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Discrete Control Logic 1.

Pneumatic circuits
8 4 6 5 9 1 2 3 10

- Low forces - Discrete, fixed travel distances - Rotational or reciprocating motion

7
Supply Side Usage Side

5 6 1 3 2

Main components: compressor, valves, cylinders

Pneumatic components: cylinders


double -acting

spring-return

air supply vent to atmosphere (air discharge)

tepping away from this mat, the person has to manually switch the robot back ON

Pneumatic components: valves

a 3/2 valve
valve actuation

a 5/2 valve

return spring

pneumatic

foot pedal

push button

solenoid (electrical)

roller (mechanical)

Simple Pneumatic control


START, A+, AA +

A-

A+ VA

Start

Pure Pneumatic control design: Cascade method


Example: Punch Press Operation: (i) part is clamped in position (ii) press punches the part (iii) the clamp is released (iv) part is removed from the table

START, A+, B+, B-, A-, C+, C-

Functions of A, B, C ? How to design pneumatic system?

Pure Pneumatic control design: Cascade method


(1) Write cylinder action sequence (2) Partition sequence into minimum no. of groups (no letter repeated in group) (3) Merge last group, first group (if possible) (4) Each cylinder is double-acting (5) Each cylinder is controlled by 5/2 valve (both pilot lines: pneumatic) (6) Each + and position of cylinder: limit valves (7) Each group => manifold line. The manifold line connects to the limit valves associated with the cylinders. (8) The air pressure in the manifolds is controlled by 5/2 valves called group valves. no. of group valves = (no of groups 1)

Cascade method: forming groups


START, A+, B+, B-, A-, C+, CBreak it down into groups: START, A+, B+ / B-, A-, C+ GRP 1 GRP 2 Merge Group 3 with Group 1 ? START, A+, B+ / B-, A-, C+ GRP 1 GRP 2 / CGRP 1 / CGRP 3

Cascade method: draw cylinders, manifolds, valves

- Draw the cylinders - For each cylinder, draw the limit valve (3/2 way) - For each cylinder, draw the control valve - Draw manifold lines - Limit valve connections: a2, b2 and c1 get their air supply from manifold 1 a1, b1 and c2 get their air supply from manifold 2 - Group valve connections: air supply: initially to GRP 1 (manifold 1), when pilot line 1 is active. line 1: activated by c2 (transition from GRP 2 GRP 1) line 2: activated by b2 - Connect air supply of each cylinders valve, and supply + and ports of each cylinder - Connect the logic lines according to sequence: START A+ B+ B- A- C+ C-

A +

a 1 B + V A + b 1 C + V B + c 1 b 2 S t a r t V C + 1 2 2 C a s c a d e c ic r u i t 1 a 2

Cascade method: forming groups


c 2 f o r :S T A R T ,A + ,B + ,B ,A ,C + ,C -

Pure Pneumatic Controls

- For more complex logic, difficult to debug - Less versatile than electronic control (e.g. no counters, poor timer control)

- pneumatics timer control: delay valves.

Programmable Logic Controllers


History: avoiding complex/large relay boards - Why are relay boards required?

PLC Basics: computer + relays

data communication wire


s ut ut in p t2 i np 3 ut

ut inp

u inp

in p t5

6 ut

ut

u np 1 i

C A/ 0V 22

u inp

t0

Box with Computer (controller) Power supply wire

PLC: example 1
to PLC Output: 1

warning bulb

robot

Sensor output, connected to PLC Input: 1

pressure sensitive mat

Pressure_Switch is ON Warning_Light ON

PLC: example 1

STEP 1: Write this logic into a PROGRAM STEP 2: Load program into PLC STEP 3: Connect the sensor output to External Input terminal. STEP 4: Connect the PLC External Output Terminal to Warning Light STEP 5: EXECUTE the logic program on the PLC.

