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HADITH AND SUNNAH

AN ITRODUCTION & IMPORTANCE

By: HARIS SALEEM

DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL SCIENCES RIPHAH INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD.


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HADITH
The Arabic word Hadith literally means communication,story,conversaion,religious or secular, historical or recent. Whenever used as adjective it means new. It has been used in the Quran 23 times. Here are few examples:
Religious communication, message of the Quran.

23 Allh has sent down the best statement,

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Leave Me (to deal) with those who give the lie to this pronouncement.

(b) Story of a secular or general nature:

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And when thou seest those who meddle with Our revelations, withdraw from them until they meddle with another topic.
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(c Historical Story:

Hath there come unto thee the story of Moses ?

(d) Current story or conversation:

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And (remember) when the Prophet disclosed a matter in confidence to one of his wives (Hafsah),
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Usage of the word Hadith in the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad(S.A.W)

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Applied Definition

In the terminology of the Science of tradition, any statement,description,action Or silent approval attributed to the holy prophet Muhammad(S.A.W) is called Hadith.

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The word Sunnah its meaning and different usage


Sunnah, according to Arabic lexicographers means: a way,course,rule,or manner, Of acting or conduct of life. According Dr.Khalid Alvi it has various usages: a) -Life of the holy prophet Muhammad(S.A.W) (before & after his mission) b) - Synonymous to Hadith c) - Occasionally, it is used as opposite to Bidah d) The jurist used it for what is not obligatory. e) It is also used for the practice of the companions of the Prophet(S.A.W) f) -Commonly accepted practice of the first century A.H.As Malik b.Anas g) accepted the practice of the people of Madinah. In the Quran word Sunnah & its plural Sunun have been used Sixteen times.

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COMPONENTS OF HADITH

SANAD. Literally its means a high place on earth or mountain. it also means support of refuge , but in terminology of Muhaddithun it is a method of tracing back the source Of an informatin.Ascription of an Islamic tradition or chain of narration is called SANAD or ISNAD. In other words we can say, Chain of reporters / chain of transmission from person to person. The isnad are vital for verifying the accuracy of individual hadith. An isnad might go like this: Abdullah told Ali who told Yusuf who told Dawud... etc.

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MATN

Originally it means solid and firm and the back of an animal. It is used for the Text of a book or the words because they contain meanings. the Muhaddthun Define it as. Matn is where ends the chain of narration. Matn and Sanad are interdependent on and inseparable from each other. the Book of hadith contain both.

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Two Kinds of Revelation


The revelation the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) received from Allh is of two different kinds: (i) the revelation of the Qurn, the Holy Book, named in the Islamic terminology as al-wahy al-matluww (the recited revelation, i.e. the revelation which can be recited in the prayers). This kind of revelation is confined to the verses of the Holy Qurn and is written verbally in its folds. (ii) the revelation received by the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam) from time to time to let him know the pleasure of Allh in dayto-day affairs and the details of the principles laid down in the Holy Qurn with their correct interpretation. This kind of revelation is called al-wahy ghair al-matluww (the unrecited revelation). This kind of revelation is not conveyed to the people verbally. It has been demonstrated through the sayings and acts of the Holy Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wassallam).

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Sunnah/hadith: The Second Source of Islamic Law


Next in importance only to the Holy Qurn This status of the sunnah has remained unchallenged and undisputed throughout the centuries Despite the differences among Muslims in their juristic opinions, the authority of the Holy Qurn and the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet was never denied by any jurist.

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IMPORTANCE OF HADITH & SUNNAH


"The importance of Hadith is increased for the Muslim by the fact that the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) not only taught, but took the opportunity of putting his teachings into practice in all the important affairs of life. He lived for twenty three years after his appointment as the Messenger of Allah. He endowed his community with a religion, which he scrupulously practiced himself. He founded a state, which he administered as the supreme head, maintaining internal peace and order, heading armies for external defense, judging and deciding the litigations of his subjects, punishing the criminals and legislating in all walks of life. He married and left a model of family life. Another important fact is that he did not declare himself to be above the ordinary law which he imposed on others. His practice was not mere private conduct, but a detailed interpretation and application of his teachings." (Introduction to Islam page 23) The man, therefore, who embraced Islam stood in need of both the Qur'an and the Sunnah. Actually Hadith is so important that without it one cannot fully understand the Holy Book and Islam or be able to apply it to one's life and practice.

