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Research is defined as a formal, systematic, rigorous and intensive process used for solutions to nursing problems or to discover and

d interpret new facts and trends in clinical practice, nursing education or nursing administration (Waltz and Bauseli, 2001)
is a scientific study or investigation that is pursued to discover theories and concepts based on new facts and information and its practical application. is also a systematic collection and analysis of data to illuminate, describe or explain new facts and relationships. In its broadest sense, it is an attempt to find solutions to problems. also refers to a problem solving process that utilizes scientific discovery, and develop ideas and theories that give meaningful answers to complex questions about human beings and their environment.

NURSING RESEARCH
systematic inquiry designed to develop knowledge about issues of significance to nursing administration & health services that are necessary to promote quality health care system Similarly, it is also a scientific process that helps in the validation & refinement of existing knowledge & eventually generates new knowledge that directly & indirectly influences nursing practice

NURSING RESEARCH

The development of knowledge about (ANA, 1981):


Health

& promotion of health over the full lifespan Care of persons with health problems & disabilities Nursing actions to enhance the ability of individuals to respond effectively to actual or potential health problems

IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH IN NURSING:


1.

2.

3. 4.

5.

It provides a particularly solid Base It helps develop, refine and extend the scientific force of knowledge fundamental to the practice of nursing. It is essential for the continued growth of the nursing profession. It helps nursing to achieve its own professional identity. The spiraling costs of health care to the costcontainment practices currently being insituted in health care facilities.

RESEARCH enables Nurses to:


1. 2.

3.
4. 5.

Describe the characteristics of a particular nursing situation about little is known. Explain phenomena that must be considered in planning nursing care. Predict the probable outcomes of certain nursing diagnosis made in relation to the client care. Control the occurrence of undesired client outcome. Initiate with a few degree of confidence, activities that will achieve derived client behavior.

The Goals of Nursing Research


Nursing research is important within the context of promotion and maintenance of health, prevention and cure of illness, the habilitation and rehabilitation of the disabled and the handicapped whose life depends on others for survival. 1. Efficiency and Effectiveness in Nursing Care 2. Worthiness and Value of the Nursing Profession to Society 3. Identifying, Implementing and Evaluating Effective Health Care Modalities 4. Clinical Research has the Potential for providing Quality Care of Clients. It is concerned with the following tasks: a. The systematic study of nursing problems or phenomena, using the nursing process of assessing, planning, implementing and evaluating nursing care.

a. Improving nursing practice and patient care through creative and scientific studies, knowledge of health and the promotion of health throughout the life-span; b. Identifying nursing interventions that can help individuals respond efficiently and effectively to actual or potential health problems; c. The initiation and assessment of change as a result of nursing care to clients, and incisive efforts to make this new knowledge useful in nursing practice.
In a sense, research promotes creative thinking and ability to move away from the status quo or traditional practice.

Reasons for Conducting Research in Nursing

Research in nursing is vital to the well-being of mankind due to its valuable tasks, as follows: 1. Gathers data or information in nursing situations or conditions about which little knowledge is available. 2. Provides scientific knowledge base from which nursing theories emerge and develop. 3. Helps correct, clarify and validate perceptions and expands these. 4. Provides theoretical and scientific basis for nursing practice. 5. Defines the parameters of nursing and identifies its boundaries

6. Documents the social relevance and efficacy of nursing practice to people and health care providers. 7. Describes the characteristics of the nursing situation about which little knowledge is known. 8. Predicts to probable outcomes of nursing decisions in relation to client care. 9. Provides knowledge for purposes of problem solving and decision making. 10.Develops and evaluates nursing theories and concepts, and practices these clarity and validity of nursing actions. 11.Prevents undesirable clients reactions. 12.Develops a considerable degree of confidence.

General Purposes of Research


Answers questions to solve problems Provide tools for observation inorder to generate knowledge as basis for predicting & controlling the phenomenon

Specific Purposes of Research Research aims to do the following tasks: 1. Description Research describes a phenomenon that relates to the nursing profession as well as to observe, define, and document nursing situations under inquiry. Example: Nursing care: Refers to services rendered by professional and non-professional nursing personnel to respond to the health needs and problems of individuals, families, groups, and communities, intended to bring comfort and ease to clients.

2. Exploration Research explores the Phenomenon being investigated by observing and recording events or situations occurring in that phenomenon; it answers what questions on the phenomenon: and use enough examples to become familiar with the phenomenon for more precise and accurate understanding of this. Examples: a. What factors influence, after or relate to the adjustment of patients to hospitalization? b. How do nurses react to aggressive patients? c. What do insulin-dependent patients want to know about their aliment?

3. Explanation Research is generally linked to theories as a method of clarifying, explaining and integrating ideas to determine the reasons for the existence of a particular phenomenon Examples: a. Why the older patients need more time than younger patients to recover? b. Why is care of chronically ill patients done more effectively at home than in a hospital? c. Why do younger children need more parenting than older children

4. Prediction and Control


Research anticipates possible psychological and physiological reactions to nursing interventions. Research supports nursing decisions by eliminating barriers and sourcing ways and strategies that would bring about effective client care outcomes.

Prediction- Projects a situation or events that could arise from research investigation
Control - Puts up barrier to hinder or minimize the effects of anticipated outcomes or reactions Example: Incidence of Downs Syndrome in infants is expected to increase with the age of the mother

Role of Nurses in Research

1. As Principal Investigators.
2. As Member of a Research Team. 3. As Evaluator of Research Findings. 4. As Consumers of Research Findings. 5. As Client Advocates in a Research Study.

6. As Subjects of Research.
Hallmarks and Qualities of Good Nurse Researchers

1. Honest and Credible.


2. Accurate in His/Her Data.

3. Organized and Systematic.


4. Logical.

5. Self-Awareness.
6. Imaginative and Curious. 7. Persistent with Barriers. 8. Good Relationship with His/Her Respondents and Other Researchers. 9. Updated and Informed of Present Issues and Events.

RESEARCH AS A SCIENTIFIC APPROACH


Characteristics of Research
1. Orderly and Systematic

2. Control
3. Empiricism 4. Generalization

Evolution of Nursing Research


ASSIGNMENT: Prepare a short biographical sketch of Florence Nightingale - highlight all her achievements as a nurse researcher

Criteria for Choice of Research Problems

1. Significance of the Problem


2. Problem Researchability Example: Should nurses, join unions? Is abortion acceptable to Filipinos? Is Family Planning moral? 3. Feasibility of the Problem 4. Potentials of the Researcher

Criteria for Choosing a Problem for Scientific Inquiry:


1. External Criteria

a. Novelty

b. Availability of Subjects
c. Institutional or Administrative Support d. Ethical Considerations e. Facilities and Equipment
2. Internal Criteria

a. The Motivation, Interest, Intellectual Curiosity and Perceptiveness of the Researcher

b. Experience, Training and Professional Qualifications c. Time Management d. Costs and Returns e. Hazards, Penalties and Handicaps

Following are the characteristics of researchable problems:


1. Originality
2. Significance 3. Manageability 4. Measurability 5. Resource Availability

THE BASIC COMPONENTS OF RESEARCH


CHAPTER 1
I. Title of the Study
Example: Leadership Practices of Clinical Nurse Managers And Staffnurses Clinical Performance in Selected Tertiary Hospitals in Metro Manila Personal Characteristics, Clinical Manifestations and Coping Strategies Among Climacteric Women in Selected Municipalities in Region IV Thermoregulation of Newborn Infants Utilizing Mineral Water Container with Droplight II. Introduction The Introduction part includes the following: a. The context of the problem and its historical background; b. Authoritative viewpoints on the problem; c. The researchers interest in working on the problem; and d. The purpose of the study in relation to the problem

III. THEORETICAL/CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK


What is Theory? From the Greek word theoria which means a beholding spectacle or speculation. Theories are always speculative in nature and are never considered as true or proven. They provide description and explanation of a phenomenon and are subject to further development or revision or may even be discarded if not supported by empirical findings Is also a general principle, an explanation of a phenomenon or an abstract generalization that systematically explains the relationship among given phenomena.