PLC: example 1

Programming language: LADDER LOGIC

I:0/1

O:0/1

PLC: example 1

Programming language: LADDER LOGIC

I:0/1

O:0/1

IF

THEN

PLC: example 2

to PLC Output: 1

warning bulb

robot

Sensor output, connected to PLC Input: 1 Sensor output, connected to PLC Input: 2

inner pressure sensitive mat to PLC Output: 2 outer pressure sensitive mat

Outer mat ON warning light ON Inner mat ON warning light ON AND Robot OFF

Stepping away from inner mat Manually switch robot ON

PLC: example 2
Two actuators: Warning light, Robot master switch LOGIC for Warning light External Input 1: outer mat
I:0/1 O:0/1

I:0/2

External Input 2: inner mat

External output: light

PLC: example 2

I:0/1

O:0/1

LOGIC for Warning Light


I:0/2

I:0/2

O:0/2

LOGIC for Robot

WRONG !

PROBLEM ?

PLC: example 2
LOGIC for Robot Robot must STAY OFF until manual reset to ON Solution: LATCH External Input 2: inner mat latch
I:0/2 O:0/3

Internal (logical) relay

Incomplete
O:0/3

O:0/3

O:0/2

External output: robot

PLC: example 2
LOGIC for Robot Robot must STAY OFF until manual reset to ON
I:0/1 O:0/1 Legend: I:0/2 I:0/1 connected to Outer Mat Switch I:0/2 I:0/3 B1 I:0/2 connected to Inner Mat Switch I:0/3 connected to Push Button for robot reset O:0/1 connected to warning light B1 I:0/2 O:0/2 O:0/2 connected to robot

B1

Ladder Logic Programs

Switch (Relay) naming conventions Lecture notes (Rockwell Automation PLC): External inputs: I:0/1, I:0/2, , I:1/1, I:1/2, I:n/m External outputs: O:0/1, O:0/2, , O:1/1, O:1/2, O:n/m Internal Relays: B0, B1, etc. Lab (SMC PLC): External inputs: X0, X1, External outputs: Y0, Y1, , Internal Relays: R0, R1, etc.

PLC Example: XOR Logic

A xor B: (A is ON AND B is OFF) OR (A is OFF AND B is ON)

Ladder Logic: Timers


Solenoid actuated door-lock
I:0/1 Solenoid actuated when: O:0/1 T4: 1 DN

Solenoid ON Door unlocked

(i) ON signal from number-pad outside door (ii) ON signal from door-open switch inside door Legend:
I:0/1 Number Pad Signal to open door I:0/2 Push Button signal to open door O:0/1 Solenoid to unlock door

I:0/2

Solenoid ON for 5 sec, then OFF

O:0/1

O:0/1

Timer:

T4: 1

EN DN

While O:0/1 remains ON, Timer COUNTS DOWN from PRESET COUNT DOWN = 0 ( T4:1) set to ON

0.01 Preset: 500 Accum: 0


Base:

Ladder Logic: Timers


Solenoid actuated door-lock Solenoid ON Door unlocked

Solenoid actuated when: (i) ON signal from number-pad outside door (ii) ON signal from door-open switch inside door Solenoid ON for 5 sec, then OFF
I:0/1 T4: 1 DN I:0/2 I:0/1 Number Pad Signal to open door O:0/1 I:0/2 Push Button signal to open door O:0/1 Solenoid to unlock door O:0/1
Timer: T4: 1 EN DN

O:0/1 Legend:

0.01 Preset: 500 Accum: 0


Base:

Ladder Logic: Timers -- reset


Solenoid actuated when: (i) ON signal from number pad outside door (ii) ON signal from door-open switch inside door Solenoid ON for 5 sec, then OFF
I:0/1 T4: 1 DN I:0/2 O:0/1

Leg

I:0/ O:0/1

During ON, if button is pressed, Timer resets to PRESET During ON, light indicator is ON

I:0/

O:0 O:0/1
Timer: T4: 1 EN DN

O:0

0.01 Preset: 500 Accum: 0


Base:

