• DNA structure and replication • RNA
– Structure – Transcription – Translation

• Protein synthesis
– Amino acids

• Mutations

• Deoxy_______________ Acid (DNA) • is the blueprint for life: • contains ALL the necessary information to make a new organism

DNA structure
• DNA is a polymer of nucleotides Each nucleotide composed of a p________________, a s__________ (deoxyribose), and organic nitrogenous base.

Four DNA bases • Four kinds of _______________ bases: • P_________ bases A = Adenine G = Guanine • Pyrimidine bases T = Thymine C = Cytosine .

The four nucleotides of DNA .

DNA: Complimentary base p______ • Adenine pairs with __________ A C T G • Cytosine pairs with _________ Each DNA strand is a compliment of the other .

DNA STRUCTURE • DNA is a _________ helix • Discovered by Watson and Crick. 1953 The “backbone” of DNA: formed by sugar-phosphate chemical bonds .

DNA structure: Double _______ DNA is like a ladder: .

• There‟s always a pool of nucleotides (A.C. parent strand becomes apart • Proper base-pairs are assembled on that template (with proper enzymes: polymerase and ligase).G) in the nucleus .DNA REPLICATION (in the nucleus) • Each DNA strand becomes a _______________.T.

half new DNA on each strand . • The new double strand is ________ to the old double strand • S_____-conservative replication: half old.DNA replication • Nucleotides are connected together to make a new strand that is c_______________ to the old strand.

G-C bond • A-T is a __________ bond… • C-G is a ________ bond (stronger)… • DNA double strand can separate into 2 single strands when heated. • Which strand would require more heat (more energy) to separate: an A-T rich or a C-G rich double strand? .A-T vs.

• Difference between RNA and DNA: Each nucleotide contains a different _______: ribose instead of deoxyribose. Bases are A. nucleotides). C. G pairs with C .RNA structure and synthesis • RNA: R______________ Acid • Is very similar to DNA (repeating subunits. G. and U (uracyl. not thymine) A pairs with U.

RNA • RNA is ___________ stranded and shorter • RNA is __________ stable than DNA: RNA doesn‟t persist in the cell for long (sometimes it exists for a few seconds). . whereas DNA can persist for the life of the cell.

Differences between DNA and RNA • __________ • __________ • __________ .

CENTRAL DOGMA transcription DNA ________ translation Proteins • 3 different RNA molecules involved in protein synthesis: – M______________ RNA (mRNA) – R______________ RNA (rRNA) – T______________ RNA (tRNA) .

• T___________: making an RNA copy. of a small part of the DNA molecule.Transcription: DNA  RNA • TRANSCRIPTION: RNA synthesis from DNA. . called m______________ RNA (mRNA).

Transcription: DNA  RNA • Transcription occurs in the N_____________ • mRNA carries the message about what type of protein to make from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome • The nucleotide sequences of RNA and DNA are the same (except in RNA uracil is used instead of thymine) • mRNA is synthesized from DNA using base pairing • DNA unwinds in a section .

T______________ of RNA from a template strand of DNA • RNA polymerase attaches at the promoter sequence of DNA. unzipping the strands – this allows for one mRNA molecule to be formed. . and it moves along the DNA.

• During _____________. a molecule of messenger RNA is formed as a complementary copy of a region on one strand of the DNA molecule .

enzymes in the nucleus remove the i__________ (non-coding regions) and leave the exons (expressed segments) .Transcription • Once mRNA is formed.

. AUG. • The genetic code consists of ______ codons. and is also the _________ signal for translation. codes for methionine. codon. UGA) • One codon. UAG. that specifies an amino acid. (4x4x4). • Three codons act as signal terminators (UAA. but only 61 code amino acids.The Genetic Code • Each 3 consecutive bases on the mRNA is a code word.

The Genetic Code • The G__________ Code – every ______ nucleotides on mRNA codes for a particular amino acid (3 at a time) • Code is universal – true for all organisms! .

or building blocks to make all proteins .20 Amino Acids There are _____ amino acids – they are like the „bricks‟.

according to the sequences of the nucleotides in mRNA. • Occurs at the ___________. rRNA. brings specific amino acids to the ribosome to be assembled as proteins. . tRNA.Translation: RNA  Protein • T_______________: synthesizing a protein from amino acids. in cytoplasm of cell • Ribosomal RNA. is needed for protein synthesis – helps mRNA bind to ribosome. • Transfer RNA.

mRNA binds to the small subunit.Translation • R______________ RNA. . rRNA. joins with a number of proteins to form ribosomes • Ribosomes are the sites of _____________ synthesis • Ribosomes consist of a large subunit and a small subunit.

T___________ RNA (tRNA) • Transport molecule that carries specific amino acids to a ribosome (80 nucleotides long) • Folded • Each tRNA recognizes the correct codon on the mRNA molecule .

The amino acid bonds to its adjoining amino acid to form a growing polypeptide molecule 5.Steps in T_____________ 1. where anticodon on the tRNA binds to the codon of the mRNA 4. Other tRNA‟s bring amino acids to the ribosome to complete the protein molecule . tRNA brings an amino acid to the ribosome. mRNA binds to small ribosomal subunit 3. The tRNA without the amino acid is released from the ribosome 6. mRNA leaves the nucleus and migrates to ribosome 2.


determines the 3-dimensional shape of the molecule. • Structure of the protein determines its function . • Amino acid order determines the protein • 20 amino acids exist in all life forms • O____________ of amino acids is important.Protein synthesis • Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell • A____________ acids are the repeating subunits of protein molecules.

Proteins • Biological activity (function) of proteins depends largely on its 3-D _______________ .

Summary: .

Note: the same amino acid can be added by different codons. • This tRNA. substitutes the sugar ribose for deoxyribose and the base uracil for thymine • Messenger RNA or mRNA. conveys the DNA recipe for protein synthesis to the cell c______________. in turn. Genomic ‘Geography’ . • RNA is single-stranded. the mRNA sequences GCA and GCC are both specifying the addition of the amino acid alanine (Ala). in this illustration. • Each codon directs the addition of one amino acid to the protein. each three-base codon of the mRNA links to a specific form of transfer RNA (tRNA) containing the complementary three-base sequence.• In Cell Nucleus: RNA is produced by transcription. • mRNA binds to ribosome. transfers a single _________ acid to a growing protein chain.

• Also. ________ are read in one direction only. Example: UUA and UUG = Leucine . note there is redundancy in the genetic code: the different sequences can specify for the same amino acid. • Thus.Important • Both DNA and RNA have a direction: one end is the 3‟ the other is the 5‟ end.

that may be passed along to future generations.When things go wrong… • Mutations: changes in the DNA sequence. • P________ mutations: a single base substitution THE CAT SAW THE RAT THE CAT SAW THE HAT • D____________: a small DNA segment is lost THE CAT SAW THE RAT THE AT SAW THE RAT • Insertion: a segment of DNA is added THE CAT SAW THE RAT THE CHAT SAW THE RAT .

you get: THE ATS AWT HEC ATA NDR AN The resulting sentence (or mRNA message) is meaningless! THE OLD MAN AND THE SEA THE LDM ANA NDT HES EA .Mutations • Frame-________ mutation: modification of the reading frame after a deletion or insertion. resulting in all codons downstream being different. For example: THE RAT SAW THE CAT AND RAN If you take out the “R” in “RAT” and shift the frames.

• Somatic mutations that occur in leaves. . or cells that do not lead to gametes. roots or stems are usually not passed on to future generations… • UNLESS the plant reproduced _____________.Somatic Mutations • S____________ mutations: occur in ________ cells.

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