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City Beautification Project Nanded City

By

Prof. S. L. Dhingra
IIT Bombay http://www.civil.iitb.ac.in/~dhingra

Overview
Introduction Beautification of City - Case Studies Road Side Amenities Traffic Management Traffic Control Devices Parking Management Conclusion References

Introduction
Nanded, a well known Sikh Pilgrimage Center One of the Five Sikh Takhats is located here named as Hazur Sahib A famous gurudwara at Nanded, a replica of the golden temple of Amritsar will be celebrating 300 years in 2008 There will be expectancy of millions peoples to be arrive for this event Proper event management should be done to complete this event successfully

Nanded City

Beautification of City Case Studies

Chandigarh
Called The City Beautiful serves as a capital of two states: Punjab and Haryana Le Corbusier produced a plan for Chandigarh that confirmed to the modern city planning principles, and a hierarchy of road and pedestrian networks Divided the city into units called 'sectors', each representing a theoretically self-sufficient entity with space for living, working and leisure

Chandigarh
The sectors were linked to each other by a road and path network developed along the line of the 7 Vs, or a hierarchy of seven types of circulation patterns The city plan is laid down in grid pattern The sectors were to act as self-sufficient neighborhoods, each with its own market, places of worship, schools and colleges - all within 10 minutes walking distance from within the sector

Chandigarh
The original two phases of the plan delineated sectors from 1 to 47, with the exception of 13 The city was to be surrounded by a 16 kilometer greenbelt that was to ensure that no development could take place in the immediate vicinity of the town, thus checking suburbs and urban sprawl

Chandigarh
One of the unusual and popular features of Chandigarh is the Rock Garden of Chandigarh Chandigarh IT Park (also called Kishangarh IT Park) is the city's attempt to break into the IT world Divided into identical looking sectors, each sector measures 800m x 1200m. The sectors were to act as self-sufficient neighborhoods, each with its own market, places of worship, schools and colleges

Chandigarh City Map

Sector 17: Citys Heart and Retail Centre

Nagpur
Winter capital of the state of Maharashtra Affectionately called as Orange city and also declared as a second Green city of India Planning process implemented by Dr. T. Chandrasekhar put the road network of Nagpur city in very good condition

To Surat

To Ba nga lor e

To De lhi

Thane Landmark Development


Received Clean City Award from HUDCO India for 1999-2000 Widened 133 city roads (195 kms) under the IRDP Used Bio-remediation process for cleaning two main lakes transforming them from dumping pools to scenic & beautiful picnic spots Beautification of junctions by providing fountains, channelizers, green chowks, illuminations etc.

Thane City

Thane Landmark Development (Cont)


Citys health solid waste management development ensures cleanliness on roads, gutters & at the public places etc. Independent Pollution Control Department to check air & water quality through its monitoring stations Welcome Gates, Auditorium, swimming pools, stadium, open grounds, gardens, high mast lighting are some of the other areas where The TMC has created landmarks Maintaining and creating green cover. More then 3 lakhs have been planted with a survival rate of 90%

Ujjain
One of the seven sacred cities of the Hindus, and the Kumbh Mela religious festival is held there every twelve years Last Kumbh Mela was held at Ujjain in April, 2004

Location of Kumbh Mela

To Ind ore

Event Management for April, 2004


At a time, for 6000 peoples on the ghats, with the help of volunteers, each pilgrims took bath to six minutes, meaning 250,000 took bath in one hour For million peoples visited ujjain in 2004, artificial long roads were created in 20 hectres of field near the ghats for holding capacity of one million With this plan, 1.4 million peoples were managed at a time, and 5 million peoples were handled during a day

Event Management for April, 2004 (Cont)


Arrangement was made in such a way that individual pilgrim needs to walk at most one kilometer and wait at most 2 hours All of this was observed through closed circuit video In addition to all this, mass transit was arranged so pilgrims can get to the major points of interest in Ujjain itself after their bath For big concern like Terrorism attack, 15000 police, thats an entire army division, including 25 commando teams were provided

Solapur IRDP
MSRDC is executing works of construction of roads and junction improvement under IRDP The VIP road constructed as a model road Plants which grow thick but not tall are provided to avoid glare of headlights of incoming vehicles Also flowering plants which grow tall particularly on either side of the road for improved aesthetics are also provided

Road Side Amenities

Road Side Amenities


Footpath Arboriculture Landscaping Benches, Shelters, Drinking Water Toilets, Dust bins, etc.