LEGEND: I:0/1 door-open I:O/2 card-reader O:0/1 solenoid O:0/2 light indicator

O:0/1

O:0/2

I:0/2

T4: 1 RESET

Ladder Logic: counters


Count the number of occurrences of an event Examples: Pallet loading in factory After 10 parts arrive on conveyor, worker comes to load pallet Pneumatic press hammer Hit the part 20 times, then wait for part to be unloaded Rice cooker alarm Beep 5 times when rice is cooked

EVENT: switch goes from OFF ON

Ladder Logic: counters


Pallet loading in factory After 4 parts arrive on conveyor: STOP conveyor belt turn ON the indicator light
Legend:
Count Up Counter: C5: 1 DN Pres et: Accum: C5:1 DN I:0/0 O:0/2 O:0/1 4 0 O:0/2 CU

I:0/1

I:0/0 Conveyor ON I:0/1 Photo switch I:0/2 Operator controlled Push Button to restart conveyor

O:0/1 Conveyor belt O:0/2 Light Indicator

I:0/2

C5: 1 RESET

Ladder Logic: car wash

Car arrives limit switch ON Limit switch ON Washer ON Washer ON: (i) Soapy water SPRAY ON (30 secs) (ii) Rinse: clean water SPRAY ON (30 secs) (iii) Automatic scrubber brushes car (15 secs) (iv) After washing 50 cars, the scrubber brush Auto-change

I1 : 0 /

I2 : 0 /

B 1

B 1 T 4 : 0 E N B a s e : P rt e s e A c c u m : B 1 T 4 : 1 E N B a s e : P rt e s e : A c c u m : 0 . 0 1 6 0 0 0 0 T 4 : 2 E N B a s e : P rt e s e : A c c u m : B 1 T 4 : 0 T 4 : 1 0 . 0 1 7 5 0 0 0 T 4 : 2 D N T 4 : 2 D N T 4 : 2 D N C 5 : 0 E N P rt e s e : A c c u m : C 5 : 0 D N I : 3 0 / 5 0 0 O : 0 / 3 O : 0 / 0 : 0 . 0 1 3 0 0 0 0

I01:Sse O :/ yt m n I02:E egnySo :/ mr e c t p I03: L i S ic :/ i t wh m t O / : Sa W rO : 0 op a 0 te n O / :R s O : 1 i e n 0 n O / : Sr b e O : 2 c u br n 0 O / : Atv t Sr b e Ca g : 3 ci ae cu b r hn e 0 Ntc h w 1a dt etmro t usae oi e o B n h i e up t r ue t c nr lt el gc s do oto h oi a c r i gt th r q ir dt i g c odn o e e u e im . n

B 1

B 1

D N D N T 4 : 0 T 4 : 1 D N D N T 4 : 0 T 4 : 1 D N D N

O : 0 / 1

B 1

O : 0 / 2

O : 0 / 2 C T U

Car arrives limit switch ON Limit switch ON Washer ON Washer ON: (i) Soapy water SPRAY ON (30 secs) (ii) Rinse: clean water SPRAY ON (30 secs) (iii) Automatic scrubber brushes car (15 secs) (iv) After washing 50 cars, the scrubber brush Auto-change

T 4 : 0 R E S

I : 3 0 /

T 4 : 1 R E S

I : 3 0 /

T 4 : 2 R E S C: 50 R E S

O : 0 / 3

Programming a PLC

(1) Hand held console (direct feed of program into PLC)

(2) Computer-interface: (i) Complete the program on a computer (ii) Test the program on PC (iii) Upload the program to the PLC processor memory (persistent) (iv) Connect external Inputs and Outputs (v) Run the program on PLC

Operation cycle of PLC


Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3

00 01 02 03 04 05

00 Program Memory

30

30 31 32 33

Processor 06 07 08 Accumulator 09 37 10 11 input 11 input register output register 34 35 36 37 output