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2010-09

Security Level: Internal Use

LTE system principle

www.huawei.com

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Objectives

Upon completion of this course, you will be able to

Know the backgrounds of evolution Know system architecture of LTE Know key features of LTE

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Page 2

References

3GPP TS 36.401
3GPP TS 36.101 3GPP TS 36.211

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Page 3

Contents
1. Overview 2. LTE system architecture 3. LTE key features

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Page 4

Contents
1. Overview 2. LTE system architecture 3. LTE key features

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Page 5

Mobile communications standards landscape

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3GPP Releases

3GPP is working on two approaches for 3G evolution: the LTE and

the HSPA Evolution

HSPA Evolution is aimed to be backward compatible while LTE do not need to be backward compatible with WCDMA and HSPA

By the end of 2007, 3GPP R8 is released as the first specs of LTE


Release 99 UMTS 2Mbit/s Release 6 HS UP A 5.76Mbit/s Release 8 LTE +300Mbit/s

Phase 2+ (Release 97) GP S R 171.2kbit/s

Release 9/10 LTE Advanced

GS M 9.6kbit/s Phase 1

E DGE 473.6kbit/s Release 99

HS DP A 14.4Mbit/s Release 5

HS A+ P 28.8Mbit/s 42Mbit/s Release 7/8

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Page 7

LTE will be the Single Global Standard


GSM
700M 800M 850M 900M 1500M 1700M 1800M 1900M 2100M 2300M 2600M

>1.2Gbps /80MHz

Spectral Efficiency
New Key Tech Title 300Mbps .

UMTS
150Mbps /20MHz

FDD LTE

/20MHz
Relay

CDMA
42Mbps /5MHz

84Mbps /10MHz
4x4 MIMO DC 2x2 MIMO 4x4 MIMO

TD-SCDMA
21Mbps /5MHz

28Mbps /5MHz 2x2


MIMO

2x2 MIM O 64QAM

OFDM OFD M 64QAM 64QAM

OFDM

TDD LTE

WiMAX

2x2 64QAM MIMO

64QAM

64QAM

LTE will be the natural migration choice for mobile operators.


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SDR Facilitating Smooth Evolution


Spectrum for LTE
LTE 2600MHz

Smooth Transition to LTE


GSM+UMTS
SDR SDR
LTE

2100MHz

UMTS

GSM
1800MHz GSM GSM UMTS LTE 2010 2011 2012 LTE

LTE
mRRU MRFU

900MHz 800MHz

LTE

SDR

SDR

GSM+LTE Spectrum refarming starts from 900M/1800M, which can be utilized for LTE deployment. SDR technology supports flexible and smooth transition from 2G/3G to LTE.

Technolog y GSM UMTS LTE

800M

900M

1800M

2100M

2.6G

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LTE requirements and targets

Reduced delays, in terms of both connection establishment (less then 100ms) and transmission latency (less then 10ms)

Increased user data rates: (Peak data-rate requirements are 100 Mbit/s and 50 Mbit/s for downlink and uplink respectively, when operating in 20MHz spectrum allocation)

Improved spectral efficiency

Seamless mobility, including between different radio-access technologies


Supporting flexible spectrum allocation (1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 MHz) to meet the complicated spectrum situation requirement

Simplified network architecture Reasonable power consumption for the mobile terminal.
Page 10

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LTE technical features

The LTE downlink transmission scheme is based on downlink

OFDMA and uplink SC-FDMA

LTE adopts shared-channel transmission, in which the timefrequency resource is dynamically shared between users. This is similar to the approach taken in HSDPA

Fast hybrid ARQ with soft combining is used in LTE


MIMO is supported by LTE, basically this is Spatial multiplexing which can increase data rate prominently

LTE supports flexible spectrum allocation in terms of duplex arrangement which support both FDD and TDD and bandwidth allocations which ranges 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 MHz

Support SON

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Page 11

LTE frequency bands

LTE is designed to operate in these frequency bands

2.1GHz, 1.9GHz, 1.7GHz, 2.6GHz, 900 MHz, 800 MHz, 450 MHz, etc , refer to 36.101 for details.