A statement that is much broader and complex than fact; the basis of policies and practices in a particular discipline that gives specific direction to the researchers solution of his/her research problem.

Characteristics of Theory
1. It Consists of a Set of Concepts

Concept . The building block of theory; a word picture or basic idea of a


phenomenon that symbolizes reality. Concepts may be concrete such as the concept of nurse or abstract such as nursing. Concepts can be defined or specified by a given set of examples. A concept is also a key idea abstracted from specific phenomenon. Examples: Abstract Concepts: Concrete Concepts: nursing, man, health, community nurse, girl, Manila

2. Theory also consists of propositions, each of which indicates relationships between concepts derived from empirical data.
Proposition. A statement or assertion of the relationship between concepts derived from theories or generalizations based on empirical or factual data.

Example:
In Selyes Theory of Stress, the following are propositions: a. Man seeks to attain a desired state by mobilizing his defense mechanisms. b. When the specific defense mechanism is identified by the body to deal with the sources of stress, the overactivity of the general mechanism subsides, and the specific mechanisms overreact and produce increased blood supply to the muscular activity. 3. A theory is represented by Conceptual Paradigm and Conceptual Models. Paradigm
Represents global issues about individuals, groups, situations and

events of interest to the profession. The paradigm used in nursing theories are behavioral , developmental, interactional and systems based.

Conceptual Paradigm
This is a diagram that visually presents and interprets the underlying theory, principles and concepts of a research. It is also a visual presentation of variables that interrelate with one another as perceived by the researcher before an actual empirical investigation is done to prove its relationships Types of Models:
a. Conceptual Models: These are ideas formulated in the mind; the picture of something that actually exists which consists of patterns, standards or examples which are abstract and not generally observable in the empirical world (Fawcett:2001).

Examples: A plastic model of the heart is a conceptual model.

b. Theoretical Models

These represent the real world expressed in language (qualitative) or mathematical (quantitative) symbols. They provide a way to visualize reality and simplify thinking, but are not directly observable. It consists of an integrated set of defined concepts, relational statements that presents a view of a phenomenon and can be used to describe, explain, predict and control the phenomenon. Theories are theoretical or quantitative models of reality which are not directly observable. 4. Theories are purposely created and formulated, not discovered. The researcher integrates and merges facts to make a holistic viewpoint, thus, formulating a theory. Theory building is a creative and intellectual process which any individual with sufficient experience and imagination can do. 5. Theories are, however, only tentative and subject to change. Knowledge is never absolute, changes occur as research continuous to provide explanations to variables for the phenomenon being investigated. Research on a single variable can generate more knowledge or theories leading to knowledge expansion and theory generation.

6. Theory development occurs if new evidences or observations undermine a previously accepted theory. New theories enhance knowledge base, enabling the nurse to increase her ability to weave together new observations and empirical data into an organized and systematic process of reasoning. Thus, knowledge become an efficient mechanism drawing together accumulated facts to fully understand the meaning and implications of a phenomenon.
7. Theory is Integral to Research. It explains the basis of the problem that allows the researcher to formulate the research design and select tools for data collection and measurement. The outcome or findings of the research supports the analysis and interpretation of data and likewise become new theories which can again used as basis for future studies.

Purposes of Theories

1. To summarize existing knowledge critical to the development and advancement of scientific knowledge. A theory integrates and summarizes facts gathered from isolated investigations/inquiries.
Example: a. the degree of complication during pregnancy varies directly with maternal malnutrition. 2. To explain or interpret observations as well as predict and control outcomes by: a. Guiding and helping understand the what of a natural phenomenon as well as the why of its occurrence. b. Providing a framework fro predicting the occurrence of the phenomenon. c. Forecasting facts and relationships observed under specific circumstances.

Importance of Theory to Nursing Practice


1. As basis of nursing practice, theory describes, predicts, controls and explains phenomena of interest to nurses.

2. It validates, enhances, and improves nursing practice.


3. It promotes understanding ad explanation of phenomena and gives rise to a body of knowledge. 4. It follows logical progression and contributes to nursing autonomy and identity. 5. It is intrinsic to practice, and practice continues to validate theory, hence, theory and practice are integral to each other.

IV. Statement of the Problem


a.

The Purpose of the Study The statement of purpose should have the following characteristics a. The goals of the study are expressed in a broad statement of purpose; b. The specific objectives of the study are expressed in a statement that pinpoints the main concern or intent of the inquiry in well-defined, measurable and logical concepts drawn up from the general objective(s) or goal(s) of the study.

Good research objectives have the following characteristics: 1. S- Specific; 2. M- Measurable; 3. A- Attainable;

4. R- Realistic and Results oriented; and


5. T- Time-bound Example:

The purpose of this study is to identify factors that maximize opportunities for mothers of hospitalized children to participate in their care. This study will determine which parental style and attitude are most significant to the emotional intelligence development of the child. It will also investigate other factors that may contribute to effective parenting. Hence, this study will ascertain if parents are really worthy to be real parents in rearing their children to become responsible and proficient adults.

The Interrogative Form

Research problems may be stated in various ways, as follows:

Example: What is the relationship between the dependency level of post-op renal patients and their rate of recovery?

b. The Declarative Form


Example: The Impact of Grading on the Academic and Clinical Achievements of Junior Nursing students.
The Relationship between Method of Pain Management During Labor and Specific Labor and Birth Outcomes.

c. Consists of the Various Components:


The Major Problem Example: (Magno: Masters Thesis, UST, 1996) To determine the correlation between Staff Nurses extent of Knowledge and their Clinical Performance of the Nursing Process as a basis for Improving the Curriculum and the Related Learning Experience Programs of Nursing Education and the Staff Development/Training Program of the Nursing Service.

2. Minor/Specific or Sub-Problems Examples: 1.What is the staff nurses extent of knowledge of the nursing process in relation to its five basic aspects: 1.1 Assessment;

1.2 Nursing Diagnosis


1.3 Planning 1.4 Implementation 1.5 Evaluation 2. What is the extent of the staff nurses knowledge of the nursing process as perceived by themselves and their head nurses? 3. To what extent is the nursing process performed efficiently by the staff nurses as perceived by themselves and their head nurses? 4. Is there any significant correlation between the staff nurses extent of knowledge and their clinical [performance of the nursing process in relation to five components?

5. Is there any significant difference in the staff nurses knowledge and their clinical performance of the nursing process as perceived by themselves and their headnurses? A well stated problem guides the researcher in determining the research design. The research must, however, see that: a. The variables in the study are clearly identified and sated. There may be only one variable (univariate), two variables (bi-variate) or more than two study variables 9multi-variate). Statement of variables must always be grammatically correct to avoid confusion. Example: What sources of work Stress are identified by NICU Nurses affect their Clinical Performance? Source of work stress is a single variable.

b. Findings are expressed in data obtained through direct or indirect inquiry and observation; c. The scope or coverage of the study is well defined. The sample population should be delimited or narrowed down to the target group. Example: NICU Nurses; First Year nursing students; Primigravida Women. d. Sampling must be representative enough to ensure reliable results e. Limitations and manageability of the study are ensured; and

f. There is possibility of empirical testing. Variables are factual an the hypothesis derived from the theory can be validly supported and tested.

Following are errors to be avoided by the researcher in stating research in stating research problems: a. Problems that elicit broad, general findings instead of specific information needed for their solution. Example: What is the Universal Phenomenon of Nursing and Its Impact on the Current Modalities of Care? b. Shallow and unimportant inquiries. Example: Is love important to life?

c. Rhetorically stated problems which tend to elicit emotional reactions that diminishes the scientific intent of the inquiry.
Example: The sorrowful journey of the nurses in the care of terminally ill patients. d. Questions that not testable and cannot be answered through scientific investigation. Example: Is Medical Practice related to Nursing Practice?

