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Alfian F.

Pratama Bayu Trisna Hidayat Dodhik Yuwono

The income of America plunged. For two years after

the First World War, consumer spending drove prices up.


Unemployment, which had hovered around 2 percent

in 1919, passed 12 percent in 1921.

Recovery began in 1922 and continued unevenly

until 1929. During this period, industrial output nearly doubled.


By 1929 electricity powered 70 percent of America

industry.
The new technique of manufacture by assembly

line also contributed, adding countless new consumer products to the market

The new consumerism was fueled by refined methods

of credit, especially the installment or time-payment plan.


New management techniques were made to maximize

profits and minimize market uncertainties.


Retailers and small manufactures formed trade

associations to pool information and coordinate planning.

In the 1930s the effect of economics was particularly

apparent as the Great Depression.


World trade, heavily dependent on an easy and safe

exchange of the currencies, also faltered: from 1929 to mid-1933, it declined in value by 40 percent.

American exports alone slumped from $5.4 billion to

$2.2 billion over roughly the same period.


In 1934, Cordell Hull sponsored the creation of the

Export-Import Bank, a government agency that provided loans to foreigners for the purchase of American goods.

As depression-induced authoritarianism, racial hatred,

and military expansion descended upon Europe and Asia, Americans reasserted their isolationist beliefs.

For American, first world war largely in terms: the

shelving of reform; civil liberties abuses; unusual federal and presidential power; race riots; inflation, windfalls for business; government propaganda; and post war labor strikes.

Although isolationist thoughts was strongest in

the Midwest and among anti-British ethnic group, especially German-and Irish-Americans, it was a truly national phenomenon that cut across socioeconomic, ethnic, party, and sectional lines and attracted a majority of the American people.

Conservative isolationist feared higher taxes and

increased federal power if the nation went to war again.


Isolationists were correct to suspect American

business ties with Nazi Germany and fascist Italy.

We are in the midst of a war, not for conquest, not for vengeance, but for a world in which this Nation, and all that this Nation represents, will be safe for our children. (President Roosevelt)

Americans believed with Roosevelt that they were

defending their homes and families against satanic Nazis and Japanese.
Americans also seemed wary of lofty rhetoric

about the future, remembering how Woodrow Wilson had promised so much and delivered too little during the era of the First World War.

In the battle for Stalingrad (September 1942 to January

1943), probably the running point of the war, the Red Army defeated the German in bloody block-by-block fighting, forcing Hitlers divisions to retreat.

The second front opened in the dark morning hours of

June 6, 1944; D-Day.


Two hundred thousand Allied troops scrambled

ashore in Normandy, France.


They were entangled in sharp obstacles and triggered

mines, and airborne troops dropped behind German lines.

Allied forces were reaching Paris in August. The same

month another force invaded southern France and threw the stunned Germans back.
Allied troops soon spread across the countryside,

liberating France and Belgium and entering Germany itself in September

In bomb-ravaged Berlin, defended largely by teenage

boys and old men, Adolf Hitler killed himself in his bunker.
On May 8 Germany surrendered.

Allied strategies had devised a Europe first formula:

knock out Germany first and then concentrate on an isolated Japan.


For American people, they regarded Japan as the

United States chief enemy.

In April 1942, America bombed Tokyo. In May, in the momentous Battle of the Coral Sea,

carrier-based US planes halted a Japanese advance toward Australia. The next month they succeeded sinking four of the enemys valuable aircraft carriers.

This success was caused of using Operation Magic

the work of American experts who deciphered the secret code used by the Japanese to transmit messages.
Thus, American Naval officers know ahead of time the

approximate date and direction of the Japanese assault.

To revenge the losses, Japanese pilot in desperation

began suicide (kamikaze) attacks, flying their planes directly into American ship.
In on staggering attack on Tokyo on May 23, 1945,

American dropped napalm-filled bombs that engulfed the city in firestorm. Eighty-three thousand people died.

Impatient for victory, American leaders began to plan

a fall invasion of the Japanese islands. The secret atomic program, known as the Manhattan project, began in August 1942.
On August 6 the Japanese city of Hiroshima was

destroyed by an atomic blast, and on August 9, it attacked Nagasaki.


Five days later Japanese surrendered.

Formal ceremonies of surrendering were held

September 2 abroad the battleship Missouri.


The Second World War was over. Most Americans agreed that the atomic bombing of

two Japanese cities had been necessary, to end the war as quickly as possible and to save American lives.

The Cold War (1945-91) was one of perception

where neither side fully understood the intentions and ambitions of the other. This led to mistrust and military build-ups.
United States U.S. thought that Soviet expansion would continue and spread throughout the world. They saw the Soviet Union as a threat to their way of life; especially after the Soviet Union gained control of Eastern Europe.

Soviet Union They felt that they had won World War II. They had sacrificed the most (25 million vs. 300,000 total dead) and deserved the spoils of war. They had lost land after WWI because they left the winning side; now they wanted to gain land because they had won.

They wanted to economically raid Eastern

Europe to recoup their expenses during the war.


They saw the U.S. as a threat to their way of life;

especially after the U.S. development of atomic weapons.

President Truman participated in the rapid

deterioration of Soviet-American (Cold War)


Cold War includes ideologies, propaganda,

reconstruction program, military alliances, atomic arm development etc.


Conflict was inevitable because international

environment was so unsettled (after W.W.II )

Finally conflict seemed inevitable because of the

shrinkage of the globe.


This is the national policies of the U.S and Soviet

conduct of diplomacy exacerbated rather than resolved postwar issues.


New strategic theory also propelled the U.S toward an

activist, expansionist, globalist diplomacy.

President Truman , Who shared these assumptions,

had a personality that tended to increase international tension.


For soviets, they were not easy to get along with either. American officials nonetheless exaggerated the soviet

threat.

As a diplomat, Kennedy was eager to prove his

toughness.
Khrushchev matched Kennedys rhetoric with an

endorsement of wars of national liberation in the third world. In 1961, Soviet Union did nuclear test by exploding a giant 50 megaton bomb.

Cuba became an obsession of American policymakers.

From the start Castro determined to break the influence of American business. American business

3 million acres of cuban land Controlled 40% of sugar production 90% of telephone and electric service Sold 70% imports of Cuba

Cuba soon became the site of one of the scariest crises

of the cold war


Elsewhere in the third world, Kennedy called for

peaceful revolution based on the concept of nation building.


Nation building and its methods did not work.

Americans assumed, as they had for much of the twentieth century in the Carribean.