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The key lines

Vitamins are essential for life Vitamins are needed in small amounts Vitamins do not provide energy Vitamins have to be supplied by food

Classified according to solubility Determines site in body were they function Body tissues: watery or fatty (oily) Fluids outside/inside body cells = waterbased Cell membranes (layers)/nerve tissues = fatty substances Vitamins that function in the watery areas = water-soluble vitamins Vitamins that function in fatty tissues = fat-soluble vitamins

13 Vitamins for good health: 2 groups

Fat soluble vitamins Vitamin A Vitamin D
Water soluble vitamins B-group B1 = thiamin B2 = riboflavin Niacin = nicotinamide = nicotinic acid = B3 Pantothenic acid = B5 B6 = pyridoxine Biotin = vitamin B7 = vitamin H Folic acid = folate = B9 B12 = cobalamin Vitamin C = ascorbic acid

Vitamin E Vitamin K

Fat versus water soluble vitamins Fat-soluble vitamins Dissolve in fat Need fat: for absorption & transport Can be stored in body: liver, adipose tissue Water-soluble vitamins Dissolve in water Are easily absorbed and excreted (via urine) Are not easily stored

Function Essential for many processes in body Vitamins play a role in digestion & utilisation of Protein Fat Carbohydrates Vitamins are components of enzymes

Some vitamins can be synthesised by body itself -carotene vitamin A -carotene = pro-vitamin A = vitamin A precursor (fore-runner) From cholesterol vitamin D In skin under influence of sunlight Daily: 5-10 minutes Bacterial flora in GI-tract vitamin K

Role of vitamin A Vitamin A- retinol,dehydroretinol or

carotenoids-retinol Green leafy veg,carrots,mango,papaya,EML Growth & repair of body tissues Normal vision Bone formation Immune function Reproduction Structural intigrity of epithelial tissue Deficiency: eye diseases leading to blindness D.A-3000-5000IU\DAY

Treatment -50,000-100,000 iU\DAY i.m or

orally-1-3days -Intermittent supplemental doses Retinoic acid-skin diseasestretinoin,isotretinoin Retinoid receptors-retinoic acid receptors and retinoid x receptors. Hypervitaminosis A (>20,000 iu daily)

Vitamin D

Diet-ergocalciferol(vitD2)-plants 7-dehydrocholesterol-cholecalciferol(vitD3)-skin Cholecalciferol-25-OHD3(calcifediol)in the liver microsomes1,25dihydroxycholecalciferol(calcitriol)in kidney mitochondria (rls). Fish ,liver ,milk Ca & P absorption / utilization: building bone mass & preventing bone loss

immunity ,Skeletal integrity, neuronal function

and proliferation and differentiation of epidermal and malignant cell. Preparations-calciferol ,cholecalciferol ,calcitriol ,alfacalcidol, dihydrotachysterol, calcipotriol. Deficiency: rickets (malformation of bones)&osteomalacia DA-400IU\day ;treatment 3000-4000 iu/dayrickets ,osteoporosis, hypoparathyroidism, fanconi syndrome and others

Importance of vitamin k
vit k1-plants-phytonadione,k3-synthetic-fat soluble manadione ,
acetomenapthone; water soluble-menadione sod.bisulfite, menadione sod.diphosphate. source-green leafy veg,liver ,meat,egg yolk,tomatoes DA-5-10mg Blood-clotting factor-prothrombin,factors -7,9,10. to prevent & control internal bleedings Deficiency: blood-clotting time , bleedings Use-dietry def, prolonged antimicrobial therapy, obstuctive jaundice or malabsorption syndromes, liver disease, newborns, overdose of oral anticoagulants.prolonged high dose of salicylate therapy toxicity

Vitamin E
Alpha tocopherol-wheat germ oil,rice germ oil&
soyabeen oil. Antioxidant Normal structure and function of nervous system. Intigrity of biological membranes Anticoagulant-prevent thrombosis Deficiency-reproductive and haemopoietic system abnormalities,degenerative changes in spinal cord and heart. DA -10-30mg Use-g6pd def, acanthocytosis, retrolental fibroplasia etc

What r the key points about vitamins? What r the chemical name of following
vitamins-A,D,E & K ? ---Deficiency symptoms?