RESEARCH VARIABLES
Characteristics of Variables are the following:

a. They have two or more mutually exclusive values or properties that can be quantitatively and qualitatively measured
Example: height, weight, sex, age, civil status, blood type, blood pressure reading, vital signs b. There are varying factors that affect the phenomenon, nursing situations or cases under study; Example: pre-operative anxiety levels, body temperature, weather conditions

c. There are varying qualities of people, institutions, situations statuses; Example: ethnicity, government agencies, type of hospitals, levels of care, community services.

d. They can be heterogeneous when the attributes or characteristics of a group being studied are extremely varied;
Example: Height and Weight of Infants are more homogeneous since its variability is limited to the standard measurement expected per month, such as: Birth Weight of Infants doubles as 6 months and triples at 12 months. Any variations from the standard value may indicate an abnormal growth and development process that requires thorough nursing assessment and intervention

Kinds of Variables
a. Explanatory Variable

This refers to the phenomenon under study that varies or assumes different values. This is the focus of the research that indicates direction of influence to what the researcher would like to discover, and not merely establishing a direct causal link between the persons, objects or things being studied.

Types of Explanatory Variable


1. Independent Variable

Examples: 1. Self-Concept, Personal and Professional Characteristics of Staffnurses

2. Work Values of Nurse Managers


3. Mineral Water Container with Droplight

2. Dependent Variable Examples: 1. Patients satisfaction Index

2. Clinical Performance of Staffnurses


3. Thermoregulation of Infants 3. Intervening Variable This is a factor or variable that exists between the independent and the dependent variable. It is a variable that explains why the relationship exists, and bears influence on the effect of the independent variable. This is also called as correlated or mediator variables.

Examples:
Independent Variables (IV) and Dependent Variables (DV): 1. Self-Concept, Personal and Professional Characteristics of Stauffnurses (IV) in Relation to Patients Satisfaction Index (DV) Intervening variables: nurses age, sex, knowledge, Skills, attitude, patients status and diagnosis. 2. Work Values of Nurse Managers (IV) and Clinical Performance of Staffnurses (DV) Intervening variables: time management, goals and objectives, socialization process

More Examples: Independent Variable 1. Nursing intervention Intervening Variable Experience; attitude Dependent variable Extent of recovery

of the nurse; facilities


patients. 2. Preoperative teaching Teaching approaches; subjects taught; skill of the nurse. 3. Primary Nursing Age, sex, education and training

of post-operative
patients. Extent of pain relief needed by the patient. Status/Extent of patient satisfaction.

Indicators.

These are statements of traits, characteristics, trends and practices that define or describe the variables. They represent certain criteria being evaluated.

Examples:
Variables a. Nursing care b. Nursing education old Indicators Levels, categories, methods Baccalaureate, Associate, New or curriculum

c. Emotional distress

Extent or degree (mild, moderate, severe) of emotional distress

b. Extraneous or Exogenous Variables


Although these are not the direct foci of the study, they tend to affect results to a certain extent. These variables are not also the direct interest of the researcher, and must be controlled or eliminated in order that the hypotheses can be validly tested. There are two types of Extraneous Variables, namely:
1. Organism Variables

Examples: Age, sex, civil status, education, employment, height, weight, ethnicity and religion, among others.

2. Environmental Variables

Examples: Climate, organizational set-up or hospital setting, home setting, Government composition, and family composition, among other factors.
c. Abstract or Continuous Variables Examples: Age-Values from 0 to 100 BP- 120/80 to 180/110 d. Dichotomous Variables Examples: smoker-non-smoke pregnant-non-pregnant male-female

e. Active Variables
Examples: Drug Type A and B effects on blood pressure Experimental group receiving X solution Control group receiving y solution

f. Attributes Variables
Examples: Age, height, weight, health beliefs.

V. What are HYPOTHESES?


Are theoretical explanations of a phenomenon. Are statements that translate a problem into precise, unambiguous predictions of expected outcomes May be shrewd guess or inference, an intellectual proposition formulated to explain observed facts or conditions in order to guide the investigation further It must be empirically testable and verifiable

Guidelines in Formulating Research Hypotheses


1. The hypotheses, not the stated problem, are subjected to empirical testing through data collection and analysis. Research problems that are experimental, casual, comparative, correlational or normative need hypothesis for their in-depth solution. Historical, literary and philosophical studies and simple surveys do not need hypotheses. 2. The hypotheses follows the theoretical framework of the study, and are based on theories, principles and concepts advanced in the framework.

3. Hypotheses are stated in declarative form, while research problems are generally interrogative in order to focus inquiry on the analysis of the phenomenon under study. 4. Hypotheses are tentative solutions or answers to inquiries. Example:

Problem:

Is there any significant relationship between tactile and auditory stimulations and the heartbeat rate response of premature infants?
There is a significant relationship between tactile and auditory stimulations and the heartbeat rate response of premature infants.

Hypotheses:

5. Hypotheses should be formulated before the conduct of the study, because they give direction to the gathering and interpretation of data and help in the solution of research problems. 6. The theoretical framework provides the theories, principles and concept on which to base the hypotheses. 7. Hypotheses also relate to the problems raised in the study.

Purpose of Hypotheses
1. Hypotheses unify theory and reality by evaluating theory on the basis of observable facts or reality. Example:

Theory of reinforcement Behavior or activity which is pleasurable or positively reinforced tends to be respected. Hypotheses: Elderly patients who raised (reinforcement) by nursing personnel for self-feeding require less assistance than elderly patients who are not praised.
2. Hypotheses give direction to research by determining research design, data collection procedures, analysis and interpretation of data. Hypotheses also determine the importance of data collected as explained by known theory.

3. Hypotheses enhance knowledge by including critical thinking and deepening insights. They help the researcher in the analysis and interpretation of findings and in formulating conclusions. Findings and conclusions are answers to specific research questions and the hypotheses raised in the study. Example: Nurse who have earned the diploma program in nursing are more likely to experience stress in their first nursing assignment, compared to those who have completed the baccalaureate degrees.

Characteristics of Hypotheses
1. Testability. Implies that variables in the study are observable, measurable and subject to analysis. These are hypotheses that can be either supported or refuted.
Hypotheses that are not testable:

a. When variables in the study are not observable, measurable and cannot be subjected to objective or factual testing and analysis.
b. When variables do not state any predicted relationship.

Example:
Pregnant Women who receive Prenatal Care tend to react favorably to labor and delivery experience. 2. If they state anticipated relationships between two or more variables, as cited by the foregoing example. 3. If they are logical and justifiable, and consistent with an exiting body of knowledge or research findings.

4. They relate directly to the research problem. The variables of the study are the source of hypotheses which are subjected to empirical testing. 5. They are factually and theoretically based. 6. They set the limits of the study.

7. They are stated in such way that they are either accepted or rejected.
Hypotheses are statements of anticipated relationships, thus: If variable X causes the occurrence of Y, then XY are casually related.\

Research Vs, Statistical Hypotheses


a. Research Hypothesis. This is also referred to as substantive or declarative hypothesis or statements of expected relationships between variables. It is also known as alternative hypothesis.

Example:

Infants born to heroin-addicted mothers have the same birth weight as infants born to non-heroin addicted mothers.
This may also be stated this way: There is a significant relationship between maternal heroin addiction and birth weight of infants. b. Statistical Hypothesis. This is stated in null form that there exists no significant relationship or difference between the independent and dependent variables. This is also known as null hypothesis. Example: Infants born to heroin-addicted mothers do not have the same birth weight as infants born to non-heroin addicted mothers,

This may also stated this way:


There is no significant relationship between maternal heroin addiction and birth weight of infants.

