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College of

Engineering
Capacity Allocation in
Multi-cell UMTS
Networks for Different
Spreading Factors with
Perfect and Imperfect
Power Control
Robert Akl, D.Sc.
Son Nguyen, M.S.
Department of Computer
Science and Engineering













2/53
Outline
User and Interference Model
WCDMA Capacity with Perfect Power
Control
WCDMA Capacity with Imperfect Power
Control
Spreading Factors
Numerical Results
Conclusions













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CDMA with One Class of Users
Cell j
Cell i
j r
i r
( )
( )
( )
10
2
, 10
,
, /
E
j
m
j
j
ji m
Cj
j
i i
r x y
n
dA x y
A
r x y
I
,
_
(
(
=
(
(

}}
( )
2
( , )
( , )
( , )
m
s j
ji m
i C
j
nj r x y
e dA x y
Aj
r x y
I
o
=
}}
ji
I =
Relative average interference at cell
i caused by n
j
users in cell j

dA
ln(10)
10
=
s
o
where
is the standard deviation
of the attenuation for the
shadow fading
m is the path loss exponent













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WCDMA with Multiple Classes
of Users
2
( )
, ,
( , )
( , ) ( , )
( , )
s
j
m
j
ji g g g j g
m
j i C
r x y
e
I S v n w x y dA x y
A r x y
o
=
} }
is the user distribution density at (x,y)


w(x,y)
Inter-cell Interference at cell i caused
by n
j
users in cell j of class g
2
( )
,
( , )
( , ) ( , ).
( , )
s
j
m
j
ji g
m
j i C
r x y
e
w x y dA x y
A r x y
o
k =
} }
is per-user (with service g) relative inter-cell interference factor
from cell j to BS i
, ji g
k













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Total Inter-cell Interference Density
in WCDMA
inter
, ,
1, 1
1
M G
g g g j g ji g
j j i g
I S n
W
v k
= = =
=

M
is the total number of
cells in the network

G total number of services
W is the bandwidth of the
system













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Model User Density with 2D
Gaussian Distribution
2 2
1 2
1 2
1 1
2 2
1 2
( , )
2
x y
w x y e e

o o
q
to o
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .
=
own
,
1
1
G
g g g i g
g
I S n
W
v
=
=

is the total intra-cell
interference density caused
by all users in cell i
means is a user density normalizing parameter
variances of the distribution for every cell













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Signal-to-Noise Density in WCDMA
is the thermal noise density,
is the bit rate for service g
0
N
R
g
own inter
0
,
0
g
g
b
g g
i g
i i
S
R
E
S
I
N I I
W
v
| |
=
|
\ .
+ +
is the minimum signal-to-noise ratio required
0 , , ,
1 1, 1
g
g
g
G M G
g
i g g j g g ji g g
g j j i g
S
R
S
N n n
W
t
v v k v
-
-
= = = =
s
(
+ +
(


g
t
where













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Simultaneous Users in WCDMA Must Satisfy
the Following Inequality Constraints
( )
0
1
g g
eff
g g g
R
W
c
R S N t
-
(
=
(
(

is the minimum signal-to-noise
ratio
g
t
is the maximum signal
power
g
S
-
the number of users in BS i for
given service g
,
n
i g
( )
, , ,
1 1, 1
G M G
g
i g g j g g ji g g eff
g j j i g
n n c v v k v
= = = =
+ s

1, 2, ,
( , , , )
g g M G
n n n
1, , g G =
The capacity in a WCDMA network is defined as the maximum
number of simultaneous users for all services
. This is for perfect power control (PPC).

where













9/53
Imperfect Power Control
Transmitted signals between BSs and MSs are subject to
multi-path propagation conditions
The received signals vary according to a log-
normal distribution with a standard deviation on the
order of 1.5 to 2.5 dB. Thus in each cell for every
user with service needs to be replaced
( )
0
,
b
E
I
i g
2
, , ( )
0 0
( ) ( )
c
b o b b i b
i,g
E E
E e
I I
|o
(
c =
(

, ,
( ) ( )
b i b i,g b o b
E E c
,
( )
b i b
E
i
g
2
( )
2
( )
( )
_
c
g
eff
g
eff IPC
c
c
e
|o














10/53
Relationship between Spreading
and Scrambling
Channelization codes: separate
communication from a single source
Scrambling codes: separate MSs and
BSs from each other













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Main differences between WCDMA
and IS-95 air interfaces
Channelization code Scrambling code
Usage Uplink: Separation of physical data
(DPDCH) and control channels
(DPCCH) from same MS
Downlink: Separation of downlink
connections to different MSs within
one cell.
Uplink: Separation of MSs

Downlink: Separation of
sectors (cells)
Length Uplink: 4-256 chips same as SF
Downlink 4-512 chips same as SF
Uplink: 10 ms = 38400 chips
Downlink: 10 ms = 38400 chips
Number of
codes
Number of codes under one
scrambling code = spreading factor
Uplink: Several millions
Downlink: 512
Code family Orthogonal Variable Spreading
Factor
Long 10 ms code: Gold Code
Short code: Extended S(2)
code family
Spreading Yes, increases transmission
bandwidth
No, does not affect
transmission bandwidth













12/53
Spreading Factor













13/53
Orthogonal Variable Spreading
Factor (OVSF) codes













14/53
Simulations
Network configuration
COST-231 propagation model
Carrier frequency = 1800 MHz
Average base station height = 30 meters
Average mobile height = 1.5 meters
Path loss coefficient, m = 4
Shadow fading standard deviation,
s
= 6 dB
Bit energy to interference ratio threshold, = 9.2 dB
Activity factor, v = 0.375
Processing gain, W/R = 6.02 dB, 12.04 dB, 18.06 dB,
and 24.08 dB for Spreading Factors equal to 4, 16,
64, and 256.














15/53
Numerical Results













16/53
Numerical Results













17/53
Numerical Results













18/53
Numerical Results













19/53
Results of Optimized Capacity
Calculation
The SIR threshold for the received
signals is decreased by 0.5 to 1.5 dB
due to the imperfect power control.
As expected, we can have many low
rate voice users or fewer data users as
the data rate increases.
The determined parameters of the 2-
dimensional Gaussian model matches
well with the traditional method for
modeling uniform user distribution.













20/53
Thank You!!

Questions?