up with Comecon an economic union of the communist countries in the Eastern Europe.

D IVIDING G ERMANY

U.S., Britain, and France merged their zones in 1948 to create an independent West German state.
The Soviets responded by blockading land access to Berlin. The U.S. began a massive airlift of supplies that lasted almost a year. (7,000 tons a day) In May 1949 Stalin lifted the blockade, conceding that he could not prevent the creation of West Germany. Thus, the creation of East and West Germany

N ORTH ATLANTIC T REATY O RGANIZATION & THE WARSAW PACT

Stalins aggressive actions accelerated the American effort to use military means to contain Soviet ambitions. The U.S. joined with Canada, Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg to establish NATO, a mutual defense pact in 1949. Pledged signers to treat an attack against one as an attack against all. When West Germany joined NATO in 1955, the Soviet Union countered by creating its own alliance system in eastern Europe the Warsaw Pact (1955)

T HE C OLD WAR H EATS U P : P ROBLEMS OF THE ATOMIC A GE

The most frightening aspect of the Cold War was the constant threat of nuclear war.

Russia detonated its first atom bomb in 1949. Truman ordered construction of the hydrogen bomb.

Call for buildup of conventional forces to provide alternative to nuclear war.

P OLARITY

Polarity in international relations is a description of the distribution of power within the international system.
Unipolarity-Distribution of power in which there is one state with most of the cultural, economic, and military influence. Examples: The British Empire from the end of Napoleonic Wars - beginning of the 20th century

The United States with the fall of the Soviet Union, the United States became the dominant military, economic, cultural, and influential force in the world.

B IPOLARITY AND U NI -M ULTIPOLARITY

The global power structure has four principal levels: of power in which two states Bipolarity -Distribution

Top level- United States is the only superpower with preeminence in every domain of influence internationally or regionally. Often, spheres power: economic, military, diplomatic, ideological, technological, and cultural. of

have the majority of economic, military, and cultural


influence would develop.

Second level-major regional powers, the dominant actors in important areas of the world, but whose interestsFor example, in do notCold War, globally Western of the and capabilities the extend as most as those and democratic states would fall under the influence of the United States. Examples include the German-French condominium in Europe, India & USA, while most Communist states would fall under the China in South Asia, and Brazil in Latin America.
influence of the USSR.

Third level - secondary regional powers, whose influencetheless thanera. of the major is colonial that Great Britain and France during regional powers and whose interests often conflict with those of the major regional powers. Those include Britain in relation to the German-French combination, Pakistan Uni-multipolar world, however, is one in which in relation to India, and Argentina inkey international issues requires action by resolution of relation to Brazil. Finally, the remaining countries, some of which are quite important, but which exist in major states, and in described. some sense apart from the power structurewhich the single superpower is able

the single superpower plus some combination of other to veto action by a combination of other states.

BRICS
It refers to countries of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa African credentials gave BRICS a four-continent breadth, influence and trade opportunities a 2001 paper entitled Acronym coined by Jim ONeill in Building better global economic BRICs Increased political cooperation - A way of influencing the United States position on major trade accords and political concessions Full-scale diplomatic meeting - May 16, 2008 -Yekaterinburg, Russia Prediction by Goldman Sachs First official summit - 16 June 2009 - Yekaterinburg, Russia China and India - suppliers of manufactured goods and services South Africa - Officially admitted as a BRIC nation on December 24, 2010 Brazil and Russia - suppliers of raw materials

P OLITICAL S IGNIFICANCE

The BRICS countries are contributing to the transformation of today's unipolar world order into a multipolar system

The rate of petroleum extraction will soon reach the beginning of terminal decline

Probability of disastrous climate change in the next few decades

D ISGRUNTLED WASHINGTON

America's antagonism toward Iran

America's wars in Central Asia and the Middle


Replacing the U.S. dollar as the world's reserve currency with a basket of currencies Considerable clout in the UN Security Council BRICS - An active player safeguarding world peace and combating hegemony and power politics

R OLE IN G LOBAL E CONOMY

Barring Brazil, with very modest growth rates over the last years, Second meeting of the BRICS Trade Ministers the three other Brics have been gaining weight and importance will be held in globally and within sectors New Delhi in March to review

the Doha Development Agenda (DDA)

BRICS group is increasingly being recognized The global economy is an arena for the exchange of ideas, in which as pivotal in furthering progress in the stalled the intellectual domination of the so-called developed Western Doha Round

world looks set to remain throughout the foreseeable future

BRICS is uniquely positioned at the cusp of the developing and the developed world

Brazil, China, Russia and India have either cut borrowing costs or lenders reserve requirements in recent weeks as the debt crisis in Europe saps global expansion

S ANYA S UMMIT 2011


Theme - "Broad Vision, Shared Prosperity

BRICS covers 30% of the land on Earth, 40% of its Vision - 'The 21st century should be and 35% of global population,18% of global trade marked by peace, harmony, exchange reserves foreign cooperation and scientific development
Discussions

Economics - Reform of global monetary and Their joint institutions, greater co-operation financial contribution to the global economic

growth exceeds almost 50%.