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The Status of the Holy Prophet He is not a postman who, after delivering the letter, has no concern with it. The prophets are not sent merely to deliver or recite the word of Allah. They are also required to: explain the divine Book to interpret it to expound it to demonstrate the ways of its application to present a practical example of its contents and requirements.

The Prophets

Authority to Legislate

And My mercy embraces all things. So I shall prescribe it for those who fear Allh and pay zakh (obligatory alms) and those who have faith in Our signs; those who follow the Messenger, the unlettered Prophet whom they find written down in the Torah and the Injl, and who commands the good and forbids them from evil, and makes lawful for them the good things, and makes unlawful for them the impure things, and relieves them of their burdens and of the shackles that were upon them. So, those who believe in him, and honour him, and help him, and follow the light that has been sent down with him- they are the ones who acquire success. (7:156-157)

Fight those who do not believe in Allh and the Hereafter and do not hold unlawful what Allh and His Messenger have made unlawful. (9:29)
No believer, neither male or female has a right, when Allh and His Messenger prescribe a matter, to have a choice in their matter in issue. And whoever disobeys Allh and His Messenger has gone astray into manifest error. (33:36) Whatever the Messenger gives you, take
it; and whatever he forbids you from, refrain from it. (59:7)

But no, by your Lord, they shall not be (deemed to be) believers unless they accept you as judge in their disputes, then find in their hearts no adverse feeling against what you decided, but surrender to it in complete submission.

(4:65)
They say, we believe in Allah and the Messenger, and we obey. Then, after that, a group of them turn away. And they are not believers. And when they are called to Allh and His Messenger that he may judge between them, suddenly a group of them turn back. (cont)

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The Holy Prophets

Authority to Interpret the Holy Qurn

And We sent down towards you the Advice (i.e. the Qurn) so that you may explain to the people what has been sent down to them, and so that they may ponder. (16:44)


And we did not send the Quran down to you except so that you may explain to them regarding what they differ in

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Examples of Prophetic Explanations of the Qurn

Salah: It is significant that the Holy Qurn has repeated the command of observing salah as many as 73 times, yet, it has elected not to describe the way it has to be performed. This is not without wisdom. The point that seems to have been made deliberately is the significance of the sunnah. By avoiding the details about no less a pillar of Islm than salah, it is pointed out that the Holy Qurn is meant for giving the fundamental principles only. The details are left to the explanations of the Holy Prophet

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Surely, the salaah is a timed obligation for the believers. (4:104)

It is clear from this verse that there every salah must be performed at its fixed time. But those times are mentioned nowhere in the Holy Qurn. Even that the daily obligatory prayers are five in number is not disclosed in the Holy Book. It is only through the sunnah of the Holy Prophet that we have learnt the exact number and specific times of the obligatory prayers. The same is the position of the number of rakaat to be performed in each prayer. It is not mentioned anywhere in the Holy Qurn that the number of rakaat is two in Fajr, four in Zuhr, Asr and Isha; it is only in the sunnah that these matters are mentioned. If the sunnah is not held as authority, all these necessary details even about the second pillar of Islm remain totally unknown, so as to render the salaah too vague an obligation to be carried out in practice.

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Zakah (alms-giving), the third pillar of Islm, The order to pay zakah is found in the Holy Book in more than thirty places. But who is liable to pay it? On what rate it should be paid? What assets are liable to the obligation of zakah? What assets are exempted from it? All these questions remain unanswered if the authority of sunnah is ignored. It is the Holy Prophet who explained all these details about zakah. Fasts of Ramadan; the fourth pillar of Islm. Here again only the fundamental principles are found in the Holy Qurn. explanation of the Holy Prophet which he disclosed through his sayings and acts. What acts are prohibited or permitted during the fast? Under what conditions can one break the fast during the day? What kind of treatment can be undertaken in the state of fasting? All these and similar other details are mentioned by the Holy Prophet .

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Model behavior for Muslim society

21. Indeed in the Messenger of Allh (Muhammad SAW) you have a good example to follow for him who hopes in (the Meeting with) Allh and the Last Day and remembers Allh much.

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Total obedience to the prophet(S.A.W)

64. We sent not a Messenger, but to be obeyed, in accordance with the will of Allah.

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32. Say: "Obey Allah and His Messenger;" but if they turn back, Allah loveth not those who reject Faith.

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In previous slides we have discussed four main aspects of the holy prophet In the light of the holy Quran.

(S.A.W)

legislator Interpreter/Expounder Model for Muslims to be obeyed totally

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Wama tawfiqi illa bi Allah wa shukra

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DSS/RIU.ISLAMABAD

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