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Overview of UMTS Technology & Its Evolution

WCDMA Customized Training for CSSC

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Module Objectives
Get basic understanding of mobile networks as well as 3G Identify the motivation factors for 3G Understand the evolution of 2G, UMTS, HSPA, LTE and their
benefits

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Module Contents

Cellular System UMTS LTE Mobile Technologies Comparison

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Module Contents

Cellular System UMTS LTE Mobile Technologies Comparison

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Principle of Cellular Systems

6 6 7 1 4 9 7 1 4 9 5 5 6 8 4 9 7

Advantage:
8 Capacity Roaming 5 6 8 1 1980-2000 Growth Sales of Cellular Networks > 50% / year Handover

7
1

8 4

5
9

Country

System

Frequency Range

Year of Introduction

USA
Japan Scandinavia Great Britain Germany
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AMPS
NTT-MTS NMT TACS C450 CT81411EN01GLA0

800
800 450, 900 900 450

1979
1979 1981-86 1985 1985

Advantages of Digital Data Transmission


Network Capacity: Speech Compression Supplementary Service: Signaling Cost: Production, Operation, Maintenance Miniaturization: Micro Electronics Transmission Quality: Easy to Regenerate Security: Easy to Cipher Signal Quality Cipher Sequence I love you

Input Data (original)

Cipher Module

Digital Signal
Analogue Signal Output Data (ciphered)

Distance to BS
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GSM Evolutionary Concept

Services
Downward compatibility

Phase 1

Phase 2 Phase 1 1995


New services e.g. MTPy, CUG, AoC; Half Rate Speech (HR)

Phase 2+ Phase 2 Phase 1


1997

1991
Full Rate Speech (FR), Standard services Data: max. 9.6 kbit/s

Year

MTPy: Multiparty Service CUG: Closed User Group AoC: Advice of Charge ASCI: Advanced Speech Call Items SOR: Support of Optimal Routing UUS: User to User Signalling

EFR: Enhanced Full Rate Speech IN: Intelligent Network CAMEL: Customized Applications for Mobile network Enhanced Logic HSCSD: High Speed Circuit Switched Data GPRS: General Packet Radio Service EDGE: Enhanced Data Rates for the GSM Evolution
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New services e.g. ASCI, SOR, UUS EFR; IN: CAMEL Data: HSCSD, GPRS, EDGE (> 100 kbit/s) Annual Releases !

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http://3gpp.org/article/functionality-in-early-gsm

3G Services Required Data Rates

Video Conferences Videotelephony


Services UMTS offers flexible and dynamic data rates: 8 2000 kbps

Tele-shopping

Electronic Newspaper, Image/Sound Files Tele-banking Financial Services Database Access Information Service Email Voice
10
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100 Data Rate (kbps)


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1000

10000

Module Contents

Cellular System UMTS LTE Mobile Technologies Comparison

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3GPP Organizational Partners


Organization

3GPP Organizational Partners Base region Japan USA China Europe Korea Japan

Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB) Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS) China Communications Standards Association (CCSA) European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) Telecommunications Technology Association (TTA) Telecommunication Technology Committee (TTC)

UMTS
To attend a 3GPP meeting, you must be a 3GPP Individual Member (i.e. you must be a Member of one of the Organizational Partners involved in the project; 1. ARIB, 2. CCSA, 3. ETSI, 4. ATIS, 5. TTA or 6. TTC

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power P time t

power

FDMA

P time t

TDMA

TS 3 TS 2 TS 1 1 2 3

power P

frequency f

frequency f
For coordinating limited frequency resources to different users

time t

CDMA

Multiplex method
FDMA TDMA CDMA

BS & MS with common know-how regarding:


Frequency Time PN code

3 2 1

frequency f
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Evolution of UMTS

R A N

UTRAN

QoS HSDPA

HSUPA

Rel 98 (EGPRS)
C O R E

Rel 99 ( = Rel 3)

