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Introduction to microbiology

Terminology in microbiology
History of microbiology Classification of microorganisms

Define microbiology Explain the common terminologies used in microbiology Understand the impact of microbes in human welfare Discuss the historical background of microbiology Understand the classification of microorganisms

Micro = small, anything so small that it must be view with microscope Bio = living organisms Logy = the study Microbiology = study of very small living organism (microorganism)

Need a microscope to study microorganism; <0.1mm too small to see Using techniques of microbiology: Isolate microorganisms Study characteristics

Microorganism are ubiquitous, virtually everywhere. Some can live at hot springs & in frozen sea ice Most microorganism are harmless to human. You swallow millions of microbes every day with no ill effects. In fact, we are dependent on microbes to help digest our food

Microbes also keep the biosphere running by carrying out essential functions such as decomposition of dead animals & plants. They make possible the cycles of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen & sulfur that take place in terrestrial & aquatic systems Some microorganism are harmful and disrupted society

Microorganism can be found on and in our bodies (eg. skin, mouth, intestinal tract) Collectively, these microbes are known as indigenous microflora and are beneficial to us

Pathogens = microorganisms that cause disease (about 3% of known microbes) Non-pathogens = microorganism that are beneficial or does not cause disease Opportunistic pathogens = pathogen which by chance enters body and can causes disease / infection

Microflora = microorganism living on/in the body & acting as normal flora; have potential to cause disease through wounds, blood vessels or organs Infectious disease = disease caused by microorganisms

Resistance is the ability of the body to ward off disease. Resistance factors include skin, stomach acid, and antimicrobial chemicals Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID): New diseases and diseases increasing in incidence

Microbial Ecology Bacteria recycle carbon, nutrients, sulfur, and phosphorus that can be used by plants and animals.

Bacteria degrade organic matter in sewage. Bacteria degrade or detoxify pollutants such as oil and mercury

Microbes that are pathogenic to insects are alternatives to chemical pesticides to prevent insect damage to agricultural crops and disease transmission. Bacillus thuringiensis infections are fatal in many insects but harmless to other animals including humans and to plants.

Biotechnology, the use of microbes to produce foods and chemicals, is centuries old. Genetic engineering is a new technique for biotechnology. Through genetic engineering, bacteria and fungi can produce a variety of proteins including vaccines and enzymes. Missing or defective genes in human cells can be replaced in gene therapy. Genetically modified bacteria are used to protect crops from insects and freezing.

West Nile encephalitis

West Nile Virus First diagnosed in the West Nile region of Uganda

in 1937. Appeared in New York City in 1999. Symptoms: fever, headache, tiredness, and body aches, occasionally with a skin rash (on the trunk of the body) and swollen lymph glands

Escherichia coli O57:H7

Toxin-producing strain of E. coli Fist seen in 1982

Leading cause of diarrhea

worldwide. a bovine reservoir can be transmitted by undercooked ground beef and unpasteurized milk

Invasive group A Streptococcus

Rapidly growing bacteria cause extensive tissue

damage Increased incidence since 1995 Spread by direct contact with the mucus secretions from infected humans associated with coughing or sneezing, contact with infected wounds or sores on the skin

Ebola hemorrhagic fever

Ebola virus Causes fever,

hemorrhaging, and blood clotting First identified near Ebola River, Congo Outbreak every few years

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

Fist identified in 1951

in Korea as cause of hemorrhagic fever & named for Hantaan River

Fever, chills, muscle aches, shortness of breath lead

to respiratory failure

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) First identified in 1981. Worldwide epidemic infecting 40 million people;

14,000 new infections everyday. Sexually transmitted disease affecting males and females. In the U.S., HIV/AIDS in people 13-24 years of age: 44% are female and 63% are African American.

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

Bacillus anthracis
In 1877, Koch proved B. anthracis causes anthrax. Veterinarians and agricultural workers are at risk of

cutaneous anthrax. In 2001, dissemination of B. anthracis via mail infected 22 people.

Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)

First person to observe & described microorganism using small & simple microscope Referred as Father of Bacteriology

Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)

Invented first microscope with

magnification 50 300x Examined pepper water, tooth scrapings, semen, blood, urine & feces He observed animalcules (microorganisms)

Abiogenesis/ Spontaneous generation Some scientist believe that life could develop spontaneously from non-living or decomposing matter From 1650 to 1850, Loius Pasteur & John Tyndall disapproved the theory and proved that life must arise from preexisting life, referred as theory of biogenesis

Francesco Redi (1626-1697) Disapproved the theory of abiogenesis/spontaneous generation for large animals Showed that maggots on decaying meat came from fly eggs

Francesco Redi (1626-1697) Took a large vase & put a piece of meat inside it, and then covered the vase with a piece of gauze fly maggots formed only when the eggs, gathered from the gauze, were inseminated on the meat Demonstrated that, through the eggs, insects originated from other insects

Edward Jenner Discovered the first vaccine in late 1700s Observed that milkmaids who caught cowpox, a mild disease transmitted to them from cows were protected from smallpox He took scrapings from cowpox blister and scraped a 8 year old volunteer who got mild illness but not smallpox Word vaccine and vaccination come from word vaccina

Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)

Proved that life arise from preexisting life Created sterilization technique by boiling

Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) His experimented by boiling nutrient solution in flasks and allow flasks to expose to air Results: no growth of microorganisms

Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) Developed biological theory of fermentation: a specific microbe produces specific change in the substance on which it grows or a specific microorganisms produces a specific fermentation products Developed germ theory of disease: each specific infectious disease is caused by specific microorganisms

Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) Introduced term aerobes: organism that require oxygen Developed vaccines for chickenpox, anthrax, rabies Developed pasteurization to preserve wine during storage Discovered that fermentation microorganism were anerobic & could live only in absence of oxygen

Robert Koch (1843-1910) Developed petri dish for microbial growth on solid media Established experimental procedure to prove the germ theory of disease This scientific procedure is known as Kochs postulates

Robert Koch (1843-1910)



Kochs postulates: The microorganism must be present in every case of the disease & must not be present in healthy animals The pathogens must be isolated from diseases host animal & must be grown in pure culture

Robert Koch (1843-1910)



Kochs postulates: The same disease must be produced when microbes from pure culture are inoculated into healthy susceptible animals The same pathogen must be recoverable once again from this artificially infected host animal & it must be able to grown again in pure culture

Alexander Fleming (1928) Is a Scottish physician & bacteriologist Discovered the first antibiotic observed that Penicillium fungus made an antibiotic, penicillin, that killed S. aureus.

Alexander Fleming (1928) Observed mold growing on a bacteria culture, there was a ring of clearing around the mold where there were no bacterial growth The mold - Penicillium sp & naturally secreted chemical penicillin (antibiotic)

Bacteriology is the study of bacteria. Mycology is the study of fungi. Parasitology is the study of protozoa and parasitic worms. Recent advances in genomics, the study of an organisms genes, have provided new tools for classifying microorganisms.

Immunology is the study of immunity. Vaccines and interferons are being investigated to prevent and cure viral diseases. The use of immunology to identify some bacteria according to serotypes (variants within a species) was proposed by Rebecca Lancefield in 1933.

Virology is the study of viruses. Recombinant DNA is DNA made from two different sources. In the 1960s, Paul Berg inserted animal DNA into bacterial DNA and the bacteria produced an animal protein. Recombinant DNA technology or genetic engineering involves microbial genetics and molecular biology.


Taxonomy system
The science classification of living organisms Involves arrangement of organisms into taxonomic groups Classify based on similarities or relationships Involves the study of evolutionary history of organisms


Taxonomy system Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Binomial nomenclature (scientific naming) use genus and species to name each creature Eg. Human homo sapiens
Genus Species


Phenetic system
Based on phenotypes (morphological, physiological or biochemical characteristics) Other characteristics grain stain, cell shape, motility, aerobic/anerobic, cell wall chemistry, etc

b. a. b.

Phenetic system Classification based on upon structure: Prokaryotic / Prokaryotes Simple morphology & lacks a true membrane Eg. bacteria Eukaryotic / Eukaryotes Complex morphology & has true membrane Eg. protozoa, algae, fungi, plants & animals

Bacteria A distinct nucleus is absent DNA is in the form of single circular chromosome Additional DNA is carried in plasmid Transcription & translation can be carried out simultaneously

DNA is carried on several chromosome within a nucleus The nucleus is bounded by nuclear membrane Transcription requires formation of messenger RNA (mRNA) & movement of mRNA out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm Translation takes place in ribosome

Cytoplasm is rich in membrane-bound organelles (mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes) which are absent in prokaryotes