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Total Quality Management (TQM)

Quality Strategy Team work involving customers & suppliers

TQM

Quality Systems, Problem Solving

Quality Assurance
Statistical Methods, Process Performance

Quality Control

Inspection

Error Detection, Rectification

TQM

A comprehensive strategy that goes beyond Quality Control and Quality Assurance Is a market driven strategy central focus is on the customers Involves - employees at all levels, customers and suppliers - continuous improvements - decisions based on facts

TQM Traditional

TQM

Focus Basis Developed by Level Purpose

Operating Efficiency Customer Conformance Internal Focus Internal & External Focus Management Employees Individuals Control Work Groups Monitor & Improve

TQM

Leading contributors to TQM movement - Kaoru Ishikawa (CED) - Philip Crosby (Zero Defect) - Edward Deming (Deming Cycle) - Joseph Juran (QC - Teams) - Shigeo Shingo & Taiichi Ohno (JIT) - Masaoki Imai (Kaizen) - Taguchi (Robust Design)

Edward Demings Philosophy

Obsession with Quality

Genuine Team Work

Scientific Approach

Edward Deming

Adopt the new philosophy and demonstrate the commitment End practice of awarding business on price tag alone Institute training and retraining Drive out fear Eliminate slogans, exhortations Eliminate numerical quotas Remove barriers to pride of workmanship

Edward Deming (contd.)

Some obstacles: - Neglect of long-range planning, emphasis on short-term profits - Automation, gadgets will transform industry - Search for examples - Our problems are different - False starts - Blaming workforce for problems

Phil Crosby

Quality has been regarded as a technical function not a management function hence needs to be presented to management in terms it can understand Mistakes are caused by two factors - Lack of knowledge - Lack of attention (attitude problem)

Phil Crosby (contd.)

Management Function: COQ = POC + PONC POC = what is necessary to spend to make things come out right (3 to 4 % of sales) PONC = expenses incurred in doing things wrong (20 to 25 % of sales)

Phil Crosby (contd.)

Mistakes are caused by two factors - Lack of knowledge - Lack of attention (attitude problem) ZD, DIRFT

Joseph Juran

There are non-uniformities and associated beliefs in uniqueness inherent in any company
- multiple functions - multiple levels - multiple product lines

Serious obstacles to Unity of Direction Need to find a universal thought process which fits all functions, all levels and all product lines

Deming

Create constancy of purpose - invest in research - invest in training and education - continual improvement - invest in maintenance Adopt the new philosophy and demonstrate the commitment Cease dependence on mass inspection

Deming (contd.)

End practice of awarding business on price tag alone Institute training and retraining Institute leadership Drive out fear Breakdown barriers between staff areas Eliminate slogans, exhortations Eliminate numerical quotas

Deming (contd.)

Remove barriers to pride of workmanship Institute a vigorous programme of education Take action to accomplish the transformation Plan Do

Act

Check

Deming (contd.)

Some obstacles: - Neglect of long-range planning, emphasis on short-term profits - Automation, gadgets will transform industry - Search for examples - Our problems are different - False starts - Blaming workforce for problems