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PREVENTION AND CONTROL SERVICES

FIREFIGHTIN G

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Fire System
Generally they can be classified into two categories:
Fire Protection System are used to alert people that a small fire or some overheating has occurred, and that there is a danger of fire happening soon. Smoke detectors, and heat detectors ,the fire alarm panels, sub-control panels, bells, break-glass can be grouped into this area.

Fire Fighting System The fire fighting system will be used when a big fire has already started. There is a need to extinguish it. Sprinkler 6/6/12 systems, and hose reel systems are some of the systems used

Fire prevention
Fire prevention : minimizing ignition sources, as well as educating the occupants and operators of the facility, ship or structure concerning operation and maintenance of fire-related systems for correct function, and emergency procedures including notification for 6/6/12

Active fire protection


Active fire protection, can include manual or automatic fire detection and fire suppression. Categories of Active Fire Protection Fire detection Sprinkler systems Fire suppression All AFP systems are required to be installed and maintained in accordance with strict guidelines in 6/6/12 order to maintain compliance with the local building

Passive fire protection


Passive fire protection, which includes compartmentalization of the overall building through the use of fire-resistance rated walls and floors.

Examples Fire-resistance rated walls, Firewalls, Fireproofing cladding, Closures, etc.


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There are mainly two types of PFP


Vermiculite fire protection, the structural steel members are covered with vermiculite materials, mostly a very thick layer. this is a cheaper options as compared to an intumescent one, but is very crude and aesthetically unpleasant. Moreover if the environment is corrosive in nature, then vermiculite option is not an advisable option, as there are possibility of water seeping into.

Intumescent fire proofing is a layer of paint which is applied along with the coating system on the structural steel members. The thickness of this intumescent coating is dependent on the steel section used.
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Fireproofing

Fireproofing, a passive fire protection measure, refers to the act of making materials or structures more resistant to fire, or to those materials themselves, or the act of applying such materials

Fireproofing methods:

Inorganic methods Gypsum plasters Cementations plasters Fibrous plasters


Spray gypsum based New materials based on organic chemistry are gaining being 6/6/12 plaster fireproofing

Fire Doors, Exit Doors, Solid Core Doors and Sliding Fire Doors
Fire Doors, Exit Doors, Solid Core Doors and Sliding Fire Doors may be automatically operated by heat activated mechanisms or smoke detectors. The securing of fire doors must be such that persons leaving an area
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SPRINKLER SYSTEMS
APPLICATION AND DESIGN
Water sprinklers provide an automatic spray dedicated to the area of fire outbreak. Sprinkler heads have temperature sensitive elements that respond immediately to heat, discharging the contents of the water main to which they are attached.

The specification of a sprinkler system will depend on the


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Pipework Distribution to Sprinklers


The arrangement of pipework will depend on the building shape and layout, the position of the riser pipe and the number of sprinkler heads required.
Working

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DRENCHERS
A drencher fire control system provides a discharge of water over roofs, walls and windows to prevent fire spreading from or to adjacent buildings.

Drencher systems provide the necessary curtain of water for protection against internal and external exposure to fire.

Drencher systems are used to separate one risk from the other in case of a fire,
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A room should be provided for storing the tank and the pumps. Suitable locations should be allowed at ground level for installing the drencher valves and drencher inlets (i.e., quick coupling for receiving water boosted from fire engines).

Types of 6/6/12 drenchers

An example of application is in theatres, where the drenchers may be fitted above the proscenium arch at the stage side to protect the safety curtain.

Fire Hose Reels


Fire Hose Reels are located to provide a reasonably accessible and controlled supply of water to combat a fire risk.

The length of a full extended fire hose is 36 meters with a diameter of 19mm (outside diameter). A control nozzle attached to the hose enables the operator to control the direction and flow of water to the fire. Various types of reels are
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available to meet your

The hose most distant from the source of water should be capable of discharging 0.4 l/s at a 6 m distance from the nozzle.

The tank must have a minimum volume of water of 1.6 m3. A 50 mm i.d. supply pipe is adequate for buildings up to 15 m height and a 65 mm i.d. pipe will be sufficient for buildings greater than this.

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Gas Extinguishing Systems


The majority of gas extinguishing systems have been either halon 1301 or carbon dioxide . Halon Substitutes
Halons are electrically nonconductive and safe to use where personnel remain in an area of gas discharge.

