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ULTRASONIC CAR BRAKING SYSTEM

CONTENTS
Introduction Literature Survey Objective Scope Block diagram Methodology Work Done References
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INTRODUCTION
Accidents are increasing day by day. Cause serious injury, death and property damage. Most commonly, accidents are caused by delay of the drivers to hit the brake. Proposed a system that makes the car brake by itself.
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Literature Survey
India has now the worst road traffic accident rate worldwide as revealed by WHO(2008). The main reasons are speeding, drunk driving and low use of helmets etc. Every year accident death rate have crossed 1,35,000 mark according to NCRB. No companies have come up with automated braking system.
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OBJECTIVE
To develop a safety car braking system .
Reduction of traffic collisions. To design a vehicle with less human attention to the driving.

SCOPE
Detection of obstacles using Ultrasonic sensor. To process the output from the ultrasonic sensor to drive the servo motor.

BLOCK DIAGRAM
Transmitter Transmitter

Obstacle detected Reflected wave

Ultrasonic receiver

Braking circuit

Car brake

Working in Brief
Ultrasonic wave generation Transmission Obstacle detection Receive the signal Compare with reference signal PIC 16F84A microcontroller process the signal Give instruction to output
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Basic operation of Ultrasonic sensor

Ultrasonic sensor
Advantages: Discrete distances to moving objects can be detected and measured. Less affected by target materials and surfaces, and not affected by color. Disadvantages: Temperature fluctuation.
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Block diagram
Ultrasonic Transmitter

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555 IC is used to generate ultrasonic frequencies. f =1.44/[C1(R1+2R2)] R1 and R2 are in Kilo ohms. C1 is in microfarads. f is in KHz. Controlled by the microcontroller. Transmits sound waves of suitable frequencies.
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Ultrasonic Receiver

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Receiver receives the echo pulse. Processed by the on chip ADC of the microcontroller. For every particular distance of the obstacle the signal value of the receiver is fixed and can be found using calibration process. This value can then be taken as a reference value in the program for controlling the speed of the motor.

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Pin Diagram of PIC 16F84A Microcontroller

It is an 8-bit Microcontroller

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METHODOLOGY
START DETERMINATION OF HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE FOR THE SYSTEM SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT HARDWARE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMING IN PIC INTEGRATION OF HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE ANALYSIS OUTPUT

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Software development:
PIC16F84A microcontroller programming.

Hardware development: Ultrasonic sensor PIC16F84A microcontroller Servo motor :


( Servo Motor Movement Timing )

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Work Done
Collected the data for the project. Read the related theories from books. Developed Block diagram. Gathered information about the equipments to be used.Ex:PIC16F84A,Ultrasonic Transducer, Ultrasonic Receiver.

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Queries..?
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Suggestions..!
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Thank You.
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