Transmission bandwidth could be:


Channel bandwidth BWChannel [MHz] Transmission bandwidth configuration NRB 1.4 6 3 15 5 25 10 50 15 75 20 100

Channel Bandwidth [MHz] Transmission Bandwidth Configuration [RB] Transmission Bandwidth [RB]

Channel edge

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Channel edge

Resource block

Active Resource Blocks

DC carrier (downlink only)

Page 12

LTE Release 8 Bands


Band Duplex FDL_low (MHz) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD 2110 1930 1805 2110 869 875 2620 925 1844.9 2110 1475.9 728 746 758 FDL_high (MHz) 2170 1990 1880 2155 894 885 2690 960 1879.9 2170 1500.9 746 756 768 0 600 1200 1950 2400 2650 2750 3450 3800 4150 4750 5000 5180 5280 0-599 600-1199 1200-1949 1950-2399 2400-2649 2650-2749 2750-3449 3450-3799 3800-4149 4150-4749 4750-4999 5000-5179 5180-5279 5280-5379 NOffs-DL NDL FUL_low (MHz) 1920 1850 1710 1710 824 830 2500 880 1749.9 1710 1427.9 698 777 788 FUL_high (MHz) 1980 1910 1785 1755 849 840 2570 915 1784.9 1770 1452.9 716 787 798 18000 18600 19200 19950 20400 20650 20750 21450 21800 22150 22750 23000 23180 23280 18000-18599 18600-19199 19200-19949 19950-20399 20400-20649 20650-20749 20750-21449 21450-21799 21800-22149 22150-22749 22750-22999 23000-23179 23180-23279 23280-23379 NOffs-UL NUL

17

FDD

734

746

5730

5730-5849

704

716

23730

23730-23849

33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

TDD TDD TDD TDD TDD TDD TDD TDD

1900 2010 1850 1930 1910 2570 1880 2300

1920 2025 1910 1990 1930 2620 1920 2400

26000 26200 26350 26950 27550 27750 28250 28650

36000-36199 36200-36349 36350-36949 36950-37549 37550-37749 37750-38249 38250-38649 38650-39649

1900 2010 1850 1930 1910 2570 1880 2300

1920 2025 1910 1990 1930 2620 1920 2400

36000 36200 36350 36950 37550 37750 38250 38650

36000-36199 36200-36349 36350-36949 36950-37549 37550-37749 37750-38249 38250-38649 38650-39649

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Page 13

Carrier Frequency EARFCN Calculation


FDL = FDL_low + 0.1(NDL - NOffs-DL)

eNB
FUL = FUL_low + 0.1(NUL - NOffs-UL)

UE

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Page 14

Example
100kHz Raster Uplink Downlink

1937.4MHz

2127.4MHz FDL = FDL_low + 0.1(NDL - NOffs-DL) NDL = NDL = (FDL - FDL_low ) 0.1 + NOffs-DL

Frequency

(2127.4 - 2110) + 0 = 174 0.1

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Page 15

LTE standardization and specifications

Huawei mirror site for 3GPP specifications.


http://szxmir01-in.huawei.com/www.3gpp.org/www.3gpp.org

The specification document for LTE is 36 series, inherits the structure of UTRAN 25 series:

36.1xx series is about the physical layer general aspect


36.2xx series is about radio interface physical layer 36.3xx series is about the radio interface layer 2 and 3 36.4xx series is about the terrestrial interfaces (S1, X2 )

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Page 16

Contents
1. Overview 2. LTE system architecture 3. LTE key features

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Page 17

LTE System architecture


UMTS LTE

MME / S-GW

MME / S-GW

X2
eNB eNB

S1

eNB

LTE: simplified IP flat architecture

Less equipment node and easier deployment


Less transmission delay and easier O&M S1 and X2 interfaces are based on a full IP transport stack
Page 18

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X2

S1
S1
X2

S1
E-UTRAN

LTE-SAE System architecture

An evolved core network, the Evolved Packet Core is at the same time developed, which generally is called System Architecture Evolution.

The philosophy of the SAE is to focus on the packet-switched domain, and migrate away from the circuit-switched domain
HSS eNodeB MME S1-MME S6a Gxc S11 Rx Gx PCRF Control plane User plane

LTE -Uu

X2

S1-U

S1-MME eNodeB S1-U

S5

SGi P-GW

Operator's IP Service

S-GW

UE

LTE

SAE
Page 19

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E-UTRAN functions

Transfer of user data Radio channel ciphering and deciphering

Inter-cell interference coordination Connection setup and release Load Balancing Distribution function for NAS messages

Integrity protection Header compression Mobility control functions Handover

NAS node selection function


Synchronization Radio access network sharing MBMS function

Paging
Positioning

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Page 20

Contents
1. Overview 2. TE system architecture 3. LTE key features

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Page 21

Basic principles of OFDM

Transmission by means of OFDM can be seen as a kind of multi-carrier transmission.

