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# Number Systems

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## Common Number Systems

Used by humans? Yes No No No Used in computers? No Yes No No

System
Decimal Binary Octal Hexadecimal

Base Symbols
10 2 8 16 0, 1, 9 0, 1 0, 1, 7 0, 1, 9, A, B, F

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Quantities/Counting (1 of 3)
Decimal 0 1 2 Binary 0 1 10 HexaOctal decimal 0 1 2 0 1 2

3 4 5 6 7

## 11 100 101 110 111

3 4 5 6 7

3 4 5 6 7
p. 33

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Quantities/Counting (2 of 3)
Decimal 8 9 10 Binary 1000 1001 1010 HexaOctal decimal 10 11 12 8 9 A

11 12 13 14 15

## 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111

13 14 15 16 17

B C D E F

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Quantities/Counting (3 of 3)
Decimal 16 17 18 Binary 10000 10001 10010 HexaOctal decimal 20 21 22 10 11 12

19 20 21 22 23

23 24 25 26 27

13 14 15 16 17

Etc.

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## Conversion Among Bases

The possibilities:
Decimal Octal

Binary

pp. 40-46

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Quick Example

Base

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Decimal

Octal

Binary

Next slide

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## Weight 12510 => 5 x 100 2 x 101 1 x 102 = 5 = 20 = 100 125

Base

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Binary to Decimal
Decimal Octal

Binary

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Binary to Decimal
Technique
Multiply each bit by 2n, where n is the weight of the bit The weight is the position of the bit, starting from 0 on the right Add the results

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Example
Bit 0 1010112 => 1 1 0 1 0 1 x x x x x x 20 21 22 23 24 25 = = = = = = 1 2 0 8 0 32 4310

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Octal to Decimal
Decimal Octal

Binary

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Octal to Decimal
Technique
Multiply each bit by 8n, where n is the weight of the bit The weight is the position of the bit, starting from 0 on the right Add the results

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Example

7248 =>

4 x 80 = 2 x 81 = 7 x 82 =

4 16 448 46810

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Decimal Octal

Binary

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Technique
Multiply each bit by 16n, where n is the weight of the bit The weight is the position of the bit, starting from 0 on the right Add the results

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Example

ABC16 =>

## C x 160 = 12 x 1 = 12 B x 161 = 11 x 16 = 176 A x 162 = 10 x 256 = 2560 274810

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Decimal to Binary
Decimal Octal

Binary

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Decimal to Binary
Technique
Divide by two, keep track of the remainder First remainder is bit 0 (LSB, least-significant bit) Second remainder is bit 1 Etc.

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Example
12510 = ?2 2 125 2 62 2 31 2 15 7 2 3 2 1 2 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1

12510 = 11111012

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Octal to Binary
Decimal Octal

Binary

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Octal to Binary
Technique
Convert each octal digit to a 3-bit equivalent binary representation

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Example
7058 = ?2

## 111 000 101

7058 = 1110001012

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Decimal Octal

Binary

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Technique
Convert each hexadecimal digit to a 4-bit equivalent binary representation

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Example
10AF16 = ?2

## 0001 0000 1010 1111

10AF16 = 00010000101011112

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Decimal to Octal
Decimal Octal

Binary

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Decimal to Octal
Technique
Divide by 8 Keep track of the remainder

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Example
123410 = ?8

8 8 8 8

1234 154 19 2 0

2 2 3 2

123410 = 23228

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Decimal Octal

Binary

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Technique
Divide by 16 Keep track of the remainder

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Example
123410 = ?16

16 16 16

1234 77 4 0

2 13 = D 4

123410 = 4D216

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Binary to Octal
Decimal Octal

Binary

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Binary to Octal
Technique
Group bits in threes, starting on right Convert to octal digits

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Example
10110101112 = ?8

## 1 011 010 111

10110101112 = 13278

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Decimal Octal

Binary

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Technique
Group bits in fours, starting on right Convert to hexadecimal digits

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Example
10101110112 = ?16

10 1011 1011

10101110112 = 2BB16

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Decimal Octal

Binary

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Technique
Use binary as an intermediary

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Example
10768 = ?16 1 0 7 6

001
2

000
3

111

110
E

10768 = 23E16

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Decimal Octal

Binary

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Technique
Use binary as an intermediary

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Example
1F0C16 = ?8 1 F 0 C

0001
1

1111
7 4

0000
1

1100
4

1F0C16 = 174148

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## Exercise Convert ...

Decimal 33 Binary 1110101 Octal

703
1AF
Dont use a calculator!

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Exercise Convert

Decimal 33 117

## Binary 100001 1110101

Octal 41 165

21 75

451
431

111000011
110101111

703
657

1C3
1AF

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Common Powers (1 of 2)
Base 10
Power
10-12 10-9 10-6 10-3 103

Symbol p n m k

## Value .000000000001 .000000001 .000001 .001 1000

106
109 1012

mega
giga tera

M
G T

1000000
1000000000 1000000000000

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Common Powers (2 of 2)
Base 2
Power
210 220 230

Symbol k M G

## Value 1024 1048576 1073741824

What is the value of k, M, and G? In computing, particularly w.r.t. memory, the base-2 interpretation generally applies
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Example
In the lab 1. Double click on My Computer 2. Right click on C: 3. Click on Properties

/ 230 =

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## Exercise Free Space

Determine the free space on all drives on a machine in the lab
Free space
Drive A: C: D: E: etc.

Bytes

GB

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## Review multiplying powers

For common bases, add powers
ab ac = ab+c

or

## 26 210 = 64 210 = 64k MELJUN P. CORTES

Binary Addition (1 of 2)
Two 1-bit values
A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 A+B 0 1 1 10

two
pp. 36-38

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Binary Addition (2 of 2)
Two n-bit values
Add individual bits Propagate carries E.g., 10101 + 11001 101110
1 1

21 + 25 46

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Multiplication (1 of 3)
Decimal (just for fun)
35 x 105 175 000 35 3675
pp. 39

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Multiplication (2 of 3)
Binary, two 1-bit values
A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 AB 0 0 0 1

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Multiplication (3 of 3)
Binary, two n-bit values
As with decimal values E.g., 1110 x 1011 1110 1110 0000 1110 10011010

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Fractions
Decimal to decimal (just for fun)

3.14 =>

## 4 x 10-2 = 0.04 1 x 10-1 = 0.1 3 x 100 = 3 3.14

pp. 46-50

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Fractions
Binary to decimal
10.1011 => 1 1 0 1 0 1 x x x x x x 2-4 2-3 2-2 2-1 20 21 = = = = = = 0.0625 0.125 0.0 0.5 0.0 2.0 2.6875

pp. 46-50

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Fractions
Decimal to binary
3.14579
.14579 x 2 0.29158 x 2 0.58316 x 2 1.16632 x 2 0.33264 x 2 0.66528 x 2 1.33056 etc. p. 50

11.001001...

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## Exercise Convert ...

Decimal 29.8

Binary
101.1101

Octal

3.07 C.82
Dont use a calculator!

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Exercise Convert

Decimal 29.8
5.8125 3.109375 12.5078125

## Binary Octal 11101.110011 35.63

101.1101 11.000111 1100.10000010 5.64 3.07 14.404

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Thank you

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