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Food Safety and Sanitation

Chef Ryan Hanson Hotel and Tourism Management, Siam University

The United Stated Public Health Service identifies more then 40 diseases that are transmitted through food Providing consumers with safe food is the food handlers most important responsibility A food handler is anyone who touches the food before it is served Cooks and Waiters are the biggest cause of these diseases Understanding how these diseases are caused and how to prevent them will help protect your customers


Sanitation in the kitchen means that

it is safe from contamination and food-borne illness.
Contamination is when harmful substances are present in food. Food-Borne Illness (F.B.I) is a disease transmitted to humans through contaminated food.

Sanitation, Contamination and F.B.I.

Direct Contamination- Contamination of raw foods, or the plants or animals from which they come in their natural habitat Cross Contamination- Contamination caused by humans, rodents or insects during food handling

2 Causes of Contamination

Biological- danger to food from bacteria, mold, yeast, viruses or fungi Chemical- danger to food from cleaning products or pesticides Physical- danger to food from glass chips, metal shavings, bits of wood or other objects

3 Types of Contamination

3 Types of Contamination
A summary of Biological, Chemical and Physical contaminants

Biologically based food-borne illneses can be caused by several microorganisms, primarily bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi By understanding how these organisms live and reproduce, you can better understand how to protect food from them

Microorganism definition: a very small organism that

can only be seen with a microscope

Biological Contamination

The most common biological contaminant is Bacteria:

Single-celled organism Leading cause of Food-Borne Illness Only takes 12 hours for 1 bacteria to become about 72 million

Biological Contaminants: Bacteria

Some bacteria are good: those that help digest food or decompose garbage Other bacteria spoil food, but it is still safe to eat. These are called putrefactive Bacteria that are harmful to humans if eaten are called pathogenic Pathogenic bacteria must be controlled or destroyed in restaurants to remain safe

Biological Contaminants: Bacteria

Food-Borne Illnesses (F.B.I.) that are caused by pathogenic bacteria include:

Salmonella Botulism E-coli
These 3 F.B.I.s are commonly called Food Poisoning and make the customer extremely sick

Biological Contaminants: Bacteria

How to prevent bacteria:

Keep all food tightly wrapped or in containers Keep food out of the refrigerator for less than 4 hours Bacteria love moisture (wet foods). Meat, chicken, fishKeep these well stored Frozen Food must be thawed properly:
In the refrigerator overnight (best) In the sink under running cold water In the microwave with Defrost setting

Biological Contaminants: Bacteria

The Temperature Danger Zone: the zone where bacteria multiply rapidly Temperature is the most important factor in controlling bacteria Must keep foods above 60 degrees C, OR below 4 degrees C If food is inside the TDZ, it is only safe for 4 hours KEEP HOT FOODS HOT, AND COLD FOODS COLD!!

Biological Contaminants: Bacteria

Other biological contaminates include:

Viruses: the smallest known form of life. Can be found on any food. Usually caused by fish from bad waters or from sick people Fungi: Happens when food is left out. Food changes color and taste. (mold grows on bread and turns green)

Most viruses and mold can be killed by cooking to temperatures above 80 C.

Biological Contaminants

Chemical contamination usually is an accident. Includes:

The way to help avoid this is for all restaurant workers to follow safe procedures when handling chemicals List a couple chemical contaminants caused by direct contamination, and a couple caused by cross contamination:

Chemicals used to help grow food, such as pesticides Chemicals used to clean the kitchen, such as bleach, window cleaner, degreaser, polish, bug spraysetc.

Chemical Contaminants

Physical Contaminants include foreign objects that find their way into food by mistake. Examples:
Metal shavings from equipment, glass from broken bottle, hair from employee, dirt from the flooretc

Usually caused by poor sanitation practices and/or lack of training List a couple physical contaminants from direct contamination, and a couple from cross contamination:

Physical Contaminants

2 Causes of Contamination
A summary of Direct Contamination and Cross Contamination

Direct contamination is caused before the food comes to the restaurant, so theres no way to stop it Make sure you look at all the food that comes into the restaurant to make sure that it looks safe If you receive bad quality food, return it to the company to get your money back. If it happens again, you should probably change food companies

Direct Contamination

Generally, contaminants cant move by themselves. They are carried to food and surfaces by humans, rodents or insects. This is called Cross-Contamination
Example: You cut contaminated fish with a knife. Then, you cut vegetables for a salad with the same knife. Now the vegetables are also contaminated. Example: You touch the toilet that has bacteria on it and then you make a dessert without washing your hands


Cross Contamination

There are 3 ways to prevent cross contamination:

Personal Cleanliness Dish and Equipment Cleanliness Pest Management


All food handlers must maintain high standards of personal hygiene: Wash your hands frequently Keep fingernails short and clean Keep wounds bandaged and clean Bathe at least daily Keep hair clean and pulled back Wear a clean uniform Dont eat, smoke or chew gum in kitchen

Personal Cleanliness

Kitchen must be both clean and sanitary. Clean means there is no visible dirt. Sanitary means that harmful substances are reduced to safe levels. Dishes, pots, pans and utensils must be cleaned and sanitized before using again All equipment and work surfaces (oven, tables, counters, sinks must be clean and sanitized also

Dish and Equipment Cleanliness

Food can be contaminated by insects and rodents. These pests are dirty, and must be taken care of Call a professional to clean your restaurant if you see a problem. Dont store food on the floor or where it is easily found by pests

Pest Management

Study for your Quiz Next Week!!

Will include questions about History of Gastronomy, Famous Chefs, 4 Influences on Modern Food Service, Kitchen Brigade, Dining Room Brigade, and the 6 Aspects of Professionalism for a Chef