They are also more effective than carbon dioxide, being five times the density of air, whilst carbon dioxide is only one-and-a half times.
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Carbon Dioxide
Carbon dioxide is an alternative to halon as a dry gas extinguisher. It has been used as an extinguishing agent for a considerable time, particularly in portable extinguishers.

As the gas is dry and nonconductive it is ideal for containing fires from electrical equipment, in addition to textiles, machinery, petroleum and oil fires. 6/6/12

Fire Alarms
Automatic fire detection and alarm systems are either installed throughout all areas of a building, installed only for the protection of escape routes, installed within those parts of the escape routes comprising circulation areas and circulation spaces (such as corridors and stairways)
Fire detection and alarm systems may contain: . system control unit . primary (mains) electrical supply . secondary (battery or capacitor stand-by) power supply. An emergency generator could also be used . alarm activation devices manual or automatic . alarm indication devices audible and/or visual . remote indication on a building monitoring
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Preferred location of detectors: . Over 300 mm from light fittings. . Min. one per storey. . Loft conversions, with alarm linked to operate others and be operated by others in the dwelling. . Circulation spaces between bedrooms. . Circulation spaces < 7.5 m from doors to habitable rooms. . Kitchens (with regard to heat/smoke producing appliances). . Living rooms.

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SMOKE, FIRE AND HEAT DETECTORS


A smoke alarm senses smoke and can alert you to a fire to give you time to escape. The alarm can be wired into the household electrical mains (with a battery back-up), or be battery operated only. Wired-in alarms can be more reliable in the longer term. There are two main types of smoke alarms for your home; photoelectric and ionisation. While both types of alarms are effective for detecting flaming fires, the photoeletric smoke alarm is more effective for detecting smoke from smouldering fires.

Many homes have an ionisation type of alarm installed, however fire


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If smoke enters the unit, particles attach to the ions slowing their movement. This reduction in current flow actuates an electronic relay circuit to operate an alarm

A light beam projects onto a light trap into which it is absorbed. When smoke enters the detector, some of the light beam is deflected upwards onto a photo-electric cell. This light energises the cell to produce an electric current which 6/6/12 activates the alarm relay.

Security by
Smoke Detectors

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Radiation Fire Detectors


In addition to producing hot gases, fire also releases radiant energy in the form of visible light, infra-red and ultra-violet radiation.

Radiant energy travels in waves from the fire.

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Fire Dampers

In everyday service, the damper allows a through flow of air for ventilation or equalization of pressure on either side of the doorway. Damper units are slim line and are available with an overall thickness of only 35mm or 44mm allowing them to be incorporated within conventional 35mm and 45mm nominal fire door leaves.

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Smoke Extraction and Ventilation


Automatic fire ventilation is designed to remove heat, smoke and toxic gases from single-storey buildings. In large factories and shopping malls, the additional volume of air entering the building by fire venting is insignificant relative to the benefits of creating clear visibility.

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Smoke and Fire Ventilators

Ventilator area can be taken as the perimeter occupied by hazardous material, multiplied by the ventilation factor. This approximates 1.3% of the floor area.

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Portable Fire Extinguishers

A portable fire extinguisher must contain the type of fire extinguishing agent suitable for the fire it is required to extinguish. It must also be clearly identifiable by colour coding for its intended purpose.

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Example:

Carbon dioxide extinguisher carbon dioxide is pressurized as a liquid inside a cylinder.

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Striking a knob at the top of the cylinder pierces a disc to release the carbon dioxide which converts to a gas as it depressurizes through the extinguisher nozzle.

Evacuation Systems for High-Rise Buildings

In the event of fire, the building manager or the chief engineer should have the assigned authority to order evacuation of a given floor or several floors of the building. Additional floors may be evacuated at the direction of the local fire department. Floors to be evacuated (The construction of the building will be an important factor when considering the direction of the evacuation and also to determine the number of floors to be evacuated from the 6/6/12 involved area.)

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REFRENCES

[Architecture Ebook] Building Services Handbook.pdf Wikipedia.org Evacuation Systems for High-Rise Buildings.pdf Fire_Equipment_Manufacturers'_Association.htm Google images

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