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TRANSLATION AND INTERPRETING STUDIES

LECTURE 1: AN OVERVIEW OF TRANSLATION AND INTERPRETING


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Definitions of translation Definitions of interpreting Distinction between translation and interpreting Basic terminologies

WHAT IS TRANSLATION?
Translation can be seen as 1. A product: the text that has been translated 2. A process: the activity of translating

DEFINITIONS OF TRANSLATION
Translation involves studying the Source language text (lexicon, grammatical structures, communication situation and cultural context); analyzing it in order to determine its meaning; then reconstructing this same meaning using the lexicon and grammar which are appropriate in the Target language and its cultural context (Larson)

DEFINITIONS OF TRANSLATION
Translation is the expression in another language (or target language) of what has been expressed in another source language, preserving semantic and stylistic equivalences (Dubois, 1973)

DEFINITIONS OF TRANSLATION
Translation is the replacement of a representation of a text in one language by as equivalent text in a second language. (Hartman and Stork, 1972, p.713)

DEFINITIONS OF TRANSLATION
The aim is to as accurately as possible all grammatical and lexical features of the source language original by finding equivalents in the target language. At the same time all factual information contained in the original text must be retained in the translation (Hartman and Stork, 1972, p.713

DEFINITIONS OF TRANSLATION
Often, through not by any means always, it is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the same way that the author intended the text. (Newmark, 1995, p.5)

DEFINITION OF INTERPRETING
Kade (1968) defined interpreting as a form of Translation in which: - The source-language text is presented only once and thus cannot be reviewed or replayed, and - The target-language text is produced under time pressure, with little chance for correction and revision

FORMS OF TRANSLATION
4 FORMS OF TRANSLATION 1. Written written translation (Reading to Writing/ Translation) 2. Oral oral translation (Interpreting) 3. Written oral translation (Sight translation) 4. Oral written translation (Dictation translation)

TYPES OF TRANSLATION

Non-commercial Language exercise Instructional material For pleasure Professional Literary translation Scientific and technical books Drama, screen translation Informatory material

NECESSARY SKILLS AND QUALITIES OF INTERPRETERS

Language skills: active listening, speaking Analytical skills Cultural knowledge Subject knowledge Ethical behavior Good memory Note-taking skills Public speaking skills

NECESSARY SKILLS AND QUALITIES OF TRANSLATORS


Cultural knowledge Subject knowledge Ethical behavior Researching/ resourcing skills Computer skills

TRANSLATING VS. INTERPRETING


Form: written vs. oral Requirement: accuracy and fine vs. accuracy and quick Access to reference: more vs. less Time pressure: less vs. more

FORM VS. MEANING

Form: surface structure (spoken or written): changes in translation Meaning: must be held constant and has priority over form When translating/ interpreting: Meaning should be kept constant, often necessary to change the form to avoid word-for-word translation and to produce the natural form of the receptor language

FORM VS. MEANING

Meaning components are packaged differently in V and E Same meaning components occur in several forms One form represents several meanings One meaning can be expressed by many forms