Due to the fact that two modulated OFDM subcarriers are mutually orthogonal, multiple signals could be transmitted in parallel over the

same radio link, the overall data rate can be increased up to M times.
Guard Band Subcarrier

Frequency Channel Bandwidth

Frequency Channel Bandwidth

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Page 22

Why use OFDM?

Efficient use of radio spectrum includes placing modulated carriers as close as


possible without causing Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI)

In order to transmit high data rates, short symbol periods must be used, In a multi-path environment, a shorter symbol period leads to a greater chance for

Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI).

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) addresses both of these problems:

OFDM provides a technique allowing the bandwidths of modulated carriers

to overlap without interference (no ICI).

It also provides a high date rate with a long symbol duration, thus helping to eliminate ISI.

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Page 23

OFDM implementation by IFFT/FFT

OFDM modulation implementation in LTE

Normally ,assume LTE sub carrier frequency f =1/Tu=15khz, and IFFT bin size N=2048, the sampling rate is fs =1/Ts =N f=30720000Hz S ubcarrier
Modulation Inverse F ast F ourier Transform

Coded Bits

S erial to P arallel

IF T F

R F Complex Waveform

S ubcarrier Demodulation F ast F ourier Transform P arallel to S erial C oded Bits

R eceiver

F T F

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Page 24

LTE Channel and FFT Sizes


Channel FFT Size Bandwidth 1.4MHz 3MHz 5MHz 10MHz 15MHz 20MHz 128 256 512 15kHz 1024 1536 2048 15.36MHz 23.04MHz 30.72MHz Subcarrier Sampling Rate Bandwidth 1.92MHz 3.84MHz 7.68MHz

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Page 25

Cyclic-prefix insertion

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Cyclic-prefix insertion

Time dispersion on the radio channel may cause ISI To deal with this problem, cyclic-prefix insertion is typically used in

case of OFDM transmission

The last NCP samples of the IFFT output block of length N is copied and inserted at the beginning of the block, increasing the block length from N to N +NCP. At the receiver side, the corresponding samples are discarded before OFDM demodulation

Subcarrier orthogonality will then be preserved also in case of a time-dispersive channel, as long as the span of the time dispersion is

shorter than the cyclic-prefix length.

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Page 27

Downlink CP Parameters
Configuration Normal Cyclic Prefix Extended Cyclic Prefix f = 15kHz CP Length (Ts) 160 for slot 0 144 for slot 1, 2, 6 f = 15kHz f = 7.5kHz 512 for slot 0, 1, 5 1024 for 0, 1, 2 Time ~ 5.208s ~ 4.688s ~16.67s ~ 33.33 s Delay Spread ~ 1.562km ~ 1.406km ~ 5km ~ 10km

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Page 28

Advantage of OFDM

High spectrum efficiency - the bandwidth of each subcarrier would be adjacent to its neighbors, so there would be no wasted spectrum

With multiple subcarriers transmitting in parallel, long symbol duration is

used, thus OFDMA is more tolerant to multi-path environment and


better entitled to eliminate ISI (inter symbol interference)

Especially with a cyclic prefix, inter-symbol interference could be minimized

OFDM is flexible in allocating power and rate optimally among narrowband sub-carriers (scheduling)

Frequency diversity could be enabled due to the wide spectrum

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Page 29

Peak to Average Power Ratio


PAPR (Peak to Average Power Ratio) Issue
Amplitude OFDM S ymbol

Peak Average
Time

The drawback of OFDM is the high peak-to-average ratio of the transmitted signal, which greatly decrease the efficiency of the linear amplifiers

This is especially critical for the uplink, due to the high importance of low mobile-terminal power consumption and cost.