Statement of Hypotheses
Both Null and Alternative Hypothesis may be stated either way.
1. Theoretical form Known as general or literary hypothesis. It is stated in terms of theoretical constructs. It is commonly used in basic research and explained by known theory.

Example:

Infants born to heroin addicted mothers have same birth weight as infants born to non-heroin addicted mothers. Primary Nursing promotes patient satisfaction compared to the Case Method of assignment

2. Operational form

Example:

There is no significant relationship between the amount of nutritional intake and the degree or extent of complications among pregnant women.

VI. Significance of the Study The researcher must however, be certain of the benefits that these various sectors in the target population will gain from its results or findings, such as the following: a. Improvement of policies, programs and practices; b. Contribution to the particular field of study or profession in terms of knowledge, skills and new technology; c. Guide in decision making; d. Added knowledge and expertise for individual practitioners e. New theory learned, and; f. Personal and societal development. Beneficiaries of research studies in nursing include the following sectors: a. The Nursing profession as a whole; b. The Public as end-users of quality nursing care; c. The Nursing service; d. Nursing education e. Nurse practitioners; f. Nursing students; and g. Hospitals Administrators

Example: Problem: Time and Activity Study of Nursing Personnel in a Selected Tertiary Hospital in Metro Manila: Its Implications to the Administration of Nursing Service (tan: Masters Thesis, UST, 1987) This study is significant to the following target populations: 1. To Hospitalize Administrators, for depth of insights into the actual activities of nursing personnel in relation to the hospitals standard of health care as described in their job description, and the standards set by the Association of Nursing Services Administrators of the Philippines (ANSAP).

2. To Nursing Personnel, for better understanding and appreciation of their legitimate roles and functions and for them to maximize their efforts in providing better nursing care. 3. To Nursing Service Administrators, to revise or to develop hospital nursing operation manuals, provide orientation 4. To Nursing Education, by identifying vital competencies to be developed in nursing students, particularly proficiency of roles and functions in patient care and supervision. 5. Finally, to the Community, to get the best quality care from competent nursing personnel, and be assured of their basic rights to a decent and healthful life.

VII. Scope and Delimitations


Uncontrolled variables may affect study results, hence, expected findings should not be beyond what the study can achieve in terms of the following aspects:

a. Issues- past and current; b. Scope or coverage of areas of concern; c. Respondents; d. Time frame; and e. Type of data such as qualitative, quantitative or combined
Delimitations sets the parameters of the study by accepting what should be included, and rejecting what should be excluded. In delimiting aspects of the study, the researcher states specific constrains such as the following: a. Scope or Coverage b. Expected Manageability of the Problem c. Limitations of the Study

VIII. Definition of Terms This section facilitates understanding of the study by defining the terms or variables according to their contextual use.

Reasons for Defining the Variables


a. To guide and direct the researcher in quantifying and qualifying the variables b. To ensure clarity of the meaning of the variables and minimize the readers misconceptions

Types of Definitions:
a. Conceptual Definition Source: Example: Dictionary, Related Literature, Authoritative Sources Motivation- Something that causes a person to act (Web: 2004). Problem- A source of perflexity or vexation. Pain- A subject experience perceived to be unpleasant, initiated by potentially damaging stimuli but influenced by affective variables.

b. Operational Definition

Sources:
Example:

Empirical data, related literature, research studies, established theories.


Motivation- the ability of the nurse on duty to accomplish her tasks on time Problem- Inability of the patient to meet his daily dietary requirements Pain- Refers to the score obtained in a 10 cm visual analogue scale in which zero(0) represents no pain and ten(10) represents the worst pain imaginable. 0 5 10

no pain

moderate pain

worst pain

More Examples: Variable A Professional Introversion Conceptual Definition Operational Definition (As used in the study) An individual who Any individual with practices a particular four years of college profession education Self-directed interest The tendency of a student to isolate from the group Civility, Politeness The use of polite words and expressions when greeting elders and authorities

Courtesy

CHAPTER 2 THE REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES


What is Literature Review?
Literature review consists of a collection of pertinent readings, published or unpublished, in local or foreign settings. The literature will provide discussions of facts, principles, trends and practices to which the present study is related. Sources of related information and data are books, articles, pertinent documents, publications, speeches, programmes, theses and dissertations. All empirical investigations should be built on previous knowledge taken from these sources.

Types of Related Literature:


1. Conceptual Literature Sources: Encyclopedia, books, journals, commentaries and other publications

2. Research Literature

Purposes of the Related Literature:


1. Demonstrates the researchers comprehensive grasp of issues related to the current research, such as underlying philosophy, theories, principles, concepts and practices; 2. Reflects the researchers awareness of recent developments in the area of concern being explored in the current research, both in content and methodology; 3. Provides a frame of reference for the current research substantively, and in terms of the research variables and the population sampling;

4. Specifies where the previous study ends an where the current study begins, and the similarities and differences or related researches to the current research.
5. Discloses findings of previous researchers that have a bearing on the current research. 6. Determines the researchability and feasibility of the problem under study.

7. Identifies the following areas of concern:

a. The appropriate research methods and techniques expected to yield the needed data and information in the current research;
b. Effective procedures in data gathering; and c. Clues on how to ensure the accuracy and effectiveness of data analysis. 8. Serves as a connecting link between the findings of previous researches and the results of the current study; 9. Defines terms and suggests assumptions; and 10. Provides clues on the sequence of research activities to be pursued.

Sources of Materials for Literature Review


1. Primary Source 2. Secondary Sources

Preparing the Literature Review


1. Visit the Library and Gather Pertinent Materials for Review
2. Organizing the Review 3. Consolidating the ideas from various sources coherently in order to develop a meaningful review of related literature. This is possible only if the researcher is able to:

a. Locate literature sources through the library card, indexes, abstracts and books; b. Read the materials comprehensively, and get a clear viewpoint of issues or problems cited in the review; c. Take note of information embodied in the literature review such as the following;

1. Facts, statistics, findings of previous researchers;


2. Theories, principles and concepts; 3. methods, techniques and procedures;

4. Opinions, beliefs or points of view; and


5. Perceptions, clinical impressions and interpretations of needs and problems. d. Synthesize the review materials into a holistic body of content which ties up with that of the current research. 4. Note-Taking and Documentation a. Summarizing b. Quoting c. Paraphrasing d. Acknowledging sources of data and information by footnoting this and indicating cross references, if any. 5. Presenting the Contents of the Review
6. Take not of the Fallacies in the Literature Review

Guideposts in Writing the Review of Related Literature


a. The review should not be mere collection of quotations;

b. It is also not merely a series of summaries or abstracts;


c. It must be well integrated discussion of one or several variables of the problem under study;

d. Chronology is observed as the organizing principle. Start from the earliest to the most recent publication to trace the development of theory;
e. The setting is either local or international; and

f. Footnote or Endnote all entries.

CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN


What is RESEARCH DESIGN?

is the researchers plan of how the study will be conducted, the type of data that will be collected, the techniques or the means to be used to obtain these data, the reasons for the choice of the subjects, the manner of determining sample size, the instruments t be used and their validation, and the data analysis scheme which includes the application of the statistical tools for treatment of data arising from the study. Specifically, research design has the following characteristics: 1. A detailed explanation of techniques and procedures for data collection and analysis (Research Design). 2. A description of the target population, the location or setting of the study and the procedure for choice of samples or respondents (Sampling Design or Procedure).

3. A clear description of tools and instruments to be used and the statistical treatment of data to be applied (Instrumentation and Statistics).
Elements to consider in the choice of Research Design 1. The total population from which to select the study samples; 2. The method of selecting the samples or study respondents; 3. The alternative versions of independent variables under study; 4. The criterion measures evaluating the effects of the independent variables; and 5. The statistical treatment of data, using various tools.

