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Unification of Italy and Germany

Italy 1815-1871

Three approaches
1 Giuseppe Mazzinis centralized democratic republic 2 Vincenzo Gibertis federation of Existing states headed by the Pope 3 Nation building around the aristocratic kingdom of Sardinia Piedmont.

Sardinia Piedmonte
Cavour Sought to unify North and Central Italy under Sardinia.
King Victor Emmanuel, Piedmonte king of the House of Savoy, committed to reactionary policies and destroying FR influence.
King Victor Emmanuel

Count Cavour PM of Sardinia

Cavour Secures deal with Napoleon III

Provoke Austria to attack Lombardy

Carbonari Radicals known as charcoal burners Napoleon was a member at one time Carbonari failed in revolting against Austria

French Provide Aid Sardinia gets Lombardy and Central Italy votes to join Sardinia

Guiseppi Mazzini
Carbonari lost respect after 1831 failed revolt Result = new group Young Italy emerged Goal= eliminate Austrian influence and Italian Princes * create a democratic republic

Guiseppi Garibaldi Kingdom of Two Sicilies

Member of Young Italy
Led patriotic expedition Presents Two Sicilies to Sardinia

German Confederation of States

Created in 1815 39 states Austria was the largest held permanent Presidency and suppressed liberalism Prussia was second largest
Pursued commercial integration of German States

Zollverein 1819

Customs union Friedrich List Unified northern states Reduced tariffs between neighbors Concluded treaties Unified Hohenzollern holdings


Student organization Liberal Nationalistic Celebrated German culture Linked to assassinations Outlawed by Carlsbad Decree Inspired by Italian unification/Carbonari

William I
Wanted reforms
Sought to strengthen Prussia Reform the military

Otto von Bismarck

Came from a family of Junkers 1847 became a rep in the new Prussian legislature Initially against unification Manipulated parliament to thrust Prussia into power issues of the day settled by blood and iron.

Austro-Prussia War 1866

Also known as Unification War/Seven Weeks War Bismarck collects taxes w/o Parliaments permission Annex Denmark

Lose Venetia to Italy Northern German confederation unified by end

Franco-Prussian War 1870-1871

1868 revolution breaks out in SP want new king (Leopold HohenzollernSigmaringen) French oppose William I accepts argument but FR keep pushing
Queen Isabella II of SP

Ems Dispatch
Bismarck editted Kings write up on meeting with FR diplomat filled with insult

Napoleon III declares war

Bismarck already concluded alliances with the southern German states = WAR with FRANCE

Franco German War

Sept. 2 1871 Napoleon surrenders Third Republic established Jan 18 King William I made German Emperor French ceded Alsace Lorraine and had to pay 5 billion gold francs to GR Totally changed Balance of Power =

Germany under Bismarck

Kulturkampf (culture struggle) 1870-1878 High tariffs passed to protect farmers 1883-1884 social security laws passed to avoid socialism
Old-age pension + national health/accident insurance

1890 fired by William II