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WHAT ARE HEAT RESISTANT CERAMICS?

MS. IVY ELSIE OFORI

What are heat resistant ceramics?

High strength high temperature ceramics


Formation of high temperature ceramics Silicon nitride

Silicon carbide
Basic characteristics of various ceramics Factors controlling ceramic strength

GROWTH OF CERAMIC APPLICATIONS

HEAT RESISTANT CERAMICS


Heat resistant ceramics are ceramics which maintain

their bonding strength at high temperatures and have low thermal expansion coefficients and excellent corrosion resistance.
Such

materials include Silicon Carbide, Silicon Nitride,(which are good materials for high temperature structural materials) AIN amongst others.

HEAT RESISTANT CERAMICS


When the theoretical strength is equal to E/10, for

SiN4, SiC, AIN etc, where E is large; it provides high bonding strength.
Thermal stress caused by internal heat distribution at

high temperature is low.

HEAT RESISTANT CERAMICS


The strength of a material is determined by the

cracks that exist within the structure. Thus except whisker and filament structures which are close to the ideal, only a strength of the order of 1/100 of the theoretical value can be obtained.
REASONS: this is because the local stress at the

point of the crack just before fracture has the same value as the bonding strength of the material.

HEAT RESISTANT CERAMICS


Si3N4 and SiC are difficult to sinter because they are

stable and show little loss strength at high temperatures.

Five main conditions for ceramics to maintain high strength at high temperature are;
The compound must have strong covalent bonds

(Si3N4, SiC and AIN etc) The actual density must be near the theoretical density Grain size must be small and have uniform distribution The shape of the particles must be anisotropic (plate-like, needle-like, etc) The grain boundary phase between the particles must have high heat resistance.

HEAT RESISTANT CERAMICS


Best hightemperature structural uses ceramics:

Silicon carbide, silicon nitride, SIALONS (alloy of Si3N4 and Al2O3)


REASONS: Creep resistance is up to 1300C Low expansion High conductivity gives resistance to thermal creep

FORMATION OF HEAT RESISTANT CERAMICS

Hot pressing fine powders


Vapour deposition Nitriding Silicon already pressed to shape

High temperature high strength ceramics

Silicon based ceramics are high temperature high

strength materials.
In gas turbine engines etc structural materials with

high temperature durability's are needed.

Uses of HIGH-TEMPERTAURE STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

For heat engines such as gas turbines and diesel

engines the general requirements to the hightempertaure structural materials are: High fracture strength from ambient to high temperatures, especially high strength per density. High fracture strength from ambient to high temperature High creep resistance to high temperatures High oxidation and corrosion resistance High wear resistance High impact resistance

Si3N4
STRUCTURE Has composite microstructure Rod-like large grains Equiaxial small grains Grain size and morphology are affected by the sintering additives used. SINTERING ADDITIVES: The most remain in the grain boundary after sintering in a glassy phase This strongly affects thermal and mechanical properties of the sintered body. LOCATION OF GLASSY PHASE; Located at the triple points; called glassy pockets Along grain boundary, between grains. Glass pockets can be changed by post-sintering heat treatment.

SiC

SiC is also known as Carborundum

Has covalent bond But can be densified by solid state sintering Sintering additives; combination of boron and carbon Carbon; reacts with SiO2 on the surface of the silicon carbide particles Boron; Increase grain boundary diffusion rate Structure; has 2 crystal structures; alpha and beta. Where SiC is the low temperature phase. SiC produced by solid state sintering has; Lower toughness Lower thermal shock resistance compared to SiC or Si3N4 and has heterogeneous phase at grain boundary. Application of Si-based ceramics to heat engines

Uses of Si3N4

Silicon carbide
First applications; automotive

engine turbochargers, Silicon nitride turbochargers for disel and gas engines.

Silicon carbide key properties; Low density High strength Low thermal expansion High thermal conductivity High hardness High elastic modulus Excellent thermal shock resistance Superior chemical inertness

Typical uses Fixed nd moving turbine omonets Suction box covers Seals, bearings Ball value parts Hat gas liners Heat exchangers Semiconductor process equipment.

BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS CERAMIC MATERIALS


Material Density (g/cm3) Elasticity (kg/mm2) Melting Heat expansion point/decomp coefficient (10osition 8 degC-1) temperature (C) 2,450 4.9

AIN

3.26

3.4 x 104

Al2O3
BeO SiC Si3N4 QUARTZ GLASS

3.99
3.02 3.25 3.2 ~2.2

3.6x 104
3.8x 104 5.7x 104 3.8x 104 0.7x 104

2,050
2,530 2,600 1,900 _

8
10 4.3 2.5-3 0.6

Properties of structural ceramics

Structural ceramics have hardness, stiffness and elastic

modulus, wear resistance, high strength retention at elevated temperatures and corrosion resistance associated with chemical inertness. Compared to traditional ceramics advanced ceramics have 50-fold increase in specific strength. Some nitride and oxide ceramics have 50-fold increase in specific strength. Some nitride and oxide ceramics have operating temperature of 1500C. Ceramics; such as SiC and Si3N4 can exhibit hightemperature strength in the temperature range, where metallic alloys soften and can not be used as structural materials.

Disadvantages of ceramics for hih structuaral applications


Poor fracture toughness,

To address this issue ceramic aomposites are being

developed. High strength High operating temperature (SiC, Alumina) Have high elastic modulus or hardness. Al2O3-- 19GPa which is three times the hardness of fully hardened martensitic steel (~7GPa)

CERAMICS COMPOSITES
Ceramics can further be reinforced to form ceramic composites which improves upon their properties. Reiforcements includes; whiskers, platelets, particulates and fibers. Two major classes of ceramics composites are Fiber-reinforced particulats Whiskers reinforced ceramic composites Eg Silicon carbide fiber-reinforced glass ceramics.

Drawbacks of using reinforced ceramics. High cost of ceramic fibers Expensive composite production route. Chemical compatibility of fiber with matrix Oxidation of SiC fibers at high temperature.

CONclusion