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UMTS OVERVIEW

Praveen Chandrasekaran
Sr Systems Engineer

POP Quiz
Node B IRAT UE SC Ec/No Iub MgW
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RNC

RAB

RSCP

BLER

Eb/No
2007-01-10

How Does My Network Topology Look Today ?


GSM RAN

GSM - Network Baseline


HLR/ AUC

GSM RAN

BSC

BSC

MSC

TDM Backbone

MSC

BSC

BSC

GPRS - Network Baseline

IP Backbone
SGSN
SGSN GGSN GGSN

Internet

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How Would this look with WCDMA


GSM RAN

WCDMA Introduction
HLR/ AUC

GSM RAN

BSC

BSC

MSC

MSC MSC-S MSC-S

BSC

BSC

TDM/IP/ATM
RNC
MGw MGw

RNC

SGSN

SGSN GGSN GGSN

RNC

Internet

RNC

WCDMA RAN

WCDMA RAN

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GSM Radio Access Network


Core Network

A/Gb

BSC
BSC
Abis

BTS

BTS

BTS

Um

MS
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WCDMA Radio Access Network

Iu= Iu PS - Gb Iu CS - A

Core NW UTRAN

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Access Technology Comparison


t
TDMA
MS 1 MS 2 MS 3
ti m e

Code
Time-Division Multiple Access

frequency

f
5 MHz

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GSM and WCDMA Comparison


GSM
BTS BSC MS
Orthogonal in time within a cell Time Slot Synchronization in time

WCDMA
NodeB RNC UE
Separate users through different codes

Continuous transmission and reception


Code planning No Frequency Planning Variable Cell Radius: Cell Breathing Radio Link: 1 UE <-> Many Node-Bs

Frequency planning
Fixed Cell Radius Radio Link: 1 MS <-> 1 RBS # of Frequencies limit capacity BSIC Planning Hard Handover

Power is Capacity
Scrambling Code Planning Soft/Softer Handover Hard Handover
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What is Radio Access Bearer (RAB) ?


RAB
Controlled by the core network (CN) CN determines traffic class and QoS
Real-Time Applications Streaming Class: Preserve time relation between entities (packets) in a data stream Conversational Class: Preserve time relation between entities within a certain delay Non-Real Time Applications Background Class: Destination is not expecting data. Preserve Payload Interactive Class: Request / Response Pattern with preserved payload
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RAB Examples
Conversational Speech
12.2 kbps Circuit switched

Conversational CS Data

64 kbps Circuit switched

Streaming

128/128 PS

Interactive

Variable rate Packet switched

Multi-RAB

Combination of Conversational Speech and Interactive 64/64

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RAB Attributes
RAB Service Attributes Traffic Class Maximum bit rate [kbps]

UE

RBS

RNC

CN

Delivery order
Maximum SDU size SDU format information SDU error ratio Residual bit error ratio Delivery of erroneous SDUs Guaranteed bit rate Traffic handling priority

Transfer delay

RAB

Allocation/retention priority Source statistics descriptor Relocation requirement RAB asymmetry indicator

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2007-01-10

What is High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)

SPEED
CAPACITY
REDUCED DELAY

Higher bit rates: up to 14 Mbps

2 3 times improved system throughput

Reduced round trip time

STANDARDIZED

Integral part of WCDMA (3GPP Release 5)

Smooth Upgrade
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Short time to market with existing sites

2007-01-10

Future proof WCDMA RAN


2004 2005
Phase 1

2006
HSDPA
Phase 2

2007
MBMS

2008
MIMO 2x2

2009
LTE 20 MHz

WCDMA HSDPA

Enhanced UL Enhanced UL Phase 1 Phase 2

DL Mbps UL Mbps Latency (ms)