Rel 4

Rel 5

Rel 6

VoIP MGW

QoS IMS

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Evolution of UMTS (Continued)

R A N

HSPA+ Rel 7

HSPA+ Rel 8, LTE

HSPA+ Rel 9, LTE Rel 9

Rel 6
C O R E

Rel 7

Rel 8

Rel 9

Direct Tunnel

SAE

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UMTS Release 99 Environment


Core Network: Same as GSM/GPRS/EDGE Radio Access Network: User Equipment (UE) = Mobile phone + USIM Node B Base station supporting WCDMA Radio Network Controller (RNC) Controller in 3G RAN Iur interface: Unlike 2G, Iur exists between neighbouring RNCs.

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UMTS Release 99 Air Interface

Bandwidth:
Large 5 MHz .

FDD:
Simultaneous transmit and receive using different band.

WCDMA
Spreading: creating signal through unique user code to create multiple
bandwidth. Dispreading: re-obtaining original signal by correlating signal with user code.

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HSPA or HSxPA
Consists of:

HSDPA = High Speed Downlink Packet Access


Introduced in Release 5 Up to 14.4 Mbps in downlink

HSUPA = High Speed Uplink Packet Access


Introduced in Release 6 Up to 5.76 Mbps in uplink

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HSxPA Motivation and General Principle


Improved performance and spectral efficiency in DL and UL by introducing a shared channel principle:

Significant enchancement with peak rates up to 14.4 Mbps (28 Mbps in Rel7) in
DL, and 2 Mbps (11.5 Mbps with 16QAM) in UL Huge capacity increase per site; no site pre-planning necessary Improved end user experience: reduced delay/latency, high response time

Rel. 99 Dedicated pipe for every UE HSUPA (3GPP Rel6) Dedicated pipe for every UE in UL Pipe (codes and grants) changing with time E-DCH scheduling HSDPA (3GPP Rel5) Fast pipe is shared among UEs
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HSDPA
Introduced in Release 5. Can coexist with non-HSDPA in the same cell. Improve downlink direction. Uplink still relies on Rel '99.
Advantages: Higher data rate: up to 14.4 Mbps with practical rate 10.8 Mbps. Reduce latency:
especially with TCP Slow Start and Congestion Avoidance. Retransmission and HARQ in Node B.

Spectral efficiency: TTI=2ms schedule of shared channels.

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HSDPA Overview

15 Code Shared transmission

16QAM Modulation

TTI = 2 ms

Hybrid ARQ with incr. redundancy

Fast Link Adaptation

Advanced Scheduling

Benefit Higher Downlink Peak rates: 14 Mbps Higher Capacity: +100-200% Reduced Latency: ~75 ms

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HSUPA
Introduced in Release 6. Improve uplink direction. Rely on HSDPA in downlink.
Advantages: Higher data rate: up to 5.76 Mbps with practical rate 1.44 Mbps in first version. Reduce latency: retransmission request by Node B. Increased coverage and capacity: efficient handling of uplink interference problem.

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HSUPA Overview

1-4 Code Multi-Code transmission

TTI = 2 or10 ms

Hybrid ARQ with incr. redundancy

Fast Power Control

NodeB Controlled Scheduling

Benefit Higher Uplink Peak rates: 5.76 Mbps Higher Capacity: +50-100% Reduced Latency: ~50-75 ms

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Improved Performance with HSUPA

User data rate

20 100% improvement depending on the channel conditions

Round trip time, delays

Round trip time approximately 50 milliseconds


Cell throughput improved by 20 50%

Cell throughput

Coverage

Coverage gain 0.5 1.5dB

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HSPA+
Also called Evolved HSPA (eHSPA), HSPA Evolution

Corresponds to HSPA in Release 7 and later


Some key features:

MIMO 64QAM in downlink 16QAM in uplink Direct tunnel etc.

