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LAPLACE TRANSFORM

INTRODUCTION
Laplace transform is one of the tool or method for analyzing
circuits with sinusoidal or non-sinusoidal input.

Laplace transform id used to transform the circuit from the
time domain to the frequency domain and obtain the solution.
Then, apply inverse Laplace transformation to transform it
back to the time domain.

The advantages using Laplace transform is it can be applied
to variety of input and its provides an easy way to solve
circuits equation or problems that involving initial condition
and without differential equation.

Definition & Properties of Laplace
Transform
For a function of t, f(t), its laplace
transform is given by a definition equation
below;

}

= =
0
) ( ) ( )] ( [ dt e t f s F t f L
st
) ( ) ( s F t f
Properties of Laplace Transform

goI
EXAMPLE
( ) ( ) ( )
t
e t u t t f
2
3 2

+ = o
Find the Laplace transform of the :
( ) ( ) | | ( ) | | | |
t
e L t u L t L s f
2
3 2

+ = o
Refer to Laplace transform table
Exercise
Find the Laplace transform for :
a)

b)

c)
( )
t
e t t f
3
2 cos

+ =
( )
t
te t t f
2
5 2 sin 2

+ =
( ) t e t f
t
3 cos
2
=
Inverse Laplace transform
Inverse Laplace transform is the way how to transform
back to the time domain from frequency domain and
obtain the corresponding f(t).


However, finding the inverse laplace transform of F(s)
become easier by apply the following two steps;
decompose F(s) into simple terms using partial fraction
expansion.
find the inverse of each term by matching entries in
table


( ) | | ) (
1
t F s F L =

Step
1
Example 1
) 3 ( ) 2 ( ) 3 )( 2 (
12
2
+
+
+
+ =
+ +
+
s
C
s
B
s
A
s s s
s
Find the inverse Laplace of:
) 3 )( 2 (
12
2
+ +
+
s s s
s
Step
2
Find value of A,B and C
Find value A,B,C
2
) 3 )( 2 (
12
) 3 )( 2 (
12
| ) (
0
2
0
= =
+ +
+
= =
=
=
s
s
s s
s
s sF A
8
) 1 )( 2 (
12 4
) 3 )( (
12
| ) ( ) 2 (
2
2
2
=

+
=
+
+
= + =
=
=
s
s
s s
s
s F s B
7
) 1 )( 3 (
12 9
) 2 )( (
12
| ) ( ) 3 (
3
2
3
=

+
=
+
+
= + =
=
=
s
s
s s
s
s F s B
So



refer table to find the inverse Laplace
for

) 3 (
7
) 2 (
8 2
) 3 )( 2 (
12
) (
2
+
+
+
=
+ +
+
=
s s s s s s
s
s F
Step
3
(

+
+
(

=

) 3 (
7
) 2 (
8 2
) (
1 1 1
s
L
s
L
s
L t f
t t
e e t f
3 2
7 8 2 ) (

+ =
Example 2
Find the inverse Laplace of:
Give your attention to partial fraction !!!
) 4 ( ) 4 ( ) 1 ( ) 4 )( 1 (
4 10
) (
2 2
2
+
+
+
+
+
+ =
+ +
+
=
s
D
s
C
s
B
s
A
s s s
s
s F
Find value of A,B and C

A=1/4

B=-14/9

C=41/3
The step same as
example 1
How to find D

4
2
2
4
2
4 10
) ( ) 4 (
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
= + =
s
s
s s
s
ds
d
s F s
ds
d
D
s du
s u
20
4 10
2
=
+ =
1 2
2
+ =
+ =
s dv
s s v
( )
13
4
132 80
) (
) 1 2 )( 4 10 ( ) 20 (
4
2 2
2 2
2
=
+
=
+
+ + +
=

= s
s s
s s s s s
v
udv vdu
So
t t t
e te e t u t f
s
L
s
L
s
L
s
L t f
2 2
1
2
1 1 1
13 22 14 ) ( ) (
) 4 (
13
) 4 (
22
) 1 (
14 1
) (


+ + =
(

+
+
(

+
+
(

=
Example 3
) 25 8 ( ) 3 ( ) 25 8 )( 3 (
20
) (
2 2
+ +
+
+
+
=
+ + +
=
s s
C Bs
s
A
s s s
s F
( ) 2
10
20
) 25 8 (
20
| ) ( 3
3
2
3
= =
+ +
= + =
=
=
s
s
s s
s F s A
Find B and C
Create 2 equation for any value of s (
s-3)

10
3
50 20
2
20 3 25
25
) 0 (
3 ) 75 (
20
) 25 8 ( ) 3 ( ) 25 8 )( 3 (
20
) (
0
2 2
=

=
=
= +
+
+ =
+ +
+
+
+
=
+ + +
=
=
C then
A
C A
so
C B A
s s
C Bs
s
A
s s s
s F
s f or

