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QUANTIFIERS

Quantifiers are words that are used to state quantity or amount of something without stating the exact number.

Quantifiers answer the questions "How many?" and "How much?" We use quantifiers with plural countable nouns and uncountable nouns.

Quantifiers must agree with the noun. There are 3 main types of quantifiers. Quantifiers that are used with countable nouns, quantifiers that are used with uncountable nouns. and the 3rd type are quantifiers that are used with either countable nouns or uncountable nouns.

Countable Nouns many I don't have many apples. few* We know few people in the area. I would like to get to know more. a few** We know a few people in the area. I know enough people to keep me happy.

Uncountable Nouns Much I don't have much money. little* I know little English. I am going to have a problem getting around England. a little** I know a little English, at least enough to get England.

*few/little - means that is not enough of something.


** a

few /a little - means that


there are not a lot of something, but there is enough.

Few and little describe the quantity in a negative way: Few people visited him in hospital (= he had almost no visitors) He had little money (= almost no money)

A few (for countable nouns) and a little (for uncountable nouns) describe the quantity in a positive way:

"I've got a few friends" (= maybe not many, but enough) "I've got a little money" (= I've got enough to live on)

With Countable and Uncountable Nouns


Enough Plenty I have enough money. We have enough cookies. I have plenty of money. We have plenty of cookies I have a lot of money. We have a lot of cookies. I have lots of money. We have lots of cookies. I have some money. We have some cookies. I dont have any money.

A lot of
Lots of Some

Any

Enough is placed before the noun, to indicate the quantity required or necessary: There is enough bread for lunch.

We didn't have enough time to visit London Bridge.


Is there enough milk for breakfast? She has enough talent to become an international singing star.

Graded Quantifiers
They are like comparatives and hold a relative position on a scale of increase or decrease.
INCREASE (0% to 100%) With plural countable nouns

many more With uncountable nouns much more

most
most

There are many people in Uruguay, more in Brazil, but the most people live in China.

Much time and money is spent on education, more on health services but the most is spent on national
defense.

DECREASE (100% to 0%)


With plural countable nouns

few

fewer

fewest

With uncountable nouns

little

less

least

Few rivers in the world arent polluted.

Fewer people die young now than in the nineteenth


century. The country with the fewest people per square kilometer must be Australia. Scientists have little hope of finding a complete cure for cancer before 2020.

She had less time to study than I did but had better results.
Give that dog the least opportunity and it will bite you.

Some and any

When to use some and any? Some and any are used to state the quantity, amount of something. When using some or any the exact number is not stated.

Some and any can be used when: The exact number is not known. The exact number is not important or relevant. Some and any are used with countable nouns and uncountable nouns

Any
Any is used with:
Negative sentences When asking a question.
Any is used when a sentence is grammatically positive, but the meaning of the sentence is negative. Do you have any ice cream left? I don't have any money today. I am getting paid on Friday. My brother never does any thing good.

Some
Some is used with:
Positive sentences. When asking a question, if the answer is expected to be positive or not relevant or you are offering something.
The children have some free time. Please buy some bananas. Can I have a glass of tea? Would you like some cake?

Compound nouns with someand any- are used in the same way as some and any.
Positive statements:
Someone is sleeping in my bed.
He saw something in the garden.

I left my glasses somewhere in the house.

Questions:
Are you looking for someone? (= I'm sure you are) Have you lost something? (= I'm sure you have)

Is there anything to eat? (a real question)


Did you go anywhere last night?

Negative statements:
She didn't go anywhere last night.
He doesn't know anybody here.

There is a difference in emphasis between nothing, nobody etc. and not ... anything, not ... anybody:
I don't know anything about it. (= neutral, no emphasis) I know nothing about it. (= more emphatic, maybe defensive)

Is there anybody who speaks English here? There is nobody in the house at the moment. Does anybody have the time?

When I arrived there was nobody to meet me.

ANY can also be used in positive statements to mean 'no matter which', 'no matter who', 'no matter what':
You can borrow any of my books. They can choose anything from the menu. You may invite anybody to dinner, I don't mind who comes.

fill in the gaps with one of the following determiners: Some, Any
1) Ann has _________candies. 2) Bill doesn't have _________money. 3) Sue will give us _________information. 4) There is _____________ milk in the fridge. 5) There isn't ________________beer.

much, many, lots of, a lot of, little, most, a little, little, a few, few
1. It seems to me that we've had __________assignments in English this term. 2. How _____________material can we be expected to read in one week? 3. ______________books are not in the library. 4. I've had ____________headaches already because of stress. 5. _______________depression can be attributed to being overworked.