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Causes and effects

HOW DID THE CIVIL WAR BEGIN?

WHAT WAS THE UNITED STATES LIKE IN 1819?


The United States was spreading from sea to shining sea. There were more states joining the Union. Some of the states were slave states Some of the states were free states Question confronting Congress: As new states were added to the United States, would they be slave or free?

THE UNITED STATES IN 1775

THE UNITED STATES IN 1790

THE UNITED STATES IN 1800

THE UNITED STATES IN 1810

THE UNITED STATES IN 1810

DIFFERENCES DEVELOP BETWEEN THE NORTH AND THE SOUTH

Between 1800 -1850s, people in the North and the South developed very different ways of life.

THE INDUSTRIAL NORTH


Cities grew large with new industries appearing Busy factories made all sorts of products Many canals and railroads that made transportation of people and products easier. Many jobs for a large number of workers including immigrants Workers in the North were paid for their labor and were free to take the job of their choice

THE INDUSTRIAL NORTH (CONT.)

Population 20 million Many shipyards for importing supplies and exporting products Had coal, iron, and copper and other natural resources Most large cities were located in the North

THE INDUSTRIAL NORTH (CONT.)

Grew enough food to feed population of North Most Northerners lived in cities Slavery was not practiced in the North and was against the law.

THE AGRICULTURAL SOUTH


Few large cities and factories Way of life was based on farming Large farms called plantations Slave labor (slavery) was used to supply the labor on plantations. Most important crop was cotton, which was sold for cash Most people lived in rural areas.

THE AGRICULTURAL SOUTH (CONT.)

Small port cities on the coasts and Mississippi River to transport cash crops to the North and European countries. Some factories that produced limited products Some railroads

SLAVERY IN THE UNITED STATES


Slavery began in Jamestown colony in 1619. The Dutch in New Amsterdam had African slaves working on their Hudson Valley farms Slavery existed in every American colony until after the Revolutionary War. Vermont was the first state to end slavery in 1777. New York was the last Northern state to abolish slavery in 1817. By 1850 most Northern states had outlawed slavery.

SLAVERY IN THE UNITED STATES (CONT.)

Slavery was a permament condition inheirted through the mother. Slaves could be bought, sold, punished, or loaned to someone else. Slaves could not own any property, make contracts, etc. and laws controlled their travel, employment, and legal status. Even freed slaves in the North were in danger of being sold to slave owners in the South.

SLAVERY IN THE SOUTH

Slavery was profitable to the economy of the South. Six out of every ten slaves in the South worked in cotton fields. By 1860 enslaved African Americans totaled almost four million people. In some states, they outnumbered the free whites.

SLAVERY IN THE SOUTH (CONT.)

Only 1 in four Southern families actually owned slaves. Three-quarters of Southern families did not own slaves. About 30,000 Southerners owned fifty or more slaves. Most Southerners who owned slaves lived on small farms and in cities. Slaves also worked in shipyards, in businesses and as house slaves.

THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE

In 1819, Missouri asked to join the Union as a slave state. At the time there were 11 free states and 11 slave states. Northerners did not want balance of slave states and free states upset.

After debate in Congress, The Missouri Compromise was reached. Missouri would join as a slave state, and Maine as a free state. Balance would be kept.

THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE (CONT.)

To stop further disagreements, a line was drawn across the map of the western United States at latitude 36 30 north. Except in Missouri, no slaves would ever be allowed north of that line. This compromise worked for 30 years.

THE UNITED STATES IN 1820

ABOLITIONISTS AND THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD

Some northerners began speaking out against slavery. Called abolitionists because they wanted to abolish (end) slavery forever. Organized the Underground Railroad. Series of safe houses or stations where runaway slaves could hide and rest. Conductors guided them along the route, or to the next safe house. Many slaves escaped to Canada where they would be safer than in free states Most Northerners were not abolitionists or members of Underground Railroad network.

TWO FAMOUS ABOLITIONISTS.


FREDRICK DOUGLAS HARRIET TUBMAN

Former slave who had escaped to New York. He gave powerful speeches against slavery.

Brave conductor on the Underground Railroad. After escaping slavery herself, she returned South 19 times and guided hundreds of other slaves to freedom.

ROUTES OF THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD

COMPROMISE OF 1850

1849 California asked to enter United States as a free state. Southerners angry because this would mean more free states and much of California was south of 36 30 line.

Agreement reached by Congress 1. California entered as free state and no more slaves sold in Washington D.C. North 2. People in New Mexico and Utah could vote on whether or not to allow slavery, and Fugitive Slave Law (Officials in the North had to help capture runaway slaves. South

EFFECTS OF THE COMPROMISE OF 1850

Fugitive Slave Law surprised and angered Northerners. Some states passed laws against it Abolitionists broke into jails and freed captured slaves Abraham Lincoln shocked.

Southerners accused the North of trying to destroy slavery. Northerners accused the South of wanting to spread slavery.

BLEEDING KANSAS

Kansas and Nebraska prepared to become states. Because they were north of the agreed line both should be free states. 1854 Congress passed KansasNebraska Act.

New law allowed people in the two territories to elect representatives and write a state constitution that could permit, or forbid slavery.

BLEEDING KANSAS (CONT)

Abolitionist and proslavery people rushed to Kansas to vote on issue of slavery. Attacked each other with words and weapons Pro-slavery voters won, but anti-slavery people refused to accept results.

BLEEDING KANSAS (CONT)


Pro-slavery mobs attacked anti-slavery towns; burned and wrecked most of town. Abolitionist John Brown attacked proslavery people By time federal troops restored order 200 people had died.

JOHN BROWNS RAID


1859 Led group of men in a raid on a government storehouse filled with guns in Harpers Ferry. Planned to give guns to enslaved people so that they could fight for their freedom. Brown was captured, put on trial and hung. Southerners thought that Browns raid was a sign that the North was trying to end slavery.

THE ELECTION OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN


Candidate, Abraham Lincoln promised to leave slavery alone in the South, but was against letting it spread into new territories. To the Southerners, he was the enemy. After election, seven Southern states seceded (left) the United States and formed new country The Confederate States of America. Elected Jefferson Davis as president.

CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA

Quickly took over all federal forts and other property located in the South On April12, 1861, Confederates attacked Fort Sumter located in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. Union commander was forced to surrender.

CAPTURE OF FORT SUMTER

Southerners celebrated victory Most Southerners believed that the United States would let the South go without putting up much of a fight.

They were wrong THE CIVIL WAR HAD BEGUN.