• DNA structure and replication • RNA
– Structure – Transcription – Translation

• Protein synthesis
– Amino acids

• Mutations

• Deoxy_______________ Acid (DNA) • is the blueprint for life: • contains ALL the necessary information to make a new organism

DNA structure
• DNA is a polymer of nucleotides Each nucleotide composed of a p________________, a s__________ (deoxyribose), and organic nitrogenous base.

Four DNA bases • Four kinds of _______________ bases: • P_________ bases A = Adenine G = Guanine • Pyrimidine bases T = Thymine C = Cytosine .

The four nucleotides of DNA .

DNA: Complimentary base p______ • Adenine pairs with __________ A C T G • Cytosine pairs with _________ Each DNA strand is a compliment of the other .

1953 The “backbone” of DNA: formed by sugar-phosphate chemical bonds .DNA STRUCTURE • DNA is a _________ helix • Discovered by Watson and Crick.

DNA structure: Double _______ DNA is like a ladder: .

T.G) in the nucleus . • There‟s always a pool of nucleotides (A.DNA REPLICATION (in the nucleus) • Each DNA strand becomes a _______________.C. parent strand becomes apart • Proper base-pairs are assembled on that template (with proper enzymes: polymerase and ligase).

• The new double strand is ________ to the old double strand • S_____-conservative replication: half old. half new DNA on each strand .DNA replication • Nucleotides are connected together to make a new strand that is c_______________ to the old strand.

• Which strand would require more heat (more energy) to separate: an A-T rich or a C-G rich double strand? .A-T vs. G-C bond • A-T is a __________ bond… • C-G is a ________ bond (stronger)… • DNA double strand can separate into 2 single strands when heated.

and U (uracyl.RNA structure and synthesis • RNA: R______________ Acid • Is very similar to DNA (repeating subunits. G. Bases are A. G pairs with C . C. nucleotides). • Difference between RNA and DNA: Each nucleotide contains a different _______: ribose instead of deoxyribose. not thymine) A pairs with U.

RNA • RNA is ___________ stranded and shorter • RNA is __________ stable than DNA: RNA doesn‟t persist in the cell for long (sometimes it exists for a few seconds). whereas DNA can persist for the life of the cell. .

Differences between DNA and RNA • __________ • __________ • __________ .

CENTRAL DOGMA transcription DNA ________ translation Proteins • 3 different RNA molecules involved in protein synthesis: – M______________ RNA (mRNA) – R______________ RNA (rRNA) – T______________ RNA (tRNA) .

. of a small part of the DNA molecule. • T___________: making an RNA copy. called m______________ RNA (mRNA).Transcription: DNA  RNA • TRANSCRIPTION: RNA synthesis from DNA.

Transcription: DNA  RNA • Transcription occurs in the N_____________ • mRNA carries the message about what type of protein to make from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome • The nucleotide sequences of RNA and DNA are the same (except in RNA uracil is used instead of thymine) • mRNA is synthesized from DNA using base pairing • DNA unwinds in a section .

and it moves along the DNA.T______________ of RNA from a template strand of DNA • RNA polymerase attaches at the promoter sequence of DNA. . unzipping the strands – this allows for one mRNA molecule to be formed.

• During _____________. a molecule of messenger RNA is formed as a complementary copy of a region on one strand of the DNA molecule .

Transcription • Once mRNA is formed. enzymes in the nucleus remove the i__________ (non-coding regions) and leave the exons (expressed segments) .

(4x4x4). but only 61 code amino acids. AUG. UGA) • One codon. UAG. and is also the _________ signal for translation. codes for methionine. • Three codons act as signal terminators (UAA. codon.The Genetic Code • Each 3 consecutive bases on the mRNA is a code word. . that specifies an amino acid. • The genetic code consists of ______ codons.

The Genetic Code • The G__________ Code – every ______ nucleotides on mRNA codes for a particular amino acid (3 at a time) • Code is universal – true for all organisms! .

20 Amino Acids There are _____ amino acids – they are like the „bricks‟. or building blocks to make all proteins .

is needed for protein synthesis – helps mRNA bind to ribosome. brings specific amino acids to the ribosome to be assembled as proteins. tRNA. in cytoplasm of cell • Ribosomal RNA. • Transfer RNA. • Occurs at the ___________. according to the sequences of the nucleotides in mRNA. .Translation: RNA  Protein • T_______________: synthesizing a protein from amino acids. rRNA.

Translation • R______________ RNA. rRNA. . joins with a number of proteins to form ribosomes • Ribosomes are the sites of _____________ synthesis • Ribosomes consist of a large subunit and a small subunit. mRNA binds to the small subunit.

T___________ RNA (tRNA) • Transport molecule that carries specific amino acids to a ribosome (80 nucleotides long) • Folded • Each tRNA recognizes the correct codon on the mRNA molecule .

The tRNA without the amino acid is released from the ribosome 6. Other tRNA‟s bring amino acids to the ribosome to complete the protein molecule . tRNA brings an amino acid to the ribosome.Steps in T_____________ 1. mRNA leaves the nucleus and migrates to ribosome 2. mRNA binds to small ribosomal subunit 3. The amino acid bonds to its adjoining amino acid to form a growing polypeptide molecule 5. where anticodon on the tRNA binds to the codon of the mRNA 4.


• Amino acid order determines the protein • 20 amino acids exist in all life forms • O____________ of amino acids is important. determines the 3-dimensional shape of the molecule.Protein synthesis • Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell • A____________ acids are the repeating subunits of protein molecules. • Structure of the protein determines its function .

Proteins • Biological activity (function) of proteins depends largely on its 3-D _______________ .

Summary: .

transfers a single _________ acid to a growing protein chain. • RNA is single-stranded. • Each codon directs the addition of one amino acid to the protein. substitutes the sugar ribose for deoxyribose and the base uracil for thymine • Messenger RNA or mRNA. conveys the DNA recipe for protein synthesis to the cell c______________. in turn. each three-base codon of the mRNA links to a specific form of transfer RNA (tRNA) containing the complementary three-base sequence.• In Cell Nucleus: RNA is produced by transcription. • This tRNA. • mRNA binds to ribosome. the mRNA sequences GCA and GCC are both specifying the addition of the amino acid alanine (Ala). in this illustration. Note: the same amino acid can be added by different codons. Genomic ‘Geography’ .

• Also. • Thus.Important • Both DNA and RNA have a direction: one end is the 3‟ the other is the 5‟ end. Example: UUA and UUG = Leucine . note there is redundancy in the genetic code: the different sequences can specify for the same amino acid. ________ are read in one direction only.

that may be passed along to future generations. • P________ mutations: a single base substitution THE CAT SAW THE RAT THE CAT SAW THE HAT • D____________: a small DNA segment is lost THE CAT SAW THE RAT THE AT SAW THE RAT • Insertion: a segment of DNA is added THE CAT SAW THE RAT THE CHAT SAW THE RAT .When things go wrong… • Mutations: changes in the DNA sequence.

Mutations • Frame-________ mutation: modification of the reading frame after a deletion or insertion. you get: THE ATS AWT HEC ATA NDR AN The resulting sentence (or mRNA message) is meaningless! THE OLD MAN AND THE SEA THE LDM ANA NDT HES EA . For example: THE RAT SAW THE CAT AND RAN If you take out the “R” in “RAT” and shift the frames. resulting in all codons downstream being different.

Somatic Mutations • S____________ mutations: occur in ________ cells. . • Somatic mutations that occur in leaves. roots or stems are usually not passed on to future generations… • UNLESS the plant reproduced _____________. or cells that do not lead to gametes.

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