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Page 30

SC-FDMA in uplink

SC-FDMA, which has much in common with OFDMA, such as multicarrier technology and guard interval protected symbol, but much higher power amplifier efficiency (lower PAPR) is adopt in uplink. SC-FDMA is just the DFT-S-OFDM, which can be seen as an OFDM system with a DFT pre-coding. The localized RB distribution makes each user occupy consecutive part of the whole bandwidth, which looks like a single carrier.
Time Domain Frequency Domain Time Domain
0 0 0 0 IDFT

S ymbols

DFT

S ubcarrier Mapping

CP Insertion

0 0 0

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Page 31

OFDM used in LTE


Radio Channel

TDD
FDD

eNB

Radio Channel UE

UE

OFDM (OFDMA)

eNB

OFDM
UE

(SC-FDMA)

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Page 32

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access


Power Time
OFDM A Each user allocated a different resource which can vary in time and frequency.

Frequency

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Page 33

OFDMA used in LTE.

DL: OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access)


Anti multi-path interference Anti frequency selective fading Higher spectrum efficiency Easy to cooperate with MIMO for higher throughput

Flexible multi-users scheduling

UL: SC-FDMA (Single Carrier - FDMA)

Save terminals cost & power consumption


Lower PAPR modulation technology: DFT-S-OFDM, which is similar to OFDM Higher spectral efficiency compare with traditional single carrier technology.

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Downlink PRB Parameters


Configuration Normal Cyclic Prefix Extended Cyclic Prefix f = 15kHz f = 15kHz f = 7.5kHz 12 6 24 3 NSCRB NSymbDL 7

Normal CP Configuration
Larger first CP when Normal CP is configured
DL Nsymb OF DM S ymbols (= 7 for Normal CP )

0
160 2048 144

1
2048 144

2
2048 144

3
2048 144

4
2048 144

5
2048 144

6
2048

E .g. NCP = 144, TCP= 144 x Ts = 4.6875s

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Page 35

OFDM Symbol Mapping


OFDM A E ach user allocated a different resource which can vary in time and frequency.

Modulated OFDM Symbol Amplitude

Time

Cyclic Prefix

Frequency OFDM Symbol

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Page 36

Channel-dependent scheduling

Basically LTE uses shared-channel transmission, similar to HSDPA, the time-frequency resource is dynamically shared between users

LTE can take channel variations into account not only in the time domain, as HSPA, but also in the frequency domain

For LTE, scheduling decisions can be taken as often as once every 1 ms and the granularity in the frequency domain is 180 kHz

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Page 37

Multi-Antenna Technique MIMO


Receive diversity: SIMO Transmit diversity: MISO Multi-antenna reception and transmission: MIMO

Fundamentals of MIMO:

The data to be sent will be divided into multiple concurrent data streams. The data streams are simultaneously transmitted from multiple antennas through the spatial dimensions, through different radio channels, and received by multiple antennas. And then can be restored to the original data according to the spatial signature of each data stream.

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Page 38

MIMO Modes
Transmission Mode
Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3 Mode 4

Transmission scheme
single-antenna port (port 0) transmit diversity open-loop space division multiplexing Closed-loop spatial multiplexing

Reference
It is compatible with single-antenna transmission It weakens the interference caused by channel fading and is applicable within low SINR environment It increases the peak rate and is applicable within high rate and SINR environment It is weighted according to the channel characteristics, increases the peak rate, and is applicable within low rate but high SINR environment It improves cell throughput It increases cell coverage It weakens interference and increases cell coverage It increases cell throughput

Mode 5 Mode 6 Mode 7 Mode 8

Multi-user MIMO Closed-loop precoding with rank of 1 Beamforming, singleantenna port (port 5) Dual-antenna port: Dualstream BF

8 MIMO modes specified in 3GPP LTE standard

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Page 39

Advantages of MIMO

Array gain: It increases the transmit power and can be used for beamforming. Diversity gain: It weakens the interference caused by channel fading. Spatial multiplexing gain: It doubles the rate within the same bandwidth after spatial orthogonal channels are constructed.

Data Streaming

MIMO Channel

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Page 40

UL Virtual MIMO

Benefits
Improve the overall uplink cell throughput. Increase the UL spectrum efficiency.

Features
The uplink channels of paired users must be with good orthogonality to each other to prevent interference. Multi-users use the same timefrequency resource.