0.384 0.064 ~150

3.6
0.384 ~75

14
1.8 ~50

14
5.8 ~30

28
5.8 ~30

100
50 ~10

Continuous improvement of data capabilities, also after HSPA


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HSDPA Basic Principles


P

Dynamic Power Allocation


Efficient power & spectrum utilisation

Shared Channel Transmission


Dynamically shared in time & code domain

Fast Hybrid ARQ with Soft Combining


Reduced round trip delay

Higher-order Modulation
16QAM in complement to QPSK for higher peak bit rates

Fast Link Adaptation


Data rate adapted to radio conditions on 2 ms time basis
2 ms

Fast Radio Channel Dependent Scheduling Short TTI (2 ms)


Reduced round trip delay Scheduling of users on 2 ms time basis

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2007-01-10

RF OVERVIEW

Outline
Pilot Coverage Capacity Cell Breathing Concepts Radio Network Design Strategies
Securing coverage Achieving confined cells Selecting strategic sites Code planning Power planning Neighbour planning Micro-Cell Design Considerations

Combining GSM and WCDMA


Using IRAT to enhance service area
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What is Coverage in WCDMA


Signal does not mean Coverage in WCDMA

Service Ec/No Pilot PilotCoverage Signal - RSCP

Pilot Ec/No
Pilot RSCP

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2007-01-10

Eb/No and Sensitivity


The required Eb/N0 is the minimum ratio to achieve a given QoS (BER or BLER) for a specific service. The RBS sensitivity is the required minimum signal level at the reference point that satisfies the Eb/N0 requirement of the related service. Nf is the effective noise figure at reference point.

Ec

No

Eb

No

PG

RBS sens,ref N th + N f - PG + (Eb N 0 )req

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2007-01-10

Properties of WCDMA Link Budget


Processing Gain - Downlink receiver sensitivity
Packet 384 GSM Speech Packet Thermal noise = - 108 dBm@3.84 MHz -110 dBm Packet 64 128

CS 64 PS 384 Speech

Speech

Procesing gain

Sensitivity minimum code power required

-120 dBm

PS 64
Plan for a service

Eb/No

UE Noise Figure
-130 dBm

(Thermal noise Process Gain)

Sensitivity = Pthm 10log(Rchip/Rinfo) + Nf + Eb/No Processing Gain = Rchip/Rinfo


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Properties of WCDMA Link Budget


Shared power resources in downlink

Mobiles share the available power in the cell The power usage depends on
Distance to cell Radio environment Interference Service type
High power usage far from cell or with high data rate service Low power usage close to site in good radio condition

Link budgets for the RABs consider coverage as well as capacity. Sensitivity levels are different for different services Different services will have different coverage levels
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Properties of WCDMA Link Budget Noise rise - single cell


PRx Pint,own WCDMA UL

-110 dBm

Each new user decreases the cell size cell breathes with load

-120 dBm

Own cell interference

UL sensitivity

-130 dBm

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2007-01-10

Properties of WCDMA Link Budget Noise rise - multi cell


PRx Pint,own Pinter,othe
r

WCDMA UL

-110 dBm

-120 dBm

Other cell cell interference Own cell interference

UL sensitivity

-130 dBm

The anticipated load must be taken into account in the cell planning process
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Capacity Considerations
Effect of different user distribution

Code limited scenario


Low power usage High code usage Power limited scenario High power usage Low capacity

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Radio Network Design Strategies


Inputs Securing coverage Achieving confined cells Selecting strategic sites Parameter planning Using IRAT Indoor and microcells

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Securing Coverage
High gain antennas (15-18 dBi) Use TMAs
Indoor coverage With Enhanced UL this will be even more important

15 dBi

18 dBi

Plan for network load Consider service coverage

Service Coverage CPICH Ec/Io CPICH RSCP


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Design is built up by considering the basics first.


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Designing for Load


Coverage shrinks with load due to cell breathing. Coverage and capacity evaluation should be performed early in the design. Capacity per sector is specified, then coverage is evaluated under corresponding load. Coverage and capacity can be traded off.
Large coverage footprint, low capacity. Smaller coverage footprint, high capacity.