Role of B-vitamins & vitamin C B-group Play a role as co-enzyme in metabolism of protein, fat and/or carbohydrates THIAMINE(VIT B1,aneurine) Source-pulses ,outer layer of cereals Thiamine pyrophosphate-coenzyme in carb metb and some role in neuromuscular transmission. D A-1-2 mg Deficiency-dry and wet beriberi,wernicke,s encephalopathy and korsakoffs psychosis

Riboflavin(vitB2)- milk, egg, liver FMN and FAD-coenzyme in many oxidation and reduction reactions Deficiency-angular stomatitis,glossitis DA-1.5-2mg Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide(vit b3) -niacin. Cereal husk ,liver NAD and NADP-coenzyme in oxidation reduction reactions. Lipid lowering agent Deficiency-pellagra-(chronic alcoholics ,maize diet) -hartnups disease,carcinoid tumors use -pvd, hypolipidemic Adverse effect- many flushing ,dyspepsia,etc DA-20mg

PYRIDOXINE(vit B6) Cereals,legumes Pyridoxal phosphate-coenzyme in synthesis of biogenic amines and other compounds like GABA Deficiency-glossitis, peripheral neuritis, anemia,dermatitis,low siezure threshold. DA-2mg Use-prop alcoholics ,infants -to treat INZ, HLZ, Cs, ocp induced neurological disturbance -convulsions, anemia(PRA), PANTOTHENIC Acid Wheat ,cereals,milk Coenzyme A-several metabolic reactions Def- not known DA-4-7mg

BIOTIN Liver,egg yolk. DA-0.1-0.2mg Coenzyme in several metabolic reaction Avidin present in egg white prevents its absorption VitaminB12 and folic acid Essential-DNA synthesis Vit-b12-cynacobalamine and hydroxycobalamine Synthesized in nature only by microorganism Binding protein transcobalamin-stored in liver. Takes 3-5 yr of total absense in diet for its depletion Cofactor in-enzymatiic reactions-homocysteine + methylFH4---methionine +FH4,malonic acid succinic acid, methionine----s-adenosyl methionine ,cell growth and multiplication. Deficiency-abnormal maturation of RBC and other rapidly dividing cellmagaloblastic anemia Other-glossitis,stomatitis , and neurological menifestation. DA-1-2mg Use magaloblastic anemia, neuropaties, psychiatric disorder, tabacco ambylopia

Folic acid-pteroylglutamic acid Green leafy veg,liver ,egg In food as polyglutamates ,transported as methyl-THFA Function- FA-DHFA-THFA , conversion of homocysteine to methionine, generation of thymidylate, histidine metabolism Def-MA, epithelial damage, neural tube defect, general debility Folinic acid (citrovorum facor,leucovorin)-Nformyltetrahydrofolic acid-methotrexate toxicity. DA-100-200mcg Use-MA, increased demand, nutritional def,

Vitamin c

Vitamin C Healthy cell development Wound healing, resistance to infections Absorption of iron (Fe) Anti-oxidative action Deficiency: scurvy (bleeding gums) DA-50mg Use scurvy, postop, anaemia, to acidify urine

Which of the following is pro-vitamin A? Retinol Riboflavin Thiamine Carotene Beta carotene

2. Egg yolks have: a. Vitamin A b. Vitamin D c. Vitamin E d. All the above

The only vitamin that the body can produce is: a. Vitamin A b. Vitamin B c. Vitamin C d. Vitamin D

Matching: Vitamin A a) Helps blood clotting Vitamin K b) Helps night vision and

health of skin Vitamin E c) Helps maintain the health of the bodys tissues

Severe thiamine deficiency causes Scurvy Pellagra Beri beri

True or False:
There are 8 kinds of Vitamin B Fat-soluble vitamins can be stored in the
body and act as a reserve for when they are needed. Vitamin D is a water-soluble vitamin. Vitamin C helps cuts and wounds heal.

What type diet might require taking vitamin B12 Supplements? Diet of pregnant woman Low cholesterol Vegan Coeliac

Which of the following vitamins in not

found in wheatgerm Thiamine Ascorbic acid Pyridoxine Nicotinic acid

There is 80 - 90% loss in milling in which

of the following vitamins Nicotinic acid Thiamine Vitamin B12