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CABLES

INTRODUCTION What is a cable?

Two or morewiresrunning side by side and bonded, or twisted together to form a single assembly Inmechanics, known aswire ropes - used for lifting, hauling and to wing force through tension. Inelectrical engineering- used to carryelectric currents. In electronics used for transmitting audio, video and data signals from input to output.
Most cables designed to carry more than one message at an instant.

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SOME properties and uses OF Electrical cables

Flexibility - Stranding of wires by twisting or bunching smaller individual wires to produce larger wires, to produce similar results. Safety :Securely fastened and organized Skin effect: Tendency of the current to run along the surface of the conductor at high frequencies. Utilities:

Tanning and Soldering. Installation in buildings and industrial sites.

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TYPES OF CABLES
1. 2. 3. 4.

Optical Fiber Cables Coaxial Cables Ribbon Cables Twisted Pair Cables

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OPTICAL FIBRE CABLES

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INTRO - OPTICAL FIBRES


Flexible, transparent fiber made of pure glass (silica). Transmit messages in the form of light. Functions as awaveguide, or light pipe, between the two ends of fiber. Permits effective transmission over other forms of communication:

over longer distances higher bandwidths

at

Improvement over usage of metal wires :


Avoids

signal loss upon travel. toelectromagnetic interference.


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immune

CONSTRUCTION OF A FIBRE

Consists of a transparentcoresurrounded by transparentcladdingmaterial. Light kept in the core bytotal internal reflection causing the fiber to act as awaveguide. Multi-mode fibers(MMF) - Fibers that support many propagation paths ortransverse modes. Used for shortdistance communication links and for applications requiring high power transmission. Single-mode fibers(SMF) - Used for most communication links longer than 1,050 meters (3,440ft).

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Applications

Used as a medium for telecommunication and computer networking due to flexibility and can be bundled as cables, thus advantageous for long-distance communications, as light propagates through the fiber with little attenuation compared to electrical cables. Used to connect a non-fiber optic sensor to a measurement system. Determination of time delay using a device such as an optical time-domain reflectometer. Fibers are widely used in illumination applications. Eg. Optical fiber illumination used in s= neon sign boards, art, toys ,artificial Christmas trees. Used in imaging optics. A bundle of fibers is used, for a long, thin imaging device called an endoscope, which is used to view objects through a 4/26/12 small hole.

Applications

In spectroscopy, optical fiber bundles transmit light from a spectrometer to a substance that cannot be placed inside the spectrometer itself, in order to analyze its composition. Supply around one watt to electronics situated in a difficult electrical environment. Example: electronics in high-powered antenna elements and measurement devices used in high voltage transmission equipment. The iron sights for handguns, rifles, and shotguns may use short pieces of optical fiber for contrast enhancement.

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MERITS OF OPTICAL FIBRES

Extremely high bandwidth No other cablebased data transmission medium offers the bandwidth that fiber does. to accommodate increasing bandwidth Using many of the recent generations of fiber optic cabling, new equipment can be added to the inert fiber cable that can provide vastly expanded capacity over the originally laid fiber. or Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing, lends fiber optic cabling the ability to turn various wavelengths of light
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Easy

DWDM,

DEMERITS OF OPTICAL FIBRES

Installation costs, while dropping, are still high Despite the fact that fiber installation costs are dropping by as much as 60% a year, installing fiber optic cabling is still relatively costly. Special test equipment is often required The test equipment typically and traditionally used for conventional electron-based networking is of no use in a fiber optic network. Eg. OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer) Susceptibility to physical damage Fiber is a small and compact cable, and it is highly susceptible to becoming cut or damaged during installation or construction activities. Thus it is necessary to address restoration, backup and survivability. Wildlife damage to fiber optic cables For instance, There is a plant called the Christmas tree plant that treats fiber optic cable as a tree root and wraps itself around the cable so tightly that the light impulses traveling down the fiber are choked off.

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COAxial cables

Copper tube with a copper wire running through its center. The copper tube shields electric signals it carries and helps prevent signals from escaping. Tube & the wire have the same center axis & hence coaxial.

