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p o t on i c ,

c t s o f h y s
T h e e f f e s o l u t i o n
i s o t o n i c
t on i c a n d e l l s
hy p e r a n im a l c
p l a n t a n d
o n
In comparing two solutions with different
solute concentrations:
•The solution with higher solute
concentration is said to be hypertonic
(‘hyper’:more)
•The solution with a lower solute
concentration is hypotonic (‘hypo’: less)
•Solutions in which the concentration of
solute are equal are said to be isotonic
(‘iso’: equal)
Animal and plant cells in an isotonic solutions

• An isotonic solution is a solution in


which the concentration of solute is
equal to that of the cytoplasm of
the cell
• Water diffuses into and out of the cell
by osmosis at equal rates
• Therefore there is no net movement of
water across the plasma membrane
[no net gain or net loss of water]
• The cells retain their normal shape
The shape of animal & plant cells after being placed in an
isotonic salt solution
Animal and plant cells in a hypotonic
• Solutions whichsolutions
contain a higher
concentration of water than that of
the cytoplasm are called hypotonic
solutions
• Hypotonic solutions contain lower
concentration of solute than the
cell
• Since the concentration of water is
higher outside the cell, there is net
movement of water from outside of
the cell into the cell by osmosis
• The cells gains water, swells and the
The effects of hypotonic solutions on animal cells

1. When red blood cells are immersed in a hypotonic solution,


water diffuses into the cells by osmosis
2. This is because the solution outside the cells is less
concentrated
3. The cells start to swell
4. If the solution s extremely hypotonic, that is consists of
distilled or pure water the cells may swell up and eventually
burst
5. The plasma membrane of red blood cells is too thin and
delicate to withstand the osmotic pressure which develops
within the cells
6. This causes the plasma membrane to rupture and the
contents are released to surroundings
7. This condition is called haemolysis
Net movement of water into red blood
cells
The effects of hypotonic solutions on plant cells

1. When plant cells are immersed in a hypotonic solution water


diffuses into the large central vacoule by osmosis
2. The solution outside of the cell is less concentrated than the inside
of the cell
3. The large central vacoule expands, causing the cell to swell
4. In this condition, the cell is said to be turgid and firm as a result of
the net flow of water into the cell
5. The plant cell does not burst because the rigid cell wall is strong
enough to resist the increasing pressure within
6. The swelling plant cell in a hypotonic creates turgor pressure
within the cell. This pressure prevents the cell from taking I too
much water and bursting as an animal cell would
7. Turgor pressure is very important to plant cells as it supports and
maintains the shape of the cells
Animal and plant cells in a hypertonic
solutions

• Hypertonic solutions contain a


higher concentration of solute
than that of the cell
• Since the concentration of water is
higher within the cell, there is a net
movement of water from the
inside to the outside of the cell.
As a result water leaves the cell.
• This causes the cell to shrink or
shrivel as its internal pressure
The effects of hypertonic solutions on plant cells

• When plant cells are immersed in a hypertonic


solution, water diffuses out of the large central vacoule
by osmosis
• Both the vacoule and cytoplasm lose water to the
surroundings and shrink. The plasma membrane
pulls away from the cell wall
• This phenomenon is called plasmolysis, a shrinking
of the cytoplasm due to osmosis
• The plant cell becomes flaccid and less turgid
• The flaccidity of plant cells leads to wilting in plants
• If plasmolysis persists, death of plant cells may result
• However a plasmolyed plant cell can b can become
turgid again by immersing the cell in a hypotonic
solution like pure water. Water is taken up by osmosis
and the cells become turgid again
The effects of hypertonic solutions on animal cells

• When red blood cells are immersed in a


hypertonic solution, water diffuses out
of the cell by osmosis
• The solution outside the cell is more
concentrated
• The cells lose water to the external
environment, shrivel and the plasma
membrane crinkles up.
• The red blood cells are said to have
undergone crenation.
The shape of animal & plant cells after being placed in an
hypertonic salt solution
S I O N
N C LU
CO
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s o f i s o f n o n - w
f e c t em s o
The ef s o n t h e s t
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