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Permanent Mandibular First Molar

Buccal aspect
General considerations: The buccal is the largest lateral surface of not only the mandibular first molar, but of any tooth in the mouth Mesial outline: slightly concave from the contact area cervically, and convex occlusal to the contact. Distal outline: more convex than the mesial outline. In the occlusal third, it is more rounded. Cervical outline: slight, but regular curvature apically. Occlusal outline: The occlusal third is wider than the cervical. !t is divided into three portions by two grooves: mesiobuccal groove, and distobuccal groove. The mesiobuccal and distobuccal cusp tips are relatively blunt, while the distal cusp is normally lower, and somewhat sharper.

Lingual aspect
General considerations: generally smaller than the buccal surface. Mesial outline: The mesial outline is convex occlusal from the contact area. And From the contact area cervically, it is concave. Distal outline: The entire distal margin is convex Cervical margin: The cervical line is located at a more occlusal level, than on the buccal surface. It is usually irregular and nearly straight. Occlusal margin: is usually broken by the lingual groove. The two lingual cusp tips are more pointed than the buccal cusp tips, and they are approximately equal in height

Mesial aspect
General considerations: the surface is wider at the cervical than at the occlusal. From the mesial and distal aspects, the crown displays the lingual inclination which is unique to the mandibular posterior teeth. Buccal outline: convex, but is most convex at the cervical third. Lingual outline: is straight, or slightly convex, from the cervical margin to the height of contour in the middle third. It is quite convex occlusal to the height of contour. Cervical margin: relatively straight, or slightly curved occlusally, but it is always located at a more occlusal level on the lingual side. Occlusal margin: This margin is concave. A mesial marginal groove is usually present.

Distal aspect
General considerations: The distal surface is similar in outline to the mesial, however, generally smaller Buccal, Lingual and Cervical outlines: similar to that of the mesial Occlusal outline: similarly concave. The distal marginal ridge is notched by the distal marginal groove, which is shorter than the mesial marginal groove, and located to the lingual of center. The marginal ridge is sometimes difficult to separate from the outline of the distal cusp

General considerations: The crown is wider mesiodistally than buccolingually Buccal outline: The distal portion of the buccal outline tapers toward the lingual. The buccal outline is separated into three sections by the two buccal grooves. The relative length of the three portions decreases distally. Lingual outline: The lingual margin is divided into two portions by the lingual groove. The mesial portion is slightly the longer of the two. Mesial outline: is divided into two approximately equal segments by the mesial marginal groove Distal outline: The distal is the shortest of the four margins, and consists of two convexities, separated by the distal marginal groove. Boundaries: The occlusal table is bounded proximally by the two marginal ridges, and on the buccal and lingual by the mesial and distal cusp ridges of the five cusps.

Occlusal aspect

Components of the Occlusal Table

A. Cusps: There are normally five cusps 1. Mesiobuccal cusp: is the bulkiest cusp, and the longest of the three buccal cusps, although rather blunt and rounded 2. Distobuccal cusp: 3. Mesiolingual cusp: Along with the DL, the ML cusp is the longest and sharpest of the cusps, and it is second in size to the MB cusp 4. Distolingual cusp: slightly smaller in size than the mesiolingual cusp. 5. Distal cusp: is the smallest and shortest of the five cusps.

Cusp comparison: i. cusp length (height) from highest to lowest:

mesiolingual and distolingual cusps are approximately the same height Mesiobuccal distobuccal distal cusp.

ii. cusp size (bulk) from largest to smallest:

The mesiobuccal cusp is the largest cusp, mesiolingual distolingual distobuccal distal cusp

B. Transverse ridges: There are no transverse ridges on the occlusal surface of the mandibular first molar. C. Marginal ridges: The two marginal ridges are named mesial and distal marginal ridges D. Fossae: There are three recognizable fossae on the occlusal table 1. Central fossa: located in the central portion of the occlusal table. It is the largest and deepest of the three fossae. It is bounded by the triangular ridges of the four major cusps. 2. Mesial triangular fossa: Its boundaries include the mesial marginal ridge, the triangular ridges of the two mesial cusps, and the mesial cusp ridges of the two mesial cusps 3. Distal triangular fossa: It is the shallowest and least distinct of the three occlusal fossae. It is bounded by portions of the distal cusp and distal marginal ridge, as well as the triangular ridges of the D and DL cusps

E. Pits and grooves: 1. Central pit: The central pit is located in the central fossa, and is the deepest pit on the occlusal surface. It is at the junction of three primary developmental grooves:
Mesiobuccal (Buccal) groove: extends from the central pit buccally onto the buccal surface Distobuccal groove: extends in a distobuccal direction from the central pit onto the buccal surface Lingual groove: extends from the central pit lingually onto the lingual surface

2. Mesial pit: situated halfway buccolingually in the deepest area of the mesial triangular fossa. It is not as deep as the central pit. This pit is the junction of four developmental grooves:
Central groove (Mesial portion): extends mesiobuccally from the central pit a short distance, and then continues in a mesial direction to the mesial pit Mesiobuccal triangular groove Mesiolingual triangular groove Mesial marginal groove: From the mesial pit, this groove crosses the mesial marginal ridge in a mesial direction

3. Distal Pit: located midway buccolingually in the depth of the distal triangular fossa. It is not so deep as the central or mesial pits. It is the union of three developmental grooves:
Central groove (Distal portion): From the distal pit, this groove passes mesiobuccally to become confluent with the distobuccal groove Distolingual triangular groove: extends from the distal pit toward the distolingual line angle, where it fades out Distal marginal groove: It extends distally from the distal pit over the distal marginal ridge.

The mandibular first molar has a root trunk which bifurcates to form mesial and distal roots (branches). 1. Mesial root: The mesial branch is the widest and strongest of the two roots. It curves mesially from the cervical line to the middle third, and then angles slightly distally to the apex. 2. Distal root: The distal branch is generally smaller and weaker than the mesial root. It is usually straight Mid root section: In cross section at this level, both roots are wider buccolingually, and the mesial root has a larger outline. The outline is convex buccally and lingually on both roots. Mesially and distally, the outline is flattened or concave