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Everything (living or non-living things) which has mass and occupies space.

Non-matter do not have mass and do not occupy space.

Matter is made up of many fine and tiny discrete particles. We may determine the state of matter by their arrangement of particles.

Blue in colour

A copper sulphate crystal is dropped to the clear water.

The clear water soon becomes blue in colour. The particles of blue crystal separate and mix in between the spaces of water particles.

After three days



Few days later the balloon becomes smaller. Because air is made up of many fine Why? particles thus allowed it to diffuse through the tiny pores of the balloons wall.

Video 1: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=akUuFsH4B1c&feature=related

Video 2: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UnBoQe2rsgo

Matter exists in THREE STATES follow by its different of arrangement.

Three states of matter:




The particles are closed together. In a regular pattern. Attractive forces are strong. Very small space between particles.


The particles are closed together. Not in a regular pattern. Attractive forces are weak. Spaces between particles are bigger.


The particles are far apart. Not in a regular pattern. Attractive forces are very weak. Large spaces between particles.


Particles do not move freely. Attraction forces are strong. They vibrate and spin at fixed positions.


Particles move freely. Attraction forces are weaker. The particles collide with each other. Particles move freely and randomly. Attraction forces are very weak. The particles move in a very high speed.


There are spaces between the solid particles (gel). These allow the potassium permanganate to move around the gel particles in gel tube.

The total volume of water and alcohol is less than 100ml.

This is because the particles of water and alcohol fill the empty spaces of each other.

The gas particles can move very fast and freely in the jar because there are lots of spaces between them. The smoke particles fill in the empty spaces between air particles just in few minutes.

No fixed shape Far apart


Very close



Vibrate and spin

Move freely

Very freely

Brownian motion is the movement of particles without direction and this can be seen by viewing a smoke cell under microscope.

See video 3 (click here)

Video 3: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cDcprgWiQEY&feature=related

Click the video

Density is defined as mass per unit volume. Density (g/cm3) = Mass (g)
Volume (cm 3 )

The density of a substance increases if

mass increases volume decreases

Video 4: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fqLCwuKMBMA

An substance which is less dense will float in a denser liquid. An denser substance will sink in a liquid which is less dense.

Gases can be compressed and transported in the form of liquid. The petroleum gases are liquefied under high pressure and stored in gas cylinders.

The air space in ships and boats enables it to float on the water surface regardless of their weights. Therefore, the density of a ship or a boat is less than the water.

Helium gas is less dense compared to the air outside the balloon. To raise the hot air balloon, the air is heated so that the air inside is less dense. To lower the balloon, the air temperature is reduced so that the air inside is denser.

Logs (timbers) are less dense than water. They are transported to factories by rivers.