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Construction and working

Inner conductor surrounded by a flexible, tubular insulating layer, surrounded by a tubular conducting shield. of electrical signals by the cable using an inner conductor

Conduction

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APPLICATIONS

Transmission lineforradio frequencysignals. andcable television distribution. transmission connections

Video

Microwave Computer Short

coaxial cables used to connect homevideoequipment. for implementingcomputer networks, in particularEthernet.

Common

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ADVANTAGES

The electromagnetic fieldcarrying the signal exists only in the space between the inner and outerconductors. This allows coaxial cables to be installed next to metal objects without the power losses that occur in other types of transmission lines. Coaxial cable also provides protection of the signal from externalelectromagnetic interference. The advantage of coaxial design is that the electric and magnetic fields are confined to the dielectric with little leakageoutside the shield.

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DISADVANTAGES

More expensive than twisted pairs. Very bulky Has high attenuation so would have the need to implement repeaters. Signal leakage: passage of electromagnetic fields through the shield of a cable. Ingress : the passage of an outside signal into the cable and can result in noise and disruption of the desired signal.

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RIBBON CABLES

Aribbon cable(also known as multi-wire planar cable) is a cable with many conducting wires running parallel to each other on the same flat plane. Thus, wide and flat. Name comes from the resemblance of the cable to a piece ofribbon.

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ABOUT RIBBON CABLES

Introduction of rainbow ribbon cable by manufacturers for easier identification of individual conductors in a cable by usage of a repeating pattern of colors borrowed from the standard resistor color code. Often known as "hippie cable" due to its distinct appearance. Usually specified by two numbers:

Spacing pitch of the conductors, the number of conductors or ways.

Number of conductors restricted to a few values on the basis of availability of standard connectors.
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APPLICATIONS
Used

in internal peripherals incomputers, such ashard drives,and optical disc drives. used for external connections as well on some older computer systems (such as theBBC MicroandApple II series) within a computer chassis to connect disk drives to the disk drive controllers.

Were

Used

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ADVANTAGES
Extremely High

small bending radius

flexibility wastage of space possibilities

Minimum Packeting Excellent

flexibility as connecting cable in electronics and in control engineering.

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DISADVANTAGES
Interference

of the ribbon-like shape incomputer cooling leading to disruption of airflow within the case renders the cables awkward to handle. entirely replaced by round cables for external connections and internally as well. flexible.

Thus,

Almost Not

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TWISTED PAIR CABLES

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TWISTED PAIR CABLES

Two conductors -the forward & return conductors of a circuit-twisted together to cancel electromagnetic interference (EMI) from external sources Two types of cables

Shielded twisted pair (STP) & twisted pair (UTP)

Unshielded

Electromagnetic radiation from unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cables, andcrosstalkbetween neighboring pairs. Invented byAlexander Graham Bell.

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TWISTED PAIR CABLES

UnshieldedTwisted Pair Shielded Twisted Pair (STP)

Cable, UTP cable is a popular cable used 4/26/12 in computer

Applications of twisted pair cables

The same cable provides Audio, Video & Data interface. HDMI is the latest invention which enables video upscaling upto 1080p Moves are simple with TVs, as simple to computer & phone. IPTV (Internet Protocol Television) works on STP.

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PROS

The advantages of these cables are as follows:

It is a thin, flexible cable that is easy to string between walls. More lines can be run through the same wiring ducts. Electrical noise going into or coming from the cable can be prevented. Cross-talk is minimized. Less expensive and data transfers are at a high speed.
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SHORTCOMINGS
These cables do have their own shortcomings as well.

Susceptibility to electromagnetic interference greatly depends on the pair twisting schemes (usually patented by the manufacturers) staying intact during the installation. Have stringent requirements for maximum pulling tension as well as minimum bend radius. This relative fragility of twisted pair cables makes the installation practices an important part of ensuring the cables performance. In video applications that send information across multiple parallel signal wires, twisted pair cabling can introduce signaling delays known asskewwhich results in subtle color defects and ghosting.
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CONCLUSION
Thus we have discussed about the various types of cables, their applications, merits and their demerits.

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THE END THANK YOU


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