2
4
68 40 20
10
2
20 4 4 34
34 4 ) 34 ( 4
20
) 25 8 ( ) 3 ( ) 25 8 )( 3 (
20
) (
1
2 2
=
+
=
=
=
= + +
+
+ =
+ +
+
+
+
=
+ + +
=
=
B then
C
A
C B A
so
C B A
s s
C Bs
s
A
s s s
s F
s f or
So
t e t e e t f
s s
s
s
s s
s
s
s
s
s
s s
s
s s s s
s F
t t t
3 sin
3
2
3 cos 2 2 ) (
9 ) 4 (
3
3
2
9 ) 4 (
) 4 ( 2
) 3 (
2
9 ) 4 (
2
9 ) 4 (
) 4 ( 2
) 3 (
2
9 ) 4 (
2 ) 4 ( 2
) 3 (
2
) 25 8 (
10 2
) 3 (
2
) 25 8 )( 3 (
20
) (
4 4 3
2 2
2 2
2
2 2

=
+ +

+ +
+

+
=
+ +

+ +
+

+
=
+ +
+ +

+
=
+ +
+

+
=
+ + +
=
Exercise
) 3 )( 5 4 (
1
) (
) 2 )( 1 (
4 2
) (
) 3 )( 2 )( 1 (
10
) (
2
2
2
2
+ + +
+
=
+ +

=
+ + +
=
s s s
s
s F
s s
s s
s F
s s s
s
s F
Determine the inverse Laplace transform for each of the following function
= ) t ( f
-3t -2t -t
e 15 e 20 e 5 - +
= ) t ( f
-2t -t
e ) t 2 1 ( 6 e 7 +
= ) t ( f
) t cos( e 4 e 5
-2t -3t


= ) t ( f
-3t -2t -t
e 15 e 20 e 5 - +
= ) t ( f
-2t -t
e ) t 2 1 ( 6 e 7 +
= ) t ( f
) t cos( e 4 e 5
-2t -3t

The function of F(s) may be expressed as the ratio of two factored


polynomials where;


and k is constant.
The roots of the numerator polynomial that is z
1
, -z
2
, -z
3
,-z
n
are
called the zeros of F(s).
The roots of the denominator polynomial that is p
1
, -p
2
, -p
3
,-p
n

are called the poles of F(s).
The s-plan can help to illustrate the location of poles and zero. It
also can determine the stability of the network of circuit with
referring to the location of poles or zeros.
On s-plane, poles is mark with symbol x and zeros is mark with
symbol o. Vertical axis is imaginary axis, je and horizontal axis is
real axis, o as shows in figure 3.1 below;

Poles, Zeros & S-Plan

) )....( )( )( (
) )....( )( )( (
) (
3 2 1
3 2 1
n
n
P s P s P s P s
Z s Z s Z s Z s K
s F
+ + + +
+ + + +
=
Example
) 4 )( 3 (
) 2 (
) (
+ +
+
=
s s
s s
s F
Exercise
9 6
8
) (
5
1
) (
8 5
) 3 (
) (
2
2
2
+ +
=
+
+
=
+ +
+
=
s s
s F
s
s
s F
s s
s
s F
Application of Laplace Transform

Laplace transform can be applied in electric circuit to make an
analyzing of the circuit become easier especially in frequency
domain.

There is 3 steps that usually involves for applying the laplace
transform in electric circuit;

I. Transform the circuit from t domain to s domain.
II. Solve the circuit equation using nodal analysis, mesh analysis,
KCL/KVL or any circuit analysis technique
III. Take the inverse Laplace transform of the solution to obtain
the solution in time domain (transform back from s domain to t
domain).

Inductor
Voltage current relation ship

sL s Z laplace in L impedance so
s sLI s V
condition initial assume
I s sI L s V
dt
di
L t V
laplace taking
= =
=
=
= =
) (
) ( ) (
0
)] 0 ( ) ( [ ) ( ) (
Capcitor
sC
s Z laplace in C impedance so
s I
sC
s V
condition initial assume
V s sV C s i
dt
dV
C t i
laplace taking
1
) (
) (
1
) (
0
)] 0 ( ) ( [ ) ( ) (
= =
=
=
= =
Summary
Element Time domain Frequency domain
(laplace)
Voltage and current V(t), I(t) V(s), I(s)
Resistance R R
Inductor L sL
Capacitor C 1/sC
Example
Find the input impedance Zin for circuit
below given C=3F, R=6, L=2H
Solution
1 18 6
) 1 18 ( 2
2
3
1 18 1
2
2 1
2
1
+ +
+
=
=
= =
+
= + =
s s
s s
Z
Z parallel Z Z
s Ls Z
s
s
R
sC
Z
in
in
Exersice
Find the input impedance Zin for circuit
below in s domain
Transfer function
The transfer function of a network or electric circuit describes how
the output behaves with respect to the input.
In s-domain circuit, the transfer function, H(s) is the ratio of the
output response, Y(s) to the input excitation X(s) with assuming all
initials condition are zero. H(s) can be written as;
In electric circuit, there are four (4) possibility of transfer function;
H(s) = voltage gain =

H(s) = current gain =

H(s) = impedance =

H(s) = admittance =

) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
0
0
0
0
s V
s I
s I
s V
s I
s I
s V
s V
i
i
i
i
Obtain the transfer function
Example
) (
) (
) (
0
s V
s V
s H
i
=
Example
Determine the transfer function for
) (
) (
) (
0
s I
s V
s H
i
=
Determine for the circuit
below
Example
) (
) (
) (
0
s V
s V
s H
i
=