UNSC Reform

International law - Early conclusion to deadlocked talks an anti-terror law under UN auspices

The dragging financial crisis drew BRICS even closer to seek deeper cooperation Trade Medium

D ELHI S UMMIT 2012

March 29, 2012

reform of the global governance institutions and Trade, the global economy, international security, ways to fix the festering recessioninternational agriculture, health and innovation, will top the agenda climate change, food and energy security terrorism, In the run-up to the summit, a host of events will be held, of the Brettonacademic forum oftrade Reform including an Woods institutions, leading protectionism and the Doha Development Round, think tanks of BRICS countries, the meeting of an achievement of the Millennium Development Goals economic research group that will explore issues (MDGs), and support for a multi-polar, equitable and affecting economies of the developing world and a democratic world order Financial Forum of development banks of these countries
and global governance reform

D TENTE

Dtente is a French term, meaning relaxation of the tension.

Dtente is a process by which two or more nations move away from a continuous confrontation with each other in general direction of cooperation.
It is the relaxation of the international tensions which can take place only when certain objective conditions exist: a realization by the protagonists that there are political and economic limitations to the assertion of their power in the world, a change in the respective national perceptions of the "enemy" and a recognition of the necessity to seek improvement of nation' posture through a partial accommodation with the adversary.

D TENTE AS APPLIED TO
COLD WAR

Dtente does not signify the end of the adversary relationship between the U.S and the U.S.S.R. It only meant rejection of war and threat of war. Ultimate means of resolving their conflict and achieving their particular objectives; and since the two government also assumed that they could attain these objectives through negotiations.

FEATURES AND ELEMENTS OF DTENTE:


1. Deterrence:

3. Mutual trust Out of Mutual Fear: necessity of avoiding suicidal nuclear war. mutual fear and not out of mutual trust.

To reduce the arms race armament on the mutual consent. and Dtente was the result of the strategic
But the concept of the balance of the power would not be upset by this diplomacy of the dtente. a great extent dtente was grown out of To
4. Negative and Positive Elements:

2. Peaceful co-existence:

Dtente did not seek to eliminate the ideological

warfare

Negative elements signify substantial Kissenger has rightly observed: "the US and Soviet - Uniontwo reduction of tension between the are power blocs in general and between the ideological rivals. two superpowers in particular.

A positive element indicates increase in mutual trust and understanding between them .

M ULTIPLE LEVELS OF THE DTENTE :


1. Dtente in arms race: Reduction in the arms race by signing the agreements like "Camp David Spirit", SALT-I, SALTII, PTBT, START-I, and START-II.NPT.and etc. 2. Dtente in Economic and Scientific level:

American technology for oil exploration and further development in some key industrial agreements with France, Germany, and other Western countries. USSR and US had cooperated with each other in undertaking some scientific researches and space exploration Cultural exchanges have also been taking place between these countries.

Dtente between different countries


US-Soviet Dtente. Sino-USA Dtente.

Sino-Soviet Dtente:

FACTORS LEADING TO
DETENTE

Nuclear Nightmare:

Nuclear proliferation:
USA's Compulsion: USSR's Compulsion: Principle of the Peaceful Co-existence: Role of the Non-alignment Rise of Multipolarism: Sino-Soviet Rift: Gorbachev Factor:

EVOLUTION AND PHASES OF THE DTENTE:


Period of Thaw, 1959-1969: Heydays of Dtente, 1970-76. Problems in Dtente, 1977-1979. Setback to Dtente, 1979-1985: Re-emergence of Dtente, 1985-onwards:

IMPACT OF DTENTE

End Of the Cold War:

Disarmament:
Proliferation of the Dtente. Irrelevance of the military Alliances:

Resolving Regional Conflicts: Irrelevance of the NAM:


De-idealogisation of international Relations: Unification of the Germany: Economic prosperity: Impact on UNO.

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