Basic Research Designs


A. Experimental Research

This particular designs is an inquiry on cause-and-effect relationships, and conducted in a specialized setting, such as the laboratory, experimental unit or research center. The researcher controls and manipulates the dependent variable and randomly assigns the subjects to differ conditions or situations. The benefit gained in experimental studies is the possibility of establishing causal relationships between independent and dependent variables. In experimental studies, the researcher consciously manipulates or controls situations related to the study, thus interfering with nature. Observations are done under controlled conditions or in a controlled environment. (Abdellah, 2000) Examples: The Risk of Post-Portal Infections to Patients with External Flushing Compared to Patients without External Flushing.: The Use of a Mask to Prevent Nursery Infections.

Types of Experimental Research:


1. True Experiment

Properties of True Experiment


a. Manipulation The researcher subjects the respondents of the study to a particular situation for specific purpose; b. Control The researcher imposes certain conditions over the experimental situation such as the use of: 1. A Control Group. This group is not subjected to any experimental treatment. It consists of subjects whose performance in relation to a dependent variable is used as basis fro evaluating the performance of the experimental group.

2. An Experimental Group. This group is subjected to the treatment used by the researcher whose performance is compared and analyzed according to the performance of the control group on a dependent variable. Example: The use and non-use of external flushing on Post Partum Mothers to determine the extent of

c. Randomization The research assigns subjects to a control or experimental group on random basis, which means that every subjects has an equal chance of being assigned to any group. d. Validity In experimental studies and similar types of studies, the researcher is interested in controlling extraneous variables that may create spurious results or findings. Hence, the researcher must ensure the validity of data gathered, so it will objectively answer all research questions or test research hypotheses. All experimental studies should have the following characteristics (Nieswiadomy: 1993)
1. Internal Validity

Threats to Internal Validity: a. Selection Bias. This exists when study results are attributed to the experimental treatment, when in fac, results are due to differences among the subjects even before the treatment.

Example:
A study which aims to help people stop smoking. There were 20 volunteers who offered to stop smoking, (experimental group), and 20 volunteers who refused to stop smoking (control group). However, the experimental group may have been motivated to stop smoking even before the treatment started, hence, the selection process may have a biased effect on the results of the study.
b. History. This occurs when some event besides the experimental

treatment takes place during the course of the study and affects or influences the dependent variable. Example: The incidence of parental training among pregnant women after 2 weeks of a teaching program, but during the teacher process, as article is published on the rise of maternal complications. This history factor could result in the increased incidence of prenatal training.

c. Maturation. This take place when changes within the subjects occur during the experimental study, thus, influencing study results.

Example: The subjects may have gained in height and weight at the time when the pre-test and the post-test were being administered. If the nurse is interested in gain in weight and height of malnourished children, she will keep in mind that change in their size may occur during the treatment or coarse of the study
d. Testing. Possible testing threat in studies in which a pre-test is requisite. This refers to the influence of the pre-test, which already projects the results of the post-test scores.

Examples: Test Scores of the actual study respondents may be altered in the posttest as a result of their knowledge of the pre test results.

e. Instrumentation Change. The existence of a difference between pre-test and post-test results caused by change in the accuracy of the instrument or the ratings, rather than a result of the experimental treatment.

Example: A mechanical instrument such as the sphygmomanometer used in taking the blood pressure effects the accuracy of reading throughout the study.
f. Mortality. This occurs when a difference exists between the subject dropout rates of the experimental and the non-experimental groups.

Example: If large experimental group scored very low in a pre-test, some respondents may have dropped out of the study. Thus, the average scores in the post-test of the experimental group would be corresponding low

2. External Validity This is the degree to which study results can be influenced or affected by other populations and settings. Threats to External Validity: a. The Hawthorne Effect. This occurs when study participants respond in a particular manner, or there is obvious change of behavior because they are aware that they are being observed. Example: A student nurse applies correct techniques in doing nursing procedure while the researcher observes her. b. The Experimenter Effect. This refers to a threat to study results when the researchers behavior influences the behavior of the subjects, such as the researchers facial expression, gender, and clothing among others. c. The Reactive Effect of the Pre-Test. This occurs when the subjects have been sensitized to the treatment by taking the pre-test. d. The Halo Effect. This is the tendency of the researcher to rate the subject high or low because of the impression he/she has on the

Types of True Experimental Designs


a. Basic Experiment

1.The Post-Test only Design 2.The Pre Test and Pro-Test


b. Solomon Four Group Design
c. Factorial Design d. Randomized Block Design e. Crossover Design

Quasi-experiment Advantages of the Experimental Design 1. Explains and establishes causal relationships of variables; 2. Increases purity of observations; 3. Creates conditions in the experimental setting that approximates the natural setting; and 4. Free from the pressures of daily life when conducted in a controlled unit. Disadvantages of the Experimental Design 1. Dangerous, particularly if human beings are used as subjects; 2. Difficult to create conditions; 3. Time constraints;

4. Non-cooperation of subjects; 5. Population constraints; and 6. A generalization may not be reliable if done in an artificial setting. B. Non Experimental Research This research is often known as surveys which have less control over the study subjects and the setting where it is conducted They are research situations in which the researcher cannot control and manipulate the independent variable

Types of Non-Experimental Designs


1. Basic or Library Research

This is intended increase knowledge in science, it is also called pure research for purposes of generating new knowledge. The goals of basic research is to improve patient care alleviate the problem of nursing shortage; enrich the nursing curriculum and strengthen the organization of nursing service among others.

2. Applied Research or Action Research

This is undertaken for practical purposes. It seeks solutions to immediate problems that have been identified by the clients and the nurse in the actual work setting
Types of Applied Research:
a. Historical Design A critical investigation and analysis of events, developments and experiences of the past. It describes the past events in relation to the present situations and the analyze and interpret the implications of past events to the present trends of practices.

Example: The Evolution of Nursing Practice from the time of Florence Nightingale to the 21st Century: Significant Indicators of Change and Transition from the Past to Present Practice of Nursing.

b. Descriptive Design A study that describes the nature of the phenomenon under investigation after a survey of current trends, practices and conditions that relate to that phenomenon. Descriptive studies involves analysis of an extremely broad range of phenomena, its result is a comprehensive presentation and interpretation of statistical tabulations of data yielded by a survey.

Types of Descriptive Research:


collected from samples for purposes of describing populations in relation to specific given variables. This method involves the classification and enumeration of collated data which are gathered using questionnaires. Surveys are conducted b phone, mail or through personal contact with the subjects. Data collection are mostly done through questionnaires and interviews. Examples: A survey on staff nurses and administrators to obtain their perception on the extent of the nurses responsibility for patient education.
1. Descriptive Normative Surveys. Self-reported data are

2. Correlational Studies. These studies examine the extent of relationship

between variables by determining how changes in one variable relate to changes another variable. This is also called explanatory research. Example: How is (x) related to (Y)? As X increases, does Y also increase? Or, as X increases, does Y decrease?

Is there any significant correlation between anxiety and mid-term exams among baccalaureate nursing students? As anxiety is higher, the score of the mid-term exam is lower.
3. Comparative Studies. These are studies that examine several intact

groups to find out the difference between and among them in certain dependent variables of interest.

Comparative studies are applicable to the following: a. Descriptive study Example: Is there any significant difference in readiness to learn about pre-operative teaching (variable of interest) between pre-op patients who have high anxiety levels (G1), compared to pre-op patients who have low anxiety levels (G2)?

b. Experimental study Example: is there any significant difference in the pre-op anxiety levels of patients who were exposed to relaxation techniques (experimental group) and those who were not exposed to these techniques (control group)

4. Descriptive Evaluative Surveys or Methodological Studies. These studies are concerned with the development, testing and evaluation of methods, procedures, guidelines and instruments after which an evaluative judgment is done. This approach is also used to revise, modify existing programs or develop more effective programs, methods and procedures in nursing for more efficient and effective delivery pf health care. This study is also known as developmental or evaluative research Example: Training programs for new graduate nurses and their Clinical Proficiency. Development of Feedback Mechanisms for Faculty Performance.

