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BY DAVID WECHSLER

HISTORY
Alfred Binet was a French psychologist who developed

the first IQ test Binet-Simon Scale, then StanfordBinet Intelligence Scale soon became the standard intelligence test used in the U.S. The next development in the history of intelligence testing was the creation of a new measurement instrument by American psychologist David Wechsler.

INTRODUCTION
The WAIS-R extends the line of test development that

begin with the publication the Wechsler Bellevue intelligence scale in 1939, and continued with it revision, the WAIS published in 1955. WHAT INTELLIGENCE TEST MEASURES?
They are design to measure major mental abilities.

The concept of global intelligence? WAIS-R test develop to asses all abilities in human e.g. vocabulary, information, picture completion etc.

Organization of scale

Item content of the WAIS-R


VERBAL SCALE

Total

1995 WAIS
20 14 33

Sustainably modified
0 0 0

New

Information Digit span Vocabulary

29 14 35

9 0 2

Arithmetic Comprehension similarities

14 16 14

12 12 10

1 0 1

1 4 3

PERFORMANCE SCALE

Total

1995 WAIS Sustainably modified


14 1

New

Picture completion

20

Picture arrangement
Block design

10

Object assembly 4

Digit symbol

93

90

STANDEREDIZATION OF SCALE
A stratified sampling plan was adopted to insure that

representative proportions of various classes of adult would be included in the standardization sample. Age Sex Race Geographic Rigion Occupation Education Urban/Rural Residence

DERIVATION OF SCORES
Development of scoring rules. Rules for starting and discontinuing tests. Bonus for fast performance.

CONTRUCTION OF IQ TABLE
Age group 16-17 18-19 N Verbal scale MEAN 200 200 50.72 51.72 SD 12.52 12.66 Performance scale MEAN 47.37 46.92 SD 9.49 10.09 Full scale MEAN 98.10 98.65 SD 20.47 20.99

20-24
25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65-69 70-74

200
300 250 250 160 160 160

58.62
61.42 57.47 58.12 55.59 53.54 51.50

13.61
15.26 15.56 14.89 14.68 15.78 14.28

51.14
49.89 45.26 42.09 38.19 33.81 30.62

10.27
11.63 11.97 11.34 10.80 10.59 8.40

109.76
111.31 102.74 100.22 93.78 87.35 82.12

22.09
25.27 26.12 24.66 24.05 24.81 20.85

INTERPERTATION OF IQ
Quantitative interpretation: The verbal, performance, and full scale IQ distribution were constructed to have means of 100 and SD of 15 within each of 9 age group.

Classification of intelligence:
In using qualitative and diagnostic categories to describe

levels of intelligence it is desirable to assign numerical limits to each category.


Full Scale scores beyond 130 place an individual in the superior

or "gifted" range. Scores between 120-129 are classed as "very high." Scores between 110-119 are "bright normal." Classifications of other scores are as follows: 90-109, average; 85-89, low average; 70-84, borderline mental functioning, @50-69, mild mental retardation; 35- @49, moderate retardation; 20-34, severe retardation; below 20 to 25, profound retardation.

Properties of scale
Reliability : The reliability of a test refers to the accuracy of its measurements or put another way to the extent of agreement between score obtained from two or more administrations of the tests to the same subject. Two types of data are offered

Reliability coefficients Standered error of measurements

Properties of scale
Validity :
The initial evidence of the validity of the Wechsler Adult

scales stems from the procedures used to determine the content of the original W-B scale.

GENERAL TESTING CONSIDRATION


Range of application
Standard procedures Physical conditions Testing time Rapport

General directions for administration Timing the items Probing of responses

Precautions
Intelligence testing requires a clinically trained

examiner. The Wechsler scales should be administered, scored, and interpreted by a trained professional, preferably a psychologist or psychiatrist.

General directions for scoring


If a response is intended to replace an earlier response,

the earlier response should be ignored and the later one scored. Any spoiled response is scored 0 If two independent answers are given to a question, the examiner must ask which answer is intended If a subject gives two or more answers to a questions, non of which spoils the response, the best answer of the group should be scored

The Record form


The WAIS-R record form provides space to record and

score the subjects responses to the test items, and summarize selected information. Q _ Question DK _ Dont know Inc _ Incomplete NR _ No response

REFERANCES:
http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/wechsler.shtml
Taylor, M. J. & Heaton, R. K. (2001). Sensitivity and

specificity of WAISIII / WMSIII demographically corrected factor scores in neuropsychological assessment. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 7, 867 874.

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