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Cryptography

Ch-1 prepared by: Diwan

Essential Terms
Cryptography Encryption
Plain text Cipher text

Decryption
Cipher text Plain text

Cryptanalysis Cryptology

Source: http://www.unmuseum.org/enigma.j

Basic Terminologies
Cryptography deals with creating documents that can be shared secretly over public communication channels Cryptographic documents are decrypted with the key associated with encryption, with the knowledge of the encryptor The word cryptography comes from the Greek words: Krypto (secret) and graphein (write) Cryptanalysis deals with finding the encryption key without the knowledge of the encryptor Cryptology deals with cryptography and cryptanalysis Cryptosystems are computer systems used to encrypt data for secure transmission and storage

Basic Terminologies
Keys are rules used in algorithms to convert a document into a secret document Keys are of two types:
Symmetric Asymmetric

A key is symmetric if the same key is used both for encryption and decryption A key is asymmetric if different keys are used for encryption and decryption
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Basic Terminologies
Examples:
Symmetric key methods
DES 56-bit Triple DES 128-bit AES 128-bit and higher Blowfish 128-bit and higher

Asymmetric key methods


RSA PGP

Basic Terminologies
Plaintext is text that is in readable form Ciphertext results from plaintext by applying the encryption key Notations:
M message, C ciphertext, D decryption, E(M) = C E(M, k) = C E encryption, k key

Fact: D(C) = M, D(C, k) = M


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Cryptographic Methods
Symmetric
Same key for encryption and decryption Key distribution problem

Asymmetric
Mathematically related key pairs for encryption and decryption Public and private keys

Cryptographic Methods
Hybrid
Combines strengths of both methods Asymmetric distributes symmetric key
Also known as a session key

Symmetric provides bulk encryption Example:


SSL negotiates a hybrid method

Types of Secret Writing


Secret writing

Steganography

Cryptography

Basic Terminologies
Steganography is the method of hiding secret messages in an ordinary document Steganography does not use encryption Steganography does not increase file size for hidden messages Example: select the bit patterns in pixel colors to hide the message

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Steganography
Hiding a message within another medium, such as an image No key is required Example
Modify color map of JPEG image

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Steganography
Steganography covered writing is an art of hiding information Popular contemporary steganographic technologies hide New York Times, August 3rd, 2001 information in http://www.nytimes.com/images/2001/10/30/sci ence/sci_STEGO_011030_00.jpg images

Hiding information in pictures

Image in which to hide another image

Image to hide within the other image


/

http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~fapp2/steganography/image_downgrading

Types of Cryptography
Stream-based Ciphers
One at a time, please Mixes plaintext with key stream Good for real-time services

Block Ciphers
Amusement Park Ride Substitution and transposition

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Types of Secret Writing


Secret writing

Steganography Substitution

Cryptography Transposition Mon alphabetic

Polyalphabetic

Encryption Systems
Substitution Cipher
Convert one letter to another Cryptoquip Change position of letter in text Word Jumble

Transposition Cipher

Monoalphabetic Cipher Caesar


Polyalphabetic Cipher
Vigenre

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Public Key Cryptography


Private (symmetric, secret) key the same key used for encryption/decryption Problem of key distribution Public (asymmetric) key cryptography a public key used for encryption and private key for decryption Key distribution problem solved

Currently Available Crypto Algorithms (private key)


DES (Data Encryption Standard) and derivatives: double DES and triple DES IDEA (International Data Encryption Standard) Blowfish RC5 (Rivest Cipher #5) AES (Advance Encryption Standard)

Currently Available Crypto Algorithms (public key)


RSA (Rivest, Shamir, Adleman) DH (Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement Algorithm)

Hashing Algorithms
MD5
Computes 128-bit hash value Widely used for file integrity checking

SHA-1
Computes 160-bit hash value

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