Footpath or Side Walks


Provided in urban areas when the vehicular as well as pedestrian traffic are heavy, to provide protection to pedestrians and to decrease accidents Side walks are generally provided on either side of the road and the minimum width should be 1.5 m and the width may be increased based on the pedestrian traffic volume Provided with a surface as smooth as or even smoother than the adjacent traffic lane as to induce the pedestrian to keep on to the footpath

Typical Cross Section of Urban Road

Arboriculture
Important aspects in road side development Trees provided on both sides of urban and rural road serve the following purposes:
To provide attractive landscape of road sides To provide shade to the road users To protect against moving sand in desert areas To provide fruit bearing trees and timber To intercept the annoying sound waves and fumes from road vehicles

Arboriculture (Cont)
In urban areas, the road side planting is mainly for the beauty or the landscape and therefore, tests of ornamental and flowering species are generally preferred On wide urban roads, the planting of shrubs is done on the medians or separators besides providing trees on road sides It is desired that the crowns of the trees planted on both sides of a road do not cover the complete carriageway

Landscaping
Landscape Planning is concerned with the demographic, aesthetic, ecological and functional aspects of land use Includes architecture design, site planning, estate development, environmental restoration, park and recreation planning, and historic preservation

Principles of Landscaping
Should help to preserve aesthetically valuable features pleasing and

The road should follow the natural terrain and harmoniously blend with it Medians and rotary islands should be provided with flowering shrubs and plants Turfing or shoulders and slopes should be provided with flowering shrubs and plants

Typical Cross Section of Urban Road with Footpath and Landscaping

Mumbai Pune Expressway

Mumbai Pune Expressway

Traffic Management

Traffic Management
Objectives of traffic management are to make productive use of road capacity and maximize safety It includes measures to manage the supply of road space aimed at improving road capacity and/or quality and/or safety Seeks to adjust, adapt, manage and improve the transport system to meet specified objectives

Objectives of Traffic Management


Facilitate and enable travel of people with ease, efficiency and safety Optimize system capacity (road and operating systems) Maximize safety Provide priority for public mass transport (bus) system Facilitate convenient and safe movement of pedestrians and non-motorised vehicles Minimize environmental pollution due to traffic

Traffic Management Techniques


Traffic circulation system Traffic control system Priority for public transport Pedestrian facilities Parking policy Accident care and incident management Installation of traffic signs and lane markings Improved street lighting Road pricing

Traffic Circulation System


The master plan for road links is to be developed to required lane widths as per estimated traffic volumes The circulation system along them need to be reorganized introducing one-ways, no way be mode type by time period, turning movements restrictions at intersections etc. to minimize conflicts, increase capacity and maximize safety

Traffic Control System


The directional movements of pedestrians need to be regulated vehicles and

Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) need to be installed to regulate traffic based on real time flows Control systems need to accord priority for public transport modes They must be enable easy, convenient and safe movement of pedestrians

Use of ITS
For ensuring safety
Using high resolution camera Road side detectors Variable message signs

For improving the transport facility


By providing real time arrival information system of transit buses Accident avoidance systems at turning points Incident management systems

High Resolution Camera

Intelligent Traffic Lights

Priority for Public Mass Transport


High occupancy vehicles (HOVs), in particular buses, need to be given priority Objectives are to improve operational efficiency of the bus system, reduce travel time to bus users, promote modal shift to bus system, increase safety and reduce environmental pollution

Parking Facilities
In roadway transportation system, parking facilities form the terminal Parking facilities can be either on-street or off-street On street: spaces near the sides of the roads where vehicles are allowed to park Off street: spaces away from the main thoroughfare and connected to it through a service road

On-street Parking: Straight Parking

On-street Parking: Skew Parking

Off-street Parking

Parking Demand
Generated by the land use pattern in the vicinity This is an important variable as the average duration of parking gives an idea as to how frequently the same parking space can be used for parking different vehicles IRC:SP:12-1973 Recommendations: For shops and markets, one parking space should be provided for every 80 sq.m of floor area For apartment houses (flats), one parking space for every two flats of 50 to 99 sq.m area

Traffic Control Devices

Traffic Control Devices


Signs, including Variable Message Signs (VMS) Signals Markings Street lighting

Road signs
Proper road signs aid the drivers in reaching their destinations safely and efficiently Properly designated road signs improve safety by:
Instructing drivers on safe speeds Informing drivers on impending changes in road geometry Reducing driver confusion through clear signs on allowable traffic movement patterns

Categories of Traffic signs


Regulatory signs: meant to inform the road users of certain laws, regulations and prohibitions Warning signs: used to warn the road users to certain hazardous conditions that exist on or adjacent to the roadway Informatory signs: used to guide the road users along routes, inform them of destination and distance and provide with information to make travel easier, safe and pleasant

Variable Message Signs (VMS)


Traffic control devices used to provide motorists enroute traveler information The information is most often displayed in real-time and can be controlled either from a remote centralized location or locally at the site designed to affect motorist behavior to improve traffic flow and operations The objective of providing the information is to allow the motorist time to avoid an incident, prepare for unavoidable conditions, or to give travel directions

VMS

Highway VMS

Urban Signs

Traffic Signals
Control devices which could alternatively direct the traffic to sop and proceed at intersections Traffic control signals:
Fixed time signal Manually operated signal Smart Traffic Signals or technically Intelligent Transportation systems can actually sense when traffic volume are increasing and can adjust timing of their lights accordingly

Pedestrian signal Special traffic signal

Smart Traffic Signals

Road/traffic Markings
Made of lines, patterns, words, symbols or reflectors on the pavement, kerbs, sides of islands or on the fixed objects within or near the roadway Also called special signs intended to control, warn, guide or regulate the traffic The markings are made using paints in contrast with color and brightness of the pavement Light reflecting paints are commonly used for traffic markings

