Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 24

FLAME SCANNERS

INTRODUCTION
PRINCIPLE PURPOSE OF FLAME SAFEGUARD SUPERVISIORY SYSTEM IS TO ENSURE THAT IT IS SAFE TO LIGHT THE BOILER AND CONTINUE BOILER OPERATION. IT IS ALSO USED FOR BOILER SHUTDOWN. ACCURATE DETECTION OF A FIRE IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT TASKS OF FSSS. FOR THIS PURPOSE THERMOCOUPLES , FLAME RODS OR FLAME SCANNERS ARE INSTALLED. UV, IR AND MULTIPLE FREQUENCY SENSING ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF FLAME SCANNERS.

INTRODUCTION
A FLAME SCANNER IS A SENSOR THAT DETECTS PRESENCE OF FIRE IN THE BOILER BY ABSORBING THE LIGHT ENERGY EMMITTED BY THE FIRE. AN IDEAL FLAME SCANNER DETECTS A FLAME OF INTEREST WHILE TOTALLY IGNORING OTHERS AND IS UNAFFECTED BY CHANGES IN AMBIENT CONDITIONS. EMMITTED RADIATION EXTENDS FROM INFRARED TO ULTRAVOILET RANGE. RADIATIONS ARE FUNCTIONS OF FLAME TEMPERATURE AND EMMISSIVITY.HENCE FLAME SCANNERS MUST BE ABLE TO DISTINGUISH RADIATION FROM SECONDARY SOURCES SUCH AS HEATED FURNACE AND BURNER PARTS. SCANNERS MAY DETECT INFRARED ,ULTRAVOILET OR ANY OF FREQUENCY OF LIGHT BETWEEN OR A COMBINATION OF THE ABOVE.

MECHANICAL COMPONENTS
Comprises of a stationary part called the flame scanner guide assembly and a removable part called the flame scanner assembly.
FLAME SCANER GUIDE ASSEMBLY: SCANNER HEAD HOUSING FLEXIBLE METAL HOSE :- Adapts scanner to tilting of wind box nozzles. RIGID GUIDE PIPE SECTION:- Fixed to the wind box and serves as a protective cover/packing gland. COOLING AIR MANIFOLD:- is screwed onto the guide pipe COVER PLATE: closes the wind box opening when scanner is removed for maintenance.

MECHANICAL COMPONENTS
FLAME SCANNER ASSEMBLY: SCANNER HEAD ASSEMBLY:- Comprises of a scanner head body with the collimator tube, shield, collimating lens, barrel, mounting plate, compression spring, one end of fiber optic cable and a plug. FLEXIBLE METAL HOSE:- Houses the fiber optic cable RIGID PIPE:- Houses the fiber optic cable SCANNER HOUSING ASSEMBLY:- houses the scanner head electronics card which converts visible light signal to equivalent electrical signal.

FLAME SCANNER ASSEMBLY:FLEXIBLE METAL HOSE

RIGID PIPE

SCANNER HOUSING SCANNER HEAD ASSEMBLY

FLAME SCANNER ASSEMBLY:SPACER LENS SCANNER HEAD BODY

PLUG

COMPRESSION SPRING

FIBER OPTIC CABLE

ELECTRICAL COMPONENETS
LOCAL: SCANNER HOUSING ELECTRONICS

REMOTE : POWER SUPPLY MODULE:INTENSITY & FAULT DETECTION CARD:FREQUENCY DETECTION CARD:LAMP & METER CARD:LAMP DRIVER CARD:-

2/4 FLAME INDICATION & FAULT ALARM:-

ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
SCANNER HOUSING ELECTRONICS : Flame signal (light) transmitted via the fiber optic cable strikes a photodiode. Light signal is converted into an small current signal by the photodiode. Current signal is converted to a voltage signal. (1.5v for intense brightness and 6.4 v for no light) Voltage signal is amplified by an amplifier of gain 1/3. Voltage signal is the converted into a current signal and sent to remote electronics.

SCANNER HOUSING ELECTRONICS


TRIMMING POTS

PHOTOCOUPLER ASSEMBLY

ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
POWER SUPPLY CARD : I/P voltage and frequency:- 110V 50 Hz O/P voltage:- +15v, -15VDC

POWER SUPPLY CARD:CARD

P/S SWITCH

ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
INTENSITY AND FAULT DETECTION CARD :Current Signal Converted To Equivalent millivolt signal. Intensity slope is inverted and multiplied by factor 3. This active flame signal consists of intensity and frequency components. The active flame signal is transmitted to the frequency detection cards as well as the intensity circuitry. The ac component is eliminated to obtain an intensity only flame signal.

ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
INTENSITY AND FAULT DETECTION CARD :Comparator amplifier determines whether a flame is present or not present. Pull-in and pull-out threshold levels are maintained at 40% AND 20% and can be adjusted manually. Fault signal is transmitted to both Lamp & meter card ,Lamp Driver card, 2/4 flame indication and fault alarm card.

INTENSITY AND FAULT DETECTION CARD


DROP OUT SWITCH DROP OUT POT PULL IN POT

INTENSITY INDICATOR

PULL OUT SWITCH

ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
FREQUENCY DETECTION CARD :Two types of frequency detection cards used. One is tuned to frequency 3hz to determine existence fireball flame frequency in the active flame signal and the other is tuned to 29hz and is used for determining oil gun flame frequency. Active flame signal from intensity and fault detection card is ac coupled to block intensity information. Ac signal is compared with set frequency. A match generates a logic one. Delay of 2 secs is provided during frequency permissive drop out.

FREQUENCY DETECTION CARD


FILTER SWITCH

FREQUENCY LED

YELLOW TRIM

ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
LAMP AND METER CARD :Oil guns flame/no flame and visual intensity FAULT warnings are generated. Flame intensity signal is indicated on Flame intensity mA Meter. Power supply of +/-15Vdc is provided to the scanner housing electronics.

LAMP AND METER CARD


FLAME LED FAULT LED INTENSITY METER

ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
2/4 FAULT INDICATION AND FAULT ALARM:ALARM
Provides contact closure of relay when at least 2 out of 4 scanners are detecting fireball flame. Provides contact closure of relay when fault is detected on any scanner cable or scanner head electronics. These contact are further used in DCS: - Fault signal is used to alert operator of existing fault is system. - 2/4 flame scanner in service is used in Boiler tripping logic.

2/4 FAULT INDICATION AND FAULT ALARM:ALARM


2/4 FLAME

FAULT

RELAYS

ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
LAMP DRIVER CARD :Fireballs flame/no flame signal is generated when - Intensity O/P is at logic one. - Frequency O/P is at logic one - Fault detection O/P is at logic zero.