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Ahydrogen bondis the attractive interaction of ahydrogenatom with anelectronegativeatom, such as nitrogen,oxygenorfluorine, that comes from another molecule

orchemical group. The hydrogen must be covalently bondedto another electronegative atom to create the bond.
USED IN METAL CHELATES AND ORGANIC COMPOUNDS LOW FIELD AND UPSHIFT SIGNAL 1> THE ELECTROSTATIC EFFECT OF THE DONOR ATOM OR GROUP 2>THE DIAMAGNETIC ANISOTROPY OF THE DONOR ATOM OR GROUP 3>CHANGES IN LONG-RANGE SHIELDING OF THE ACCEPTOR GROUP

ArSH- delta(ppm)=3-4 indicates low field shifts caused by hydrogen bonding

a.Complexes of WF6 Initially- WF6L After NMR-WF5L+F-

b. Structure of SOF4 Only 1 signal in the low field

c. Structure of CIF3d. Structure of HF2-

e. Linkage isomerism-ligand can be bonded to a metal in several ways. f. Ligand isomerismDef of a ligand-An ion or molecule attached to a metal atom by coordinate bonding. A molecule that binds to another (usually larger) molecule. Def of isomerism-Two or more compound having same molecular formula but different structural Formulas are calledisomersand process is calledIsomerism.

g. Structure of Polyethylene-NMR shows 2 types of linesNarrow-amorphous phase Broad- crystalline phase

Keto-enoltautomer'srefers to achemical equilibriumbetween aketoform (aketoneor analdehyde) and anenol(analcohol). The enol and keto forms are said to be tautomers of each other. The interconversion of the two forms involves the movement of aprotonand the shifting of bondingelectrons; hence, theisomerism qualifies as tautomerism. NMR spectrum of acetyl acetone is taken. Areas of peaks of CH2 and CH are taken and carefully taken.

Applications- continued

pseudo

rotation Ex:PF 5 bipyramid

Trigonal

7.Exchange effects Width depends on physical medium of sample and the type of nucleus Liquids-small width(2-3 Hz) Broad bands-depends on rate of exchange(1/tau) Heisenbergs uncertainty principle

8.Determination of activation energy


Ex:N-N-

dimethyl-acetamide(DMA) At -30 deg C- single peak+doublet 90 deg C- single line Arrhenius equation-

10. Elemental analysisTotal concentration of a given kind of magnetic nucleus in a sample 11. Study of isotopes other than protonmagnetic moments 12.Fluorine and Phosphorus-resonance can be studied

Lack of sensitivity Two different types of hydrogen atoms resonate at similar resonance frequencies, hence overlap of spectra No info about molecular weight, only relative number of different protons are known Only liquids can be studied

NMR-most useful analytical tools for the elucidation of many inorganic and organic structural problems

1.Instrumental methods of chemical analysis- chatwal-anand 2.Wikipedia 3.commonchemistry.org