Street Lighting
Street Lighting is an important way of increasing road safety at night It also improves the quality of life for residents by deterring crime and making people more secure For safe night driving, it may be considered as an added facility to the road users

Lighting Layouts
Single side lighting: economical to install, but suitable only for narrow roads Staggered lighting (both sides): adopted for wider roads with three or more lanes Central lighting: adopted for wider roads with three or more lanes Note: spacing of the lights is decided based on location, lamp size, height of mounting and lighting requirements

Spacing 30 to 60m

Single Side Lighting

Staggered Lighting

Central Lighting

Parking Management

Parking Management
Includes a variety of strategies that encourage more efficient use of existing parking facilities, improve the quality of service provided to parking facility users and improve parking facility design Address a wide range of transportation problems, and help achieve a variety of transportation, land use development, economic, environmental objectives. Specific Parking Management strategies

Parking Management Strategies


Shared parking: parking spaces are shared by more than one user, allowing facilities to be used more efficiently Regulate parking facility use: More convenient and visible parking spaces are managed and regulated to give priority to higher-value trips, increase efficiency and user convenience Parking maximums: Establish maximum in addition or instead of minimum parking standards to avoid excessive parking supply

Parking Management Strategies (Cont)


Remote parking: Encouraging longer-term parkers to use off-site or fringe parking facilities, so more convenient spaces are available for priority users Improving User Information and Marketing: Provide convenient and accurate information on parking availability and price, using maps, signs, brochures and electronic communication

Parking Management Strategies (Cont)


Improved Walkability: Improve pedestrian conditions to allow parkers to conveniently access more parking facilities, increasing the functional supply in an area Increase Capacity of Existing Parking Facilities: More parking spaces can sometimes be provided by using currently wasted space, sizing spaces for smaller vehicles and motorcycles, and using car stackers

Parking Management Strategies (Cont)


Parking pricing: Charge motorists directly for using parking facilities, and set fees to encourage efficient use of parking facilities Parking Facility Design and Management: Improved parking facility design to address safety, stormwater management, user comfort, security and aesthetic objectives

Typical Traffic Management Practices


Large City
Commercial center, onstreet Priced: high hourly rates Regulation: some loading spaces with short time limits

Small City
Priced: medium rates Regulation: 1-2 hour time limit

Town/Suburb
Regulation: 1-3 hour time limit

Commercial center, Public Priced: high hourly, daily and Priced: medium hourly, daily off-street monthly rates and monthly rates Regulation: sometimes 1 hour free to customers Commercial center, Private off-street Priced: High daily and monthly rates

Priced: low monthly rates Regulation: 2-3 hour time limit

Priced: Medium daily and Priced: low monthly rates monthly rates Regulation: free to customers Regulation: free to qualifying and employees customers and employees Regulation: 1-4 hour Unregulated Unregulated Unregulated

Near commercial center, On-street

Regulation: 1-3 hour

Residential Neighborhood, Regulation: Residents only, On-street which may involve permits

Near special attractions Regulation: Residents only, Regulation: Residents only, Regulation: Residents only, (schools, parks, theatres, Special management and Special management and Special management and etc enforcement during busy enforcement during busy enforcement during busy time periods time periods time periods

Conclusion

Conclusion
For event which is going to happen in Nanded in 2008
Identify the corridors which is leading to the centre of major events Increase the capacity of these corridors by widening the roads based on expected traffic and with proper geometric design Do proper parking management with increasing capacity the existing parking facilities and also provide new parking facilities by considering parking demand

Conclusion (Cont)
Provide suitable traffic controlling devices to control, regulate, and guide traffic and pedestrians Wherever possible, provide variable message signs (VMS) at important locations Provide facilities like benches, shelters, drinking

water, toilets, dust bins, etc. for the pilgrims who


are visiting the event Also to take care of terrorist attack, adequate police force should be provided along with commando teams (can take help from army divisions)

References

References
IRC:93-1985 Guidelines on Design and Installation of Road Traffic Signals IRC:SP:32-1988 Road Safety for Children IRC:SP:44-1994 Highway Safety Code MORT&H Manual for Safety in Road Design IRC:67-2001 Code of Practice for Road Signs IRC:79-1981 Recommended Practice for Road Delineators

References
IRC:SP:31-1992 New Traffic Signs IRC:30-1968 Standard Letters and Numerals of Different Heights for Use on Highway Signs IRC:35-1997 Code of Practice for Road Markings (with paints) IRC:SP:43-1994 Guidelines on Low-Cost Traffic Management Technique for Urban Areas IRC:11-1962 Recommended Practice for the Design and Layout of Bicycles

References
IRC:99-1988 Tentative Guidelines on the Provision of Speed Breakers for Control of Vehicular Speeds on Minor roads IRC:103-1988 Guidelines for Pedestrian Facilities IRC:SP:12-1973 Tentative Recommendations on the Provision of Parking Spaces for Urban Areas

Thank You

Transportation Systems Engineering


Department of Civil Engineering IIT Bombay