5. Problem-Solving. All researchers are investigations leading to solutions of problems. One makes assessments of needs and problems and generates alternative solutions to problems. Its objectives is to improve specific situations derived from reliable and accurate data.

Examples: How much nursing care does a particular patient need? How often is it necessary to take vital signs of a patient in labor?
6. Decision-Making. This study selects the most feasible course of action from given alternatives to solve the problem. It is useful in policy making and in improving the image of nursing as a profession. Example: Should salaries paid to nurses be increased? Is the 12-hour work shift more effective than the 8-hour shift in solving staffing problems?

7. Case Study. This is an in-depth study of a single case or limited

number of typical, interconnected cases intended to interpret their behavior alternative relative to the occurrence of certain events or phenomenon of interest to the discipline.

Example: a case study of a patient with problems of oxygenation.


8. Content Analysis this is the process of synthesizing or dissecting

information and messages embodied in documents.

Example:

The practical implications of the Philippine Nursing Law (R.A 9173 of 2002) provisions for Nursing Education and Nursing Service 9. Feasibility Study. This type of study tries to determine the viability of an undertaking or a business venture and establishing an institutions or constructing infrastructure. Example: A Feasibility Study on Nursing Entrepreneurship in the Philippine Setting

Reasons for Conducting Non-Experimental Research 1. Situations are such that the individual variable inherently nonmanipulable. Examples: sex, age, personality, physical build 2. There are variables that can be technically manipulated, but should not be, for ethical reasons. Examples: Drugs and Cigarette Smoking once experimented on human beings can do much harm. 3. There are situations in which it is deemed impractical or undesirable to conduct experiments. Examples: Lack pf funds, inconvenience, non- cooperation on the part of the subjects. 4. There are also situations in which researcher observes manifestations of events and determines factors that have caused these Examples: Temper tantrums in toddlers Post-operative infections Post-partum depression

Advantages of Non-Experimental Research


1. Retrospective and less expensive; 2. Adequate time; 3. Cooperation is easy to obtain; and 4. Funding may be available for a representative target population. Disadvantages of Non-Experimental Research 1. Not capable of estimating causal relationship in the same degree as experimental research; 2. Not applicable to a new product or procedure; 3. Is not useful in the development of theories, principles and concepts. 4. Oftentimes not considered as true research and may not get financial support .

Quantitative and Qualitative Research Design


1. Quantitative Research

This applies to the manipulation and control of phenomena and verification of results, using empirical data gathered through the senses. Is concerned with the objectives meaning of experience to an individual. Is also considered as hard science characterized by replicable and reliable data.

Applies to both experimental and non-experimental studies that yield numerical data which can e subjected to statistical analysis.
Types of Quantitative Research a. Surveys b. Methodological Research c. Evaluative Research d. Content Analysis e. Clinical Trials or Intervention Research

2. Qualitative Research

This type focuses on insights and understanding of individual perceptions on the phenomenon under study. Attempts to obtain rich, in-depth and valid data which almost always relate to non-experimental studies. However, .it may also be used to enhance the interpretability of quantitative findings. Is considered as soft science, concerned with the subjective meaning of experience to an individual. A bricoleur is a person who is immersed in a study situation and has the expertise in performing qualitative research. A bricoleur can put together a complex array of data derived from variety of sources and methods called bricolage, ranging from interviewing to observing to interpreting personal and historical data to intensive reflection and introspection

a. Phenomenological Studies. These particular studies examine the lived experiences of individuals about a phenomenon through description and analysis, such as the stress and anxiety students feel during examinations. The goal is to describe the lived experiences and lived human relations or being in the world of people, that are of interest to the researcher or to phenomenologist This study involves the following steps: 1. Bracketing. Refers to identifying and holding in abeyance preconceived beliefs and opinions about the phenomenon by those who have experienced it. 2. Intuiting. The researcher is open to meanings attributed to the phenomenon by those who have experienced it.

3. Analyzing. Dissecting a significant meanings of statements and events.


4. Describing. Defining and interpreting the meaning of the phenomenon under study.

Examples: Lived Experiences of Sexually Abused, and Abandoned Children. Psycho-social and Emotional Trauma Experienced by Children of Separated Parents and Overseas Workers. Maybe Quantitative or Qualitative Research A patient experiencing chronic pain. Quantitative research is concerned with levels of pain. Qualitative research deals with what it means to be Living with chronic pain.

b. Ethnographic Studies. these refer to the collection and analysis of data on the lifestyle and daily activities of ethnics. Data involve description and interpretation of cultural and social behavior of people in a group or system, primarily to understand their world view and how their culture is communicated and portrayed.
Example: The Lifestyle, Beliefs and Health Habits of the Aetas of Mt. Pinatubo. The Parental Style, Attitude and Child Rearing Practices of the Mangyans in Oriental Mindoro.

c. Grounded Theory Studies. These refers to analysis of data leading to the development of a theory. Data include in-depth interview and observation of then study participants to generate comprehensive explanations of phenomena grounded in reality. Example: The experience of caring fro a woman with highrisk pregnancy, during which the theory of Newman (1986) is developed, with the nurse and the client as partners in a relationship of care, characterized by negotiation, reciprocity and empowerment

d. Historical Studies. These studies involve identification, location, critical evaluation and synthesis of past events in order to shed light on present behavior, trends or practices.
Example: Florence Nightingales political power in the 189th century with affected change in Nursing Practice.

e. Case Studies. These refer to the in-depth examination and analysis of people or groups of people in relation to nursing issues or problems that are important to the client and the researcher. Data includes the clients history, growth and development patterns and or circumstances affecting the client under study. This eventually leads t the formulation and implementation of the nursing care plan specific to the case being studied.

Example:

Case Study of Patients with Chronis Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

f. Field Studies. These consist of the natural investigations done in the community such as in nursing homes, housing projects, and clinical wards, among others. g. Biographies. These studies explore the life of an individual. Data come from collection of life documents that describe the turning point or significant moments in that life of an individual. Data also include personal history, growth and development patterns , significant accomplishments and the implications of these to the individual and to society. Example: The Life and Ideals of Dr. Jose Rizal. Benigno Aquino, a portrait of a True Filipino

SAMPLING PROCEDURE
This entails selection of appropriate subjects or respondents of the study will generate data specific to the purpose or objective of the inquiry. Guideposts on the Sampling Procedure
1. Universe

This is a totality of elements to which research findings may apply. This also refers to the target population, the group of people or objects from which the researcher intends to collect data and generalize the findings of the study. Elements. Refer to entities that make up the sample and the population. Example: patients; student nurses, staff nurses
2. Population

Refer to the accessible with specific criteria, or the total possible participation of the group of individuals from which the sample will be drawn by the researcher, consistent in the study. This also refers to that portion of the universe accessible to the researcher.

Following are specific population types:


a. Target Population. The group of individuals or objects about which speculative information is desired. Example: All student nurses of X College of Nursing. All patients in the Medical-Surgical Ward.

b. Subjects or Respondent Population. The group of individuals or objects chosen to provide data and information needed in a research. Example: BSN IV or the graduating student nurses of X College of Nursing.

c. Stratum. A mutually exclusive segment of the population, distinguished by one or more traits or qualifications.

Example:

Age-youngest to oldest Civil status- single or married

3. Sampling The process of selecting a representative portion of the population to represent the entire population. Sampling is a practical and efficient means of ensuring the quality of data that will be gathered.

a. Sampling Unit. A specific area or place which can be used during the sampling process.

