• DNA structure and replication • RNA
– Structure – Transcription – Translation

• Protein synthesis
– Amino acids

• Mutations

• Deoxy_______________ Acid (DNA) • is the blueprint for life: • contains ALL the necessary information to make a new organism

DNA structure
• DNA is a polymer of nucleotides Each nucleotide composed of a p________________, a s__________ (deoxyribose), and organic nitrogenous base.

Four DNA bases • Four kinds of _______________ bases: • P_________ bases A = Adenine G = Guanine • Pyrimidine bases T = Thymine C = Cytosine .

The four nucleotides of DNA .

DNA: Complimentary base p______ • Adenine pairs with __________ A C T G • Cytosine pairs with _________ Each DNA strand is a compliment of the other .

DNA STRUCTURE • DNA is a _________ helix • Discovered by Watson and Crick. 1953 The “backbone” of DNA: formed by sugar-phosphate chemical bonds .

DNA structure: Double _______ DNA is like a ladder: .

• There‟s always a pool of nucleotides (A.DNA REPLICATION (in the nucleus) • Each DNA strand becomes a _______________. parent strand becomes apart • Proper base-pairs are assembled on that template (with proper enzymes: polymerase and ligase).T.C.G) in the nucleus .

• The new double strand is ________ to the old double strand • S_____-conservative replication: half old. half new DNA on each strand .DNA replication • Nucleotides are connected together to make a new strand that is c_______________ to the old strand.

G-C bond • A-T is a __________ bond… • C-G is a ________ bond (stronger)… • DNA double strand can separate into 2 single strands when heated. • Which strand would require more heat (more energy) to separate: an A-T rich or a C-G rich double strand? .A-T vs.

G pairs with C . nucleotides). C. • Difference between RNA and DNA: Each nucleotide contains a different _______: ribose instead of deoxyribose. not thymine) A pairs with U. and U (uracyl.RNA structure and synthesis • RNA: R______________ Acid • Is very similar to DNA (repeating subunits. Bases are A. G.

RNA • RNA is ___________ stranded and shorter • RNA is __________ stable than DNA: RNA doesn‟t persist in the cell for long (sometimes it exists for a few seconds). whereas DNA can persist for the life of the cell. .

Differences between DNA and RNA • __________ • __________ • __________ .

CENTRAL DOGMA transcription DNA ________ translation Proteins • 3 different RNA molecules involved in protein synthesis: – M______________ RNA (mRNA) – R______________ RNA (rRNA) – T______________ RNA (tRNA) .

of a small part of the DNA molecule. called m______________ RNA (mRNA). . • T___________: making an RNA copy.Transcription: DNA  RNA • TRANSCRIPTION: RNA synthesis from DNA.

Transcription: DNA  RNA • Transcription occurs in the N_____________ • mRNA carries the message about what type of protein to make from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome • The nucleotide sequences of RNA and DNA are the same (except in RNA uracil is used instead of thymine) • mRNA is synthesized from DNA using base pairing • DNA unwinds in a section .

and it moves along the DNA.T______________ of RNA from a template strand of DNA • RNA polymerase attaches at the promoter sequence of DNA. . unzipping the strands – this allows for one mRNA molecule to be formed.

• During _____________. a molecule of messenger RNA is formed as a complementary copy of a region on one strand of the DNA molecule .

Transcription • Once mRNA is formed. enzymes in the nucleus remove the i__________ (non-coding regions) and leave the exons (expressed segments) .

UAG. codon. • Three codons act as signal terminators (UAA. that specifies an amino acid. but only 61 code amino acids. UGA) • One codon. . codes for methionine.The Genetic Code • Each 3 consecutive bases on the mRNA is a code word. AUG. (4x4x4). and is also the _________ signal for translation. • The genetic code consists of ______ codons.

The Genetic Code • The G__________ Code – every ______ nucleotides on mRNA codes for a particular amino acid (3 at a time) • Code is universal – true for all organisms! .

20 Amino Acids There are _____ amino acids – they are like the „bricks‟. or building blocks to make all proteins .

in cytoplasm of cell • Ribosomal RNA. rRNA. . brings specific amino acids to the ribosome to be assembled as proteins. is needed for protein synthesis – helps mRNA bind to ribosome.Translation: RNA  Protein • T_______________: synthesizing a protein from amino acids. according to the sequences of the nucleotides in mRNA. • Transfer RNA. • Occurs at the ___________. tRNA.

mRNA binds to the small subunit.Translation • R______________ RNA. joins with a number of proteins to form ribosomes • Ribosomes are the sites of _____________ synthesis • Ribosomes consist of a large subunit and a small subunit. rRNA. .

T___________ RNA (tRNA) • Transport molecule that carries specific amino acids to a ribosome (80 nucleotides long) • Folded • Each tRNA recognizes the correct codon on the mRNA molecule .

where anticodon on the tRNA binds to the codon of the mRNA 4.Steps in T_____________ 1. tRNA brings an amino acid to the ribosome. mRNA binds to small ribosomal subunit 3. The amino acid bonds to its adjoining amino acid to form a growing polypeptide molecule 5. Other tRNA‟s bring amino acids to the ribosome to complete the protein molecule . mRNA leaves the nucleus and migrates to ribosome 2. The tRNA without the amino acid is released from the ribosome 6.


Protein synthesis • Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell • A____________ acids are the repeating subunits of protein molecules. • Structure of the protein determines its function . • Amino acid order determines the protein • 20 amino acids exist in all life forms • O____________ of amino acids is important. determines the 3-dimensional shape of the molecule.

Proteins • Biological activity (function) of proteins depends largely on its 3-D _______________ .

Summary: .

• In Cell Nucleus: RNA is produced by transcription. transfers a single _________ acid to a growing protein chain. • Each codon directs the addition of one amino acid to the protein. • mRNA binds to ribosome. Genomic ‘Geography’ . in turn. each three-base codon of the mRNA links to a specific form of transfer RNA (tRNA) containing the complementary three-base sequence. • RNA is single-stranded. • This tRNA. substitutes the sugar ribose for deoxyribose and the base uracil for thymine • Messenger RNA or mRNA. Note: the same amino acid can be added by different codons. the mRNA sequences GCA and GCC are both specifying the addition of the amino acid alanine (Ala). conveys the DNA recipe for protein synthesis to the cell c______________. in this illustration.

• Also. Example: UUA and UUG = Leucine . note there is redundancy in the genetic code: the different sequences can specify for the same amino acid. ________ are read in one direction only. • Thus.Important • Both DNA and RNA have a direction: one end is the 3‟ the other is the 5‟ end.

When things go wrong… • Mutations: changes in the DNA sequence. • P________ mutations: a single base substitution THE CAT SAW THE RAT THE CAT SAW THE HAT • D____________: a small DNA segment is lost THE CAT SAW THE RAT THE AT SAW THE RAT • Insertion: a segment of DNA is added THE CAT SAW THE RAT THE CHAT SAW THE RAT . that may be passed along to future generations.

you get: THE ATS AWT HEC ATA NDR AN The resulting sentence (or mRNA message) is meaningless! THE OLD MAN AND THE SEA THE LDM ANA NDT HES EA . For example: THE RAT SAW THE CAT AND RAN If you take out the “R” in “RAT” and shift the frames.Mutations • Frame-________ mutation: modification of the reading frame after a deletion or insertion. resulting in all codons downstream being different.

Somatic Mutations • S____________ mutations: occur in ________ cells. • Somatic mutations that occur in leaves. roots or stems are usually not passed on to future generations… • UNLESS the plant reproduced _____________. or cells that do not lead to gametes. .

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