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Scientific Investigation

Chapter 2

Hallmarks of scientific research


1. Purposiveness

Manager start the research with definite aim or purpose. Research Commitment less turnover, less absenteeism, increased performance.
2. Rigor

Good theoretical base and strong methodology Connotes carefulness, scrupulousness and the degree of exactitude. Manager ask from 10-12 employees commitment unscientific approach. a. The conclusion would be incorrectly drawn 10-12 employees not representative of whole. b. Question should be biased or incorrect. c. Lots of other things influence commitment researcher failed to include them Lack of theoretical background.

3. Testability
After random selection study of the previous research develop hypothesis statistical test for purpose EXP: Hypothesis Participation is positive related to the Commitment Appropriate statistical test To see weather data support your the educated conjecture (inference).

4. Replicability
Manager/Researcher Based on Previous study Concludes Participation is positively related to commitment. We will place faith and credence in these findings if similar findings emerge on data collected from other organization employing same method. the result to test the hypothesis same when the same type of research repeated In similar circumstances.

Gain confidence in scientific nature

5. Precision and confidence We hardly ever have the luxury of being able to draw definite conclusion on the basis of result. Unable to study the universe. Our findings are based on sample. Sample is not exact to the population. Measurement error and other problems make bias or error in findings. We would like to design Ensure finding are close to reality. Precision Closeness to reality on the basis of sample. No of production days lost during year = 35 Your study = 30-40 favorable If your study = 20-50 Confidence Probability that our estimation are correct We can confidently claim that 95% of time our result would be true. Significance level = p= .05 (Far from reality)

6.Objectivity Conclusion drawn based on facts of the findings derived from actual result. Not on subjective Damage can be sustain organization that implement non data base or misleading conclusion. 7.Generalizability Applicability of the research from one organization setting to other. If the researchers find that participation and commitment link different settings generalizibility enhance. Not many research findings can be generalized. 8. Parsimony Simplicity in explaining the phenomena o a problem that occur, generating solution, Is always preferred to complex research framework. Two or three variable = change 45% more valuable Ten variables = change 48% beyond manager control Parsimony can be introduce with good understanding of the problem and important factors that influence.

Building Blocks of science in Research


Deduction Process, we arrive at a reasoned conclusion by logical generalization of a known fact. Induction Process where we observe certain phenomena and on the basis arrive at conclusion.

Building Blocks of Science


Theory refinement or implementation Observation Identification of Problem Area

Data Interpretation

Theoretical Framework

Data Analysis Data Collection

Hypothesis

Research Design

Concept Construct

Hypothetico Deductive Method


1. Observation Sense certain changes (new behavior, attitude, feeling) The observed phenomena have potentially important consequences How to observe? People- oriented manager is always aware of what is happening in and around organization. Goals Effectiveness in processes Positive or negative reaction. Manager pick that problems through cues. Manager identify gap actual and required. 2. Preliminary information gathering Seeking information what is observed in-depth information. Done by talking informally to workers or use other sources (what is happening and why) To identify what transpiring in situation. Increases the level of awareness Focus on problems and factors structured and formal interviews
Library identify how issue have been tackled in other situation.

3. Theory Formulation Integrate all information in logical manner All factors can be conceptualized and tested. Theoretical Framework variables theoretically woven (stretches in the bias directions) justification Why they might influence problem. 4.Hypothesizing Theoretical framework hypothesis generated. Hypothesis testing is called deduction Hypotheses not original formulated generated through induction. This is after data obtain creative insight occur New hypotheses generated. Hawthorne study

5. Scientific data collection Data regarding every variable in hypotheses needed to test hypothesis. 6. Data Analysis Data gathered are statistically analyzed. To see hypotheses generated supported 7. Deduction Arriving at conclusion interpretation of analysis.

Other type of Research


Case studies In-depth Contextual (relative)Analysis of similar situation in other organization nature and definition of problem same Hypothesis can be developed in case studies. If the hypotheses cannot be validate in even single study it will not support your alternate hypothesis. Not often undertaken in organization Action Research Sometime undertaken by consultants initiate change process. Action research methodology most appropriate while effecting planned changes. Researchers begin with problem gathered relevant data to provide tentative problem solution. The solution then implemented with knowledge maybe unintended consequences following such implementation. The effects then evaluated, defined and diagnosed research continuous until the problem is fully solved.