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HSPA+ Features and Benefits


3GPP Rel7/Rel8 item Continuous Packet Connectivity (DTX/DRX) CS voice over HSPA HS-FACH, HS-RACH SRNS Relocation Enhancement, Enhancement for HSPA Arch. Flexible RLC in DL and UL 64QAM DL, MIMO2x2, DC-HSPA, 16QAM UL Impact on end user experience Extended battery time

Continuous connectivity
Faster set-up times System capacity, E2E and architecture efficiency Cell throughput and typical throughput improvements

Peak data rate improvements

HSPA+ is not only about the peak data rates!


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HSPA Data Rate Evolution

3GPP Rel5

3GPP Rel6

3GPP Rel7

3GPP Rel8

3GPP Rel9

84 Mbps

28 Mbps
14 Mbps 0.4 Mbps 14 Mbps 11 Mbps 5.7 Mbps

42 Mbps 22 Mbps 11 Mbps

Performance with 2x2 MIMO and 16QAM for Rel 7 With 2x2 MIMO and 64QAM for Rel 8 With 2x2 MIMO, 64QAM and dual cell for Rel 9

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Module Contents

Cellular System UMTS LTE Mobile Technologies Comparison

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LTE
Long Term Evolution
OFDMA

Only packet switched Intend to coexist with existing 2G/3G/HSPA networks

Major changes to: Air interface Network architecture: SAE (System Architecture Evolution) Improved Radio Principles:
peak data rates [Mbps ]: 173 DL , 58 UL Scalable BW: 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz Short latency: 10 20 ms
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LTE Principles
New Architecture Flat Architecture: 2-node architecture PS Core Network optimized No CS Core Network
Access Core Control

LTE BTS (eNodeB)

MME/GW

IMS

HLR/HS S

Improved Radio Principles RF Modulation: peak data rates [Mbps ]: 173 DL , 57 UL OFDMA in DL Scalable Carrier Bandwidth: SC-FDMA in UL 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz Short latency: 10 20 ms RAN MME GW 2 - 4 times better spectral efficiency that HSPA
Rel. 6
eUtran

New Interfaces Design Simplified Protocol Stack Simple, more efficient QoS IP network layer
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Module Contents

Cellular System UMTS LTE Mobile Technologies Comparison

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GSM and UMTS Evolution


LTE UMTS
GSM

Phase 2+ Capabilities

Rel. 3 Rel. 7 Rel. 8

Phase 2 Phase 1

Rel. 4 Rel. 97 Rel. 98 Rel. 99

Rel. 5

Rel. 6

Rel. 96

Voice Data ~9.6kbps

ISDN Supp. Services

New Supp. Services Data: HSCSD, GPRS, EDGE Flexible Services: CAMEL, MExE

WCDMA

Bearer Indp. Signaling LCRTDD

IMS HSDPA

I-WLAN GAN HSUPA

HSPA+ PCC

OFDMA

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1st Generation (1G)


Timeframe Technology 1950s mid 1990s NMT, AMPS

2nd Generation (2G)


1990s 2020s (?) GSM, D-AMPS (USA), PDC (Japan) A number of closed standards Initially < 10 kbps Evolved to > 50 kbps

3rd Generation (3G)


2001 (?) IMT-2000, UMTS, CDMA2000, Mobile WiMAX A number of open standards Initially < 2 Mbps Evolved to 40 Mbps Digital

4th Generation (4G)


2010 onwards IMT-advanced

Standards

Mostly proprietary, domestic

Integration of heterogeneous standards 100 Mbps mobile 1 Gbps nomadic Digital

Bandwidth (theoretical) Analog/Digital Analog radio, analog/digital network Circuit Switched In the 100 km range Basic (national scope) Speech

Digital

CS/PS Cell Radius Roaming Services

Circuit Switched Kilometers Advanced (continental scope) Speech, some data (SMS, MMS, WAP)

Circuit and Packet Switched Meters to Kilometers Global (within same technology) Speech, data, webportals, LBS

