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Module 34: Stress and Coping Learning Objectives

How is health psychology a union between medicine and psychology?

What is stress, how does it affect us, and how can we best cope with it?

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investigates the psychological factors related to wellness and illness, including the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical problems.

Health Psychology:

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Health Psychology
Psychoneuroimmunology The study of the relationship among psychological factors, the immune system, and the brain
n

Health psychologists are among the primary investigators in this growing field
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Stress and Coping


Stress The response to events that threaten or challenge a person
n

Psychophysiological disorders Medical problems that are influenced by an interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties
n

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Categorizing Stressors
Cataclysmic events Strong stressors That occur suddenly and typically affect many people simultaneously

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Categorizing Stressors
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Phenomena where victims of major catastrophes re-experience the original event and the associated feelings in vivid flashbacks or dreams
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Categorizing Stressors
n

Major life events that produce an immediate major reactions that soon tapers off

Personal stressors

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Categorizing Stressors
Background stressors (daily hassles) Minor irritations of life that we all face time and time again
n

Uplifts Minor positive events that make one feel good


n

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How Stressful Is your Life?

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The General Adaptation Syndrome


General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) a theory that suggests that a persons response to a stressor consists of the following three stages
n

Alarm and mobilization stage Become aware of the presence of a stressor Resistance stage Preparation to fight the stressor

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Exhaustion stage Negative consequences of the stress appear Copyright 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction
n
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Psychoneuroimmunology and Stress


n

Psychoneuroimmunologist focus on the outcome of stress They have identified three main consequences: Stress has physiological results including:
1. 2. 3.

An increases in blood pressure An increase in hormonal activity And an overall decline in the functioning of the immune system

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Consequences of Stress

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Coping with Stress


Coping : The efforts to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress
n

Defense mechanisms Unconscious strategies that maintain a persons sense of control and self-worth by distorting or denying the actual nature of the situation

Another Defense mechanism


n

Emotional insulation is the cessation of emotional experience

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Coping with Stress


n

Emotion-focused coping

Method of managing emotion in the face of stress by seeking to change the way they feel or perceive a problem

Problem-focused coping

Attempts to modify the stressful problem or source of the stress


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Learned Helplessness
n

A state when people conclude that unpleasant or aversive stimuli cannot be controlled A view of the world that becomes so ingrained that they cease trying to remedy the aversive circumstances

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Coping with Stress


n

Hardiness

Personality characteristic associated with a lower rate of stress-related illness consisting of three components.

Commitment Challenge Control

Social support
A mutual network of caring, interested others

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Effective Coping Strategies


n n n n n

Turn threat into challenge Change your goals Make a threatening situation less threatening. Take physical action Prepare for stress before it happens

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Module 35: Psychological Aspects of Illness and Well-Being Learning Objectives


How do psychological factors affect healthrelated problems such as coronary heart disease, cancer, and smoking?
n

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The As and Bs and Ds of Coronary Heart Disease


Type A behaviour pattern Competitive
n

Show urgency about time Aggressive Driven quality at work Hostile, verbally and nonverbally n Type B behaviour pattern Cooperative Less competitive Not especially time oriented Not usually aggressive, driven, or hostile
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Type D Distressed (Denollet)


n n n n n

Linked to coronary heart disease Insecurity Anxiety Negative outlook At risk for repeated heart attacks

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Stress cardiomyopathy More common in women Not a heart attack History of a recent severe emotional or physical stress Will get better with time

Broken Heart Syndrome

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Type Yourself!!!

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Psychological Aspects of Cancer


n

A Cancer diagnosis brings to mind fear, lingering pain and diagnosis of a death sentence. Some have a very good cure rate if diagnosed early. Cancer is second to heart disease for major causes of death in Canada

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Cancer Survival Rates

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Smoking
n n n n

Heredity factors Rite of passage Habit forming Quitting Replacement therapies Psychotherapy Societal views Do commercials work?

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Smoking

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Module 36: Promoting Health and Wellness Learning Objectives


n

How do our interactions with physicians affect our health and compliance with medical treatment?
n

What leads to a sense of well-being?

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Following Medical Advice


Reactance
A negative emotional and cognitive reaction that result from the restriction of ones freedom and that can be associated with medical regimens.

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How Well Do Canadians Follow Medical Advice?


n n

85 % of patients do not fully comply with a physician recommendations Between 14% and 24 % of patients dont fill their drug prescriptions 10% of adolescents pregnancies result from noncompliance with birth control medication 60% of all patients cannot identify their own medicines 30-50% of all patients ignore instruction or make errors in taking medications

n n

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FAILURE TO COMUNICATE
n n n n n n n

Patients assume physicians are all-knowing Physicians make assumptions about patients Patients may be intimidated and not give all the information Patients dont understand (terminology/language) Gender differences (women physicians communicate more) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K5d_iPaUrWw http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JlXd2ictsmY

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Increasing Compliance
n

Positively framed messages suggest that a change in behaviour will lead to a gain.

Negatively framed messages highlight what you can lose by not performing a behaviour.

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Well-Being and Happiness


n

Subjective well-being Persons evaluations of their life, in terms of both their thoughts and emotions

Stable people have a set point for happiness that is relatively high and remains stable.

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Well-Being and Happiness Characteristics of Happy Peple High self-esteem Sense of control Optimism Sociable
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Scales of Happiness

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