Examples:

Medical-Surgical ward Skills Laboratory

b. Sampling Frame. A complete list of sampling units from which the sample is drawn. Example: If there are total of 10 clinical areas in a hospital only 20to 3 areas are sampled.

c. Sampling Design. The scheme that that specifies the number of samples drawn from the population, the inclusion and exclusion criteria for their choice and the sampling technique used, such as purposive, random sampling, among others. To get the sample size from the population, the Sloven Formula may be used:

To get the sample size from the population, the Sloven Formula may be used: N n= 1+ Ne2 Where: n= is the number of samples N= is the population e= sampling error ranging from 1% to 10%

Sampling error may arise when the value of one sample size differ from another drawn from the same population.
4. Sample

A portion of the population from which data will be solicited for purposes of the research. It is a subgroup of the population which constitutes the subjects or respondents of the study Samples may be categorized as respondents of the study who will respond to the survey, and or subjects of the study who will receive treatment or special attention during the conduct of the study.

The researcher may encounter sampling bias r distortions that may arise when a sample is not representative of the population from which it was drawn. However, if those who make up the population are all identical with respect to key attributes, then any sample would be as good as any other. There will be sufficient evidence to draw the conclusions from the samples used. Examples: From a universe of 500 students nurses at X College of Nursing, only 100 BSN IV students are considered as the target population and only 50 students out of the 100 are chosen as sample for the actual study. Thus, the 50 students represent the 500 students nurses from which data are solicited.

Types or Categorizations Sampling


1. Non-Probability Sampling

Respondents or subjects are selected in a non-random way. The researcher desires to use available subjects at her convenience anytime during the period of the study. Types of Non-Probability Sampling: a. Accidental or Convenience Sampling. Uses the most readily available or most convenient group of people or objects as study respondents. b. Quota Sampling. Divides the population into homogenous strata or subpopulations to ensure representative proportions of the various strata in the sample. The researcher establishes desired proportions for some variables of interest to be able to elicit homogeneous data. c. Purposive or Judgement Sampling. Subjects are handpicked to be included in the sampling frame based on certain qualities for purposes of the study. Subjects are viewed as typical cases or experts that provide enough data to answer the research questions. Purposive sampling is commonly used in qualitative studies.

d. Snowball or Network Sampling. Consists of the identification of a few persons who meet the requisite characteristics of the study and who in turn refer other individuals who may be interviewed. This process continues until the desired number of respondents is reached. Snowball means effort that starts on small scale and intensifies in the process. Advantages of Non-Probability Sampling 1. Convenient 2. Economical Disadvantages of Non-Probability Sampling 1. It is likely to produce biased samples or errors in judgement because the researcher cannot estimate the precise elements of the population that will be included in the samples. 2. Certain elements may have no chance to be included in the sample.

2. Probability Sampling Involves the random selection of subjects or elements of the population. The goal is to examine representative elements of the population. Types of Probability Sampling a. Simple Random Sampling. The selection on random basis of elements from a sampling frame. Each element has an equal chance or probability of being chosen as subject of the study. A sampling frame is used, listing all the elements in the population from which the sample is drawn, using the table of random numbers or lottery.

b. Stratified Random Sampling. Divides the population into homogeneous subgroups from which elements are selected at random.
Example: Pick out 200 samples from a 5,00 population, then group them according to age, sex, civil status and occupation.

c. Cluster Sampling or Multi-Stage Sampling. The successive selection of random methods. It involves several stages in drawing the samples from the population

c. Cluster Sampling or Multi-Stage Sampling. The successive selection of random samples from larger to smaller units by either simple random or stratified random methods. It involves several stages in drawing the samples from the population. Example: Province municipality village individual respondent At each stage, simple random, systematic and stratified techniques are used. d. Systematic or Sequential Sampling. The selection numbered rooms; every 5th house on the block; every 6th baby in the nursery. The sequence of the selection can also be done, using odd or even numbered names on the sampling list. The researcher picks out the first name by chance, then, proceed to every 5th to 10th name.

Advantages of Probability Sampling There is less bias, as every element in the populations is given an equal (independent) chance to be selected. Disadvantages of Probability Sampling

it is time consuming, expensive, inconvenient, and impossible to obtain.


Importance of Sampling:

1. Ensures quality of subjects through its inclusions and exclusion criteria. 2. Acknowledge and specify the scope and limitations of the study.
3. Maximizes time and effort for better and accurate collection of data. 4. Ensures quality of data since the sampling process helps control or eliminates extraneous variables. 5. Economic and financial concerns.

THE PROCESS OF DATA COLLECTION


The success of any research depends on the kind of data yielded, how these data are collected, collated and subjected to appropriate testing tools, and how these are analyzed and interpret.
Following are the steps in data collection. 1. Explain what tests and other measures will be used. 2. Clarify how the tasks will be performed; 3. Explain how the instruments will be administered; 4. Describe how the method of data collection such as observations and interview will be carried out.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Elements to be Considered in Data Collection The nature of the research problem; The design of the study, whether experimental or non-experiment the variables, its definition and measurements; Sampling units to be included such as type, number, and location Amount of time available within which to complete the study; and Adequacy of resources available to pursue the study.

Methods of Collecting Data:


1. Use of Already Existing or Available Data 2. Use of Observers Data.

Types of Observers: a. Non-Participant Observer b. Participant Observer


3. The use of Self-Recording or the Reporting Approach This method of data collection uses a specially prepared document intended to collect data called Instruments. The method describes tools, devices, tests and other measures used in data collection and explains in detail how these are applied and validated.

Types of Instruments
1. Questionnaire. A self-directing instrument structures with questions and indicators for the respondent to react from. It measures information levels, opinions, attitudes, beliefs, ides, feelings and perceptions as well as gathers factual information from the respondents. 2. Interview. A one-on-one dialogue between the researcher and the respondent to elicit data from the latter on the phenomenon under study. Interviews may also be conducted through the telephone and e-mail, among others.

Types of Interview a. Structured Interview

b. Unstructured Interview

Guidelines for developing Research Instruments

1. The instrument must suit the purpose of the study. It must help solve the problems raised in the study. 2. The instrument must be able to gather needed data for testing the hypotheses and answering questions raised in the study. 3. Indicators in the instrument must be valid, arranged logically and relate to the problems and the hypotheses of the study. 4. Indicators should be so stated that the respondents perceptions or reactions will be not be biased. Questions should not be stated with built-in clues, such as: Dont you think that the physicians orders are often unimportant? Do you follow the physicians orders all the time?
Example: A group of nursing students was against the dismissal of faculty member. To the group developed an instrument (questionnaire) to gather evidence showing that the dismissed teacher was a good professor. However, the indicators in the questionnaire were worded in such a way as to obtain positive responses. Thus, students who returned the unaccomplished questionnaire.

5. The instrument should be reliable and can produce comparable data when used on different subjects or respondents under different circumstances . 6. The instrument should be constructed in such a way that cheating is minimized, if not discouraged. Subjects must not be influenced by the responses of others. 7. The instrument should be easy to administer. Directions should be specific and simply stated 8. Scale of measurement must be appropriate and reliable. Types of Research Instruments
1. Questionnaire 2. Scanning Questionnaires 3. Interview Guide

Types of Questions Asked


1. Open-ended Example: Give your comments and suggestions to improve teaching and learning process in the clinical area 2. Close-ended a. Dichotomous Items. These allow respondents to choose between two-response alternative such as yes or no, married or unmarried, pregnant or not pregnant. Dichotomous questions are useful in gathering factual data. Example: Have you ever been pregnant? b. Multichotomous Items. These allows respondents to answer questions with a range of responses as in a multiple choice test.

c. Fixed-Alternative or Multiple Choice Items. Respondents are allowed multiple response alternatives. These types of questions as good when possible replies are few and clear-cut. Example: How favorable is it to you to become pregnant as this time? ( ) Very favorable ( ) Favorable ( ) Not Sure ( ) Unfavorable ( ) Very unfavorable

d. Projective Questions. This approach uses a vague questions or stimulus and attempts to project a persons attitudes from the response. This techniques used word associations and fill-in-the-blank sentences. Projective methods are difficult to analyze and are better used for exploratory research than for descriptive or experimental research e. Criteria Questions. Respondents are asked to respond according to their own viewpoint. Example: People have different views on family planning Which of the following best represent your views.? 1. FP is necessary to qualify life. 2. FP is immoral and should be totally banned. 3. FP is has undesirable side effects that suggest need for caution. 4. FP has beneficial effects that merits its practice. 5. FP is moral and should be practiced. f. Rank-Order Questions. Respondents are asked to rank answer from most to least important, reasonable, frequent or beneficial.