RAB Coverage Unloaded

RAB Coverage High Load

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Service Coverage
Coverage footprint for all services (RABs) will not match. Specify coverage target for a particular service under particular load.

AMR 12.2k Voice

PS 64k I/B

CS 64

PS 384
Speech PS 64
Plan for a service
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Controlling Interference Confining Cells


Electrical Antenna tilt. Use RET.
For efficient capacity tuning.

Ideal capacity when 3 dB point at cell border

High Gain antennas (small vertical BW).


To achieve maximum benefit of tilt.
Capacity gain
20% 18% 16% 14% 12% 10% 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% 0 1 2 3 Tilt 4 5 6 7

Separate antenna systems recommended.


GSM and UMTS may require different tilt.

Example of capacity gain vs tilt


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Selecting Strategic Sites


Avoid boomers
Harder to confine coverage. Generate interference far away from service area.
High sites generate interference outside the planned coverage area

Place sites close to traffic


Ensures high air interface capacity
Placing sites close to traffic ensures high capacity

Sectorize Omni sites

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Scrambling Codes
(Also called PN, long or gold codes)
Downlink: Scrambling Code used to distinguish each cell (assigned by operator SC planning) Uplink: Scrambling Code used to distinguish each UE (assigned by network)
Cell 1 transmits using SC1

SC1

SC1

SC3

SC4

Cell 2 transmits using SC2

SC2

SC2

SC5

SC6

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Handovers
Soft/Softer handover
HO between cells using same UMTS carrier frequency

IRAT handover/Cell change


HO/cell changes between UMTS and GSM

Inter-frequency handover
HO between different UMTS carrier frequencies

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Concept of Soft/Softer Handover


Softer handover -two cells within the same RBS in Active Set
Cell B

Cell C

Cell A

Soft/Softer handover -three cells in Active Set Soft handover -two cells from different RBS in Active Set

Single Link

The UE measured the CPICH Signal strenght (RSCP) and quality (Ec/No) to determine which cell to add in the active set Add and remove from active set is based on relative measurments

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2007-01-10

Parameter Planning - Neighbors


Good neighbor planning is essential Typically more neighbors per cell in UMTS
Neighbor Set Maximum = 32 Typical = 20 Active Set Maximum = 4 Typical = 3

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2007-01-10

Inter Radio Access Technology (IRAT) handover


Inter RAT Handover Using the WCDMA Frequency

Using the GSM Frequency

WCDMA Coverage
Road

GSM Coverage

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2007-01-10

Planning IRAT What are the Options ?


IRAT everywhere during initial deployment
Allows immediate service coverage

GSM network

IRAT in mature networks


IRAT handover allowed only in border areas or selected sites

WCDMA

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IRAT Strategies
If GSM has better coverage it can be advantageous to terminate the call (speech) in GSM. (Operator Defined Strategy)
In order to minimize handover. Not allowing GSMUMTS. Only allow handover when there is significant load in GSM. PS services use cell reselection mechanism moves to 3G where possible.

This can be achieved by:


Strategy only possible for CS services.

Packet handovers to GPRS/EDGE result in degradation of user experience.

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Micro-Cells Design Considerations


Primary application for micro is hotspot areas.
Essential to place site close to traffic.
Higher interference limits coverage area close to site

Micro cell coverage area depends on distance to macro base station.

Smaller coverage area close to site Large coverage area

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Network Design Indoor Coverage

Cell breathing High load Low load

Cell reduction due to capacity load.

The Indoor solution will provide up to 4 times the capacity in the macro cell network!
Penetrating buildings with outdoor cells is wasteful of resources for high-rate WCDMA users since high power is needed.
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Conclusions
Consider all aspects (technical and business) as design inputs Different RABs have different service coverage Load impacts Service coverage area (Cell Breathing) Secure coverage and contain interference Indoor coverage design considerations IRAT Strategies

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