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Page 41

MIMO--the Key to Improve Cell Throughput


1x2 SIMO
Throughput (Mbps) xx.xx%: Gain

eNode B

UE 1

Macr o
L LL T TT EEE

18.15%
16.4 13.88 9.42

SIMO MIMO

28.34%
12.09

15.12%
14.23 12.36

2x2 MIMO
eNodeB UE 1

ISD:500m Speed:3km/h

ISD:500m Speed:30km/h

ISD:1732m Speed:30km/h

xx.xx%: Gain

46.94%
34.15

46.40%
35.18

SIMO MIMO

Throughput (Mbps)

56.68%
26.87 23.24 24.03 17.15

Micro

In typical urban area:


15%~28% gain over SIMO @ Macro ~50% gain over SIMO @ Micro

Outdoor-to-Indoor Outdoor-to-Outdoor Speed: 3km/h Speed: 3km/h

Outdoor-to-Outdoor Speed: 30km/h

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Page 42

More Gains through Higher-order MIMO


DL 44 MIMO UL 24 MU-MIMO

eNodeB

UE 1 UE 1

eNodeB

UE 2

4x4 MIMO v.s. 2x2 MIMO: ~ 50% gain in average cell 23%~90% increasing in edge user throughput throughput

2x4 MU-MIMO v.s. 1x2 SIMO: 23%~90% increasing in edge user ~50% gain in average cell throughput throughput

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Page 43

AMC & 64QAM


AMC, Adaptive Modulation and Coding
Radio-link data rate is controlled by adjusting the modulation scheme and/or the channel coding rate Modulations: QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM Turbo code

Features
Provide higher-data-rate services Significantly improve the system throughput Improve users experience High-order modulation scheme used within excellent channel condition

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OFDM Signal Generation


Antenna Ports
Resource Element Mapper OFDM Signal Generation OFDM Signal Generation

Codewords

Layers
Modulation Mapper Layer Mapper

Scrambling

Precoding
Resource Element Mapper

Scrambling

Modulation Mapper

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Page 45

Inter-cell interference coordination

By restricting the transmission power of parts of the spectrum in one cell, the interference seen in the neighbouring cells in this part of the

spectrum will be reduced, This part of the spectrum can then be used
to provide higher data rates for users in the neighbouring cell
4 2 2 7 6 3 3 Cell 1,4,7
Power

Frequency

1 1
6 5 5 9 4 8

Cell

2,5,8

Power

Frequency

Power

Cell
7

3,6,9
Frequency

Different subband allocated for different cell edge users among cells Reducing the DL inter-cell interference among neighbor cells 30~50% throughput increased for cell edge users (<50% load)

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Page 46

LTE Key Technologies SON


Deployment Stage Network Planning & Design Self-Planning Installation & Initial Tuning Self-Config. Network Performance Improvement Self-optimiz.

Operation & Maintenance Stage Network Operation & Maintenance Self-Optiz. & Maintenance Network Upgrade and evolution

Self-Organising Network (SON) SON effectively reduces human intervention in deployment and operation stage. Thus, SON saves both CAPEX & OPEX. SON with ICIC : SON helps inter-cell interference coordination to improve cell edge throughput and user experience

eNB 1

eNB 2

eNB 3

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SON Improving Operation Efficiency

Planning Phase

Deploymen t Phase

Optimization Phase

Maintenance Phase

Automatic Network Planning Automatic Config. Planning Automatic Parameter Planning

Automatic PCI/TA Optimization Automatic Neighbor Relation Inter-RAT ANR,MRO, System Load Balance, RACH Optimization Inventory Management Sleeping Cell detection Antenna Fault Detection Cell/interface/sub. trace

Self- configuration (Plug & Play) Auto Software Management

SON makes LTE network more efficient and solves new challenges when network architecture changes

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Page 48

Typical SON Features at Initial Stage


ANR: Automatic Neighbor Relation Self-Config.: Quick Deployment
S/W Config Config Config Config S/W

File Server

EMS + DHCP

New

eNodeB

Save cost & Improve exactness Avoid first HO failure due to missing neighbor relation

Plug & Play Installation Shorten deployment duration

MLB: Mobility Load Balancing


Cell A Cell B Cell B Cell C

MRO: Mobility Robust Optimization


Value
unnecessary HO Rate

Cell A

Cell B

Cell C

HO successful rate

Optimizing cell reselection and handover parameters Reduce call drop rate, handover failure rate, Reduce unnecessary redirection

More reliable Improve network KPI by HO optimization

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Page 49

Thank you
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