All IP Centimeters to Kilometers Global (inter technology) Any IP-based services

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Release 96 14.4 kbit/s User Data Rate ASCI Phase 1 - Enhanced Multi-* Level Precedence and Pre-emption Service -* phase 1 ASCI Phase 1 - Voice Broadcast Service (VBS) - phase 1 ASCI Phase 1 - Voice Group Call Service (VGCS) - phase 1 Barred Dialling Numbers CAMEL phase 1 Compression of User Data Concurrent SMS/CB and data transfer in 07.05 Explicit Call Transfer (ECT) Extensions to the SMS alphabet Fast Moving Mobile - Hierarchical Cell structure, GSM 05.22 Handsfree MS High Speed Circuit Switched Data Improved Transcoder Handling (First Alternative) Inclusion of deferred tracing capabilities in GSM 12.08 ME Personalisation Network Identity and Time Zone (NITZ) Packet Data on Signalling Channels Radio Local Loop (RLL) using GSM Second SMS broadcast channel Service Dialling Numbers SIM Application Toolkit SIM I/F data Transfer Speed Enhancement SMS - Special SMS Message indication SMS Interworking Extensions Support of additional call set-up MMI procedures Support of Optimal Routeing (SOR) Support of Restricted Digital Information and V.120 rate adaptation in GSM

Release 97 A-bis Management of Alarms/faults on the BTS site A-bis Management of Measure on the BTS site A-bis Management of reconfiguration of BTS site ASCI Phase 2 Calling Name Presentation - US (CNAP-US) CAMEL phase 2 Characteristics and test methods for handsfree mobile station Completion of Calls to Busy Subscriber (CCBS) Enhancement of MAP Extensibility Mechanisms Enhancements of Fault Management Services General Packet Radio Service Phase 1 (GPRS) network part General Packet Radio Service Phase 1 (GPRS) - radio part Mobile Assisted Frequency Allocation (MAFA) Modeling of Fault Management Services Network Indication of Alerting in the MS New Multiplexing Protocol on the ME-TE Interface North American Equal Access SIM - Security mechanisms for the SIM Application Toolkit SMS enhancements phase 1 SMS Mobile Busy Support of Private Numbering Plan (SPNP) Support of Shared Interworking Function (SIWF)

http://3gpp.org/article/functionality-in-early-gsm

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Release 98 BTS performance requirements for very small cell scenarios (Picocells) Access to auxiliary devices, integrated into the ME platform, through the use of the SIM Application Toolkit Access to ISPs and Intranets in GPRS Phase 2 Separation of GPRS Bearer Establishment and ISP Service Environment Setup Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) Call Deflection Call Forwarding Enhancements (CFE) Calling line identification enhancements (CLIe) Connecting an octet stream to a port on an Internet host (R98) Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) - BSS Part Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) - NSS Part Enhanced QoS Support in GPRS Follow Me Fraud Information Gathering System(FIGS) General Packet Radio Service Phase 2 (GPRS) - network part1 General Packet Radio Service Phase 2 (GPRS) - radio part1 GPRS for PCS1900 GPRS Mobile IP Interworking GSM - Cordless Telephony System (CTS) GSM Mobile Number Portability (EURO) MNP GSM-API for SIM-Toolkit Harmonization of the PCS1900 Standards with the GSM Base Specification Immediate Service Termination (IST) LAPDm performance enhancement Lawful Interception (LI) Location Services (LCS) Mobile Station Execution Environment (MExE) Modem and ISDN interworking for GPRS MS Antenna Test Method Multiple Subscriber Profile (MSP) Service Provider Number Portability (USA) Support of Localized Service Area (SoLSA) Tandem Free Operation of speech codecs in Mobile-to-Mobile Calls (MMCs) Unstructured octet stream GPRS PDP Type (R98) User-to-User Signalling (UUS) USSD Enhancements 1 Comprises sub-work items in the same table having "GPRS" in their title.