Example:

Why must family Planning be practiced? Rank your answers from the 1-most to the 5-least reasonable. Limits maternal disabilities

future g. Checklist. Also called matrix questions, items in this instrument are presented in a two-dimensional pattern. Questions are written horizontally while respondents answer are written vertically. Example: Below are some Family Planning practices observed by people. Check which one of these practices you observed in your family. Check the benefits from the practice.

Gives parents more time to meet family needs Helps maintain financial viability of the family Affords more working hours for couples Ensures family capability to educate all the children in the

FP methods comfort 1. Natural method 2. Mechanical method 3. Biological method 4. Chemical method

cost

safety

ease

The researcher should consider that respondents may not be able to answer some questions accurately. The following are the types of error: a. Telescoping error. An error resulting from the tendency of people to remember events as occurring more recently than they actually b. Recall loss. This occurs when people forget that an event occurred.. Characteristics of Good Questions 1. Specifically answer the research problems and focus only on the variables or phenomenon under study; 2. Clearly and briefly stated; 3. Objective and detached from the researchers own judgement; 4. Responses are easy to interpret and tabulate; 5. Use of language appropriate to respondents level of understanding; 6. Neatly printed or typed on clean, quality paper; and 7. bear the researchers signature.

Ways of Stating Research Questions 1.State questions in the affirmative rather than in a negative manner. Example: Words such as never can be overlooked by the subjects who might respond contrary to the intended answer 2. Questions should be neutrally worded to avoid biased responses. Example: Do you believe that smoking is disgusting habit? 3. Ambiguous questions must be avoided. Use of words with multiple meanings may result in confused interpretations. Examples: many, usually, always, several, large, sometimes, regularly. Do you always agree that birth control devices prevents unwanted pregnancy? 4. Avoid double negative questions which are difficult for respondents to answer. Example: Dont you disagree with the idea that birth control is not usual? 5. Avoid double barreled questions or two questions stated as one. Example: Do you plan to get married and work as as taff nurse upon graduation?

Criteria for Evaluating the Instrument

1. Reliability. Refers to the degree of consistency or accuracy with which an instrument measures the variables of the study.
2. Validity. The degree to which an instrument measures what it intends to measure. An instrument may be reliable but not valid.

3. Efficiency. Refers to the capability of the instrument to measure items within a given time frame.
4. Sensitivity. Ability to distinguish characteristics or properties or differing attributes of individuals or phenomena under study. 5. Objectivity. The degree to which two independent nurses of the instrument will obtain identical or similar scores on the phenomenon under study. The instrument can gather factual and impartial data. 6. Speed. Quick, fast, and complete results are ensured within the time frame allowed to obtain data.

7. Reactivity. The instrument should not influence the attributes being measured. 8. Simplicity. Clear and simple in order to avoid the risk of errors. 9. Meaningfulness. The extent to which the data collected will be value and practical for use of the sectors concerned.

STATISTICAL MEASUREMENTS IN RESEARCH


Kinds of Statistics
1. Descriptive statistics. Refers to statistics intended to organize and summarize numerical data from the population and sample. Uses of Descriptive Statistics: a. Measures and condenses data in: Frequency distribution- Scores are tested from highest to lowest or from lowest to highest.

Graphic presentation - Data are presented in graphic form to make frequency distribution data readily apparent.
b. Measures of central tendency- Used to describe the mean, median and mode of

2. Inferential statistics. Is concerned with population and the use of sample data to predict future occurrences. Uses of Inferential Statistics. There are two broad purposes of inferential statistics, as follows: a. To estimate population parameter, the following facts are considered using inferential statistics: Sampling error which is the difference between data obtained from a random sampled population and data that would be obtained if an entire population is measured. Sampling error also occurs when the sample does not accurately reflect the population. Sampling distribution is a theoretical frequency distribution based on an infinite number of samples. The researcher never actually draws an infinite number of samples from a population.

Sampling bias occurs when samples are not carefully selected as in non-probability sampling.

b. Testing the Null Hypothesis


Steps in testing a null hypothesis as follows: 1. State the research hypothesis. 2. State the null hypothesis to be treated. 3. Choose the appropriate statistical test for the given data. 4. Determine the level of significant difference, the relationship or correlation between the given variables in order to reject or accept the null hypothesis, depending on significant level. Degree of freedom (DOF)- The interpretation of a statistical test, in most cases, depends on the number of values that are free to vary. Although it (DOF) indicates the number of values that can vary, attention is actually focused in the values that are not free to vary. This is generally expressed by the df sign and a number that denotes significant level.

Statistical Tools for Treatment of Data Following are statistical techniques used to treat research data for indepth solution of problems raised in studies and researches: 1. Percentage (P) is computed to determine the proportion of a part to a whole such as given number of respondents in relation to the entire population. 2. Ranking is used to determine the order of decreasing or increasing magnitude of variables. The largest frequency is ranked 1, the second 2, and so on down to the last rank.

3. Weighted mean (WM) refers to the overall average of responses/perceptions of the study respondents. It is the sum of its product of the frequency of responses and Likert five-point scale.
4. Unit Weight 5 4 3 2 Weighted Mean Interval (*) 4.51-5.00 3.51-4.50 2.51-3.50 1.51-2.50 Verbal Interpretation Very Good Good Fair Poor

4. Measure of Central Tendency

a.
b. c.

Arithmetic mean
Median Mode

5. Standard Deviation
6. The T-test compares the responses of two respondent groups in the study on the phenomenon under investigation. It is used when responses are interval data.

7. The One-Way Analysis of Variance or ANOVA. This is a statistical procedure for testing mean differences among three procedure for three or more groups by comparing variability between groups to variability within groups 8. Multiple Regression Analysis is used to correlate more than two variables. The microstat software in which the formula are embedded is used. Printouts contain the computed values of R 1 R2 and the critical values, R at 0.05 or 0.01 significance level.

9. the Complete Randomized Block Design is the same as ANOVA, except that complete blocks are used instead of items. For instance, use of different antibiotics per patient per room are tested. The heterogeneity of respondents will give different results.

Chapter V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS


Summary of Findings - Generalization of each minor Problem. Conclusion - Generalization of the findings of the entire study, then answer the major problem and the results of the test of hypothesis. - Focused on improvement based on the findings of the study offered to each of the sector on beneficiaries of research

Recommendations

Ethics in Research

The researcher must exercise caution to protect the rights of the subjects against undue impositions

Ethical guidelines are developed consistent with the rules and norms of human behavior based on Christian Morality and Ethics. The Code of Ethics for Researchers of the University of Santo Tomas states that the profession conduct and relations of the researcher shall based on respect for human rights and dignity, honor and justice, truthfulness, freedom solidarity and personal integrity.

Ethical Principles and Guidelines for Nurse Researchers 1. Informed Consent 2. Beneficence and Nonmalefience

a. Freedom from any Physical and Psychological Harm


b. Freedom from Exploitation 3. Respect for Human Dignity a. The right to Self Determination b. The right to Full Disclosure

c. Anonymity and Confidentiality


4. Justice and Fairness