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VISUAL PATHWAY

VISHAKH ISLOOR IST BSC OPTOMETRY NSO

CONTENT
INTROUDUCTION

VISUAL PATHWAY
BLOOD & NERVE SUPPLY, VENOUS

DRAINAGE
LESSION & ITS EFFECTS

WHAT IS VISUAL PATHWAY?


Perceives the images

and relays the sensations to the brain

Visual Pathway???

Flowchart of visual pathway


Retina Optic nerve Optic chiasma Optic tract LGB Optic radiation Visual cortex

OPTIC NERVE
Second of twelve paired cranial nerves

Diameter 1.6m to 3.5m


Derived from diencephalon during embryonic

development Ensheathed in three meningeal layer

OPTIC CHIASMA
Fibres from the optic nerve merge to form

optic chiasma. Optic tract contains fibres representing the opposite visual field. It has decussating fibres from two nasal hemiretinas.

OPTIC TRACT
Begin at the posterior aspect of the optic

chiasma Information from the right visual field travels in the left optic tract. Information from the left visual field travels in the right optic tract. Each optic tract terminates in the LGN in the thalamus. It measures 12mm horizontally & 8mm antero posteriorly

LGB
Situated at termination of optic tract Six layered nucleus Layers 1, 4, and 6 correspond to information

from one eye Layers 2, 3, and 5 correspond to information from the other eye

OPTIC RADIATIONS
One on each side of the brain, carry information

from the thalamic LGN to the visual cortex Contains three main groups of fibers The superior portion contains fibers serving the inferior visual field The inferior portion contains fibers serving the superior visual field. The central portion contains the macular fibers.

VISUAL CORTEX
Also called as cortical retina Largest system in the human brain and is

responsible for processing the visual image . Most of the visual cortex is concerned with the macular vision.

BLOOD SUPPLY, NERVE SUPPLY & VENOUS DRAINAGE

OPTIC NERVE
BLOOD SUPPLY Intraocular part:from the branches of circles of zinn. Intraorbital part:from the peripheral pial plexus and also by the central retinal vein. Intracanalicular part:from the pial plexus. Intra craniel part: from pial plexus. VENOUS DRAINAGE By central retinal vein

NERVE SUPPLY
In the optic head: fibres from the nasal half of the retina come directly to the optic disc as superior & inferior radiating fibres In the distal region: fibres from macular region pass straight in the temporal part of the disc In the proximal region: the macular fibre are centrally placed

OPTIC CHIASMA
BLOOD SUPPLY:

From the branches of the anterior cerebral and internal carotid artery.
VENOUS DRAINAGE:

Superior: By the superior chiasmal vein which ends in the anterior cerebral vein. Inferior: By the pre-infundibular veins which drains into the basal vein

NERVE SUPPLY
Lower peripheral fibres travels chiasma low & anteriorly Upper nasal fibres travels chiasma high & posteriorly

OPTIC TRACT
BLOOD SUPPLY: From the posterior communicating artery,anterior choroidal artery and branches from the middle cerebral artery. VENOUS DRAINAGE: By the anterior cerebral vein and the basal vein.

NERVE SUPPLY:
Macular fibres uncrossed & crossed occupy the

dorsolateral aspect of the optic tract. Upper peripheral fibres uncrossed & crossed fibres are situated medially Lower peripheral fibres crossed & uncrossed are situated laterally

LGB
BLOOD SUPPLY: Posterior cerebral artery supplies the posteriomedial aspect of LGB. Anterior choroidal artery supplies anterio lateral aspect of LGB. VENOUS DRAINAGE: By the basal vein.

Nerve supply
Macular fibres coming in the optic tract occupy

the posterior 2/3rd part Upper retinal fibres occupy the medial half of the anterior 1/3rd part Lower retinal fibres occupy the lateral half of the anterior 1/3rdpart

OPTIC RADIATIONS
BLOOD SUPPLY: From the Anterior choroidal artery through the perforating branches. VENOUS DRAINAGE: By the Basal vein and middle cerebral vein.

NERVE SUPPLY: Upper retinal fibres occupy the upper part of the optic radiations Lower retinal fibres occupy the lower part of the optic radiations Macular fibres lie in the central part of the optic radiation

VISUAL CORTEX
BLOOD SUPPLY: Posterior cerebral artery supplies through the calcarine artery. VENOUS DRAINAGE: Form the medial aspect of the occipital vein. NERVE SUPPLY: Macular fibres relay in an extensive area placed posteriorly

LESIONS OF VISUAL PATHWAY

LEVELS
Optic nerve Central chiasma Lateral chiasma Optic tract, LGB, Optic radiation OR in temporal lobe

OR in parietal lobe

OPTIC NERVE
Analogous to losing an

eye. One eye is completely blacked out. Complete destruction of an optic nerve obviously blinds the eye it serves.

CENTRAL CHIASMA
Only cut inputs from

the nasal retinas Would lose peripheral vision on both sides

CENTRAL CHIASMA

LATERAL CHIASMA
Defects due to lesion

lateral to chiasm Would lose nasal vision

LATERAL CHIASMA

Part of optic radiation in temporal lobe


Meyer's loop has

been cut Vision will be lost in the upper visual world Only in the left hemifield

Optic radiations in parietal lobe


Here the parietal

portion of the optic radiations were cut Would affect the lower visual world on one side

LGB, OpticTract, Optic Radiation


This lesion

represents the loss of the left hemifield. Both eyes will be blind to anything on the left side of the world

QUESTIONS???

THANK YOU