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Historical background of state system & international Society

State system evolved as soon as human beings started getting settled They organized them in the form of family, tribe or clan Their mutual interaction gave birth to the idea of international society where states started acting like units E.g. Greek City states based on modern design

General Concept of International society

Hedley Bull claims:
International society is a society of states that exists when a group of states, conscious of certain common interests and common values form a society in the sense that they conceive themselves to be bound by a common set of rules in their relations with one another

States need to interact because of their interdependence; as they cant stay isolated so they need to get engaged either in a positive way i.e. by cooperation or by conflicts

Concept of IR
IR is the branch of political Science that focuses on relations among different states and non-state actors as well (e.g. NGOs, multi-national corporations, international organizations etc); with special emphasize on political, social and economic aspects.

General Concepts
State: A political entity with effective internal and external sovereignty over a geo-graphic area and population which is not dependent upon any other power. Sovereignty: It is the quality of having supreme, independent authority over a territory. Power: In IR power refers to the ability of a state to influence or control other states. Nation: It denotes a group of people who are believed to have common customs, origin and history hence are ties by some bond.

Revolution: It refers to fundamental change in power structure in a relatively short period of time. It can have economic, political or ideological reasons and can lead either to complete change or major transitions Civil War: It refers to a war between a state and domestic political actors that claim control over some part of the territory Monarchy: It is a form of government in which supreme power lies with an individual who is the head of state. He transfers this power to his descendants on the heredity principle. It has two types: i) Constitutional monarchy ii) Absolute monarchy

It is a form of government where people have authority to rule their country on the basis of a set of rules usually constitution. No single person has got authoritative position

Democracy is a form of government in which supreme power lies with the people. It also emphasizes on separation of power in terms of three main institutes i.e. Executive, Legislature and Democracy

It is an autocratic form of government in which state is ruled by a dictator i.e. an authoritarian.

Colonialism: Colonialism is the extension of a nations sovereignty over territory beyond its borders by establishment of colonies over there in order to rule natives of that land, e.g. Subcontinent before independence Neo-colonialism: To extend ones influence in another sovereign territory without being physically present over there, e.g. US influence in different countries Capitalism: It refers to economic system in which means of production are owned by private persons. It is based on the principle of free-market; hence state is the mean and individual is the end Socialism: It aims to have a socio-economic system in which property and its distribution are subject to control by the community. In this system, individual is the mean and state is the end

It refers to a socio-economic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless society based on common ownership of the means of production. They are atheists by religion


Left wing denotes a political group that seek to reform or abolish existing social order in favor of more equal distribution of wealth. Hence it emphasizes on social change


Right wing tends to preserve traditions. They believe in social equity rather than social equality