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August

17, 1951 The first transcontinental microwave radio system began operation - 107 relay stations - 30 miles apart - radio link between New York and San Francisco - cost $40 Million (Bell System)

Intrastate

or feeder service : short haul Interstate and backbone route applications : long haul System capacity : less than 12 voice-band channels to more than 22,000 channels Early microwave : FDM voice-band circuits/ FM Recently developed microwave : PCMTDM/ PSK or QAM

The

next higher part of the radio electromagnetic spectrum, where the frequencies are above 30 GHz and below 100 GHz Radio waves in this band are usually strongly attenuated by the Earthly atmosphere and particles contained in it, especially during wet weather. The electronic technologies needed in the millimeter wave band are also much more difficult to utilize than those of the microwave band.

Suitable

over line-of-sight transmission links without obstacles Provides large useful bandwidth when compared to lower frequencies (HF, VHF, UHF) Affected by the refractive index (temperature, pressure and humidity) of the atmosphere, rain, snow and hail, sand storms, clouds, mist and fog, strongly depending on the frequency.

[Wireless]]

transmission of information One-way (e.g. television broadcasting) and two-way telecommunication using communications satellite Terrestrial microwave radio broadcasting relay links in telecommunications networks including e.g. backbone or backhaul carriers in cellular networks linking BTS-BSC

Radio

systems do not require a right-of-way acquisition between stations

Each station requires the purchase or lease of only a small area of land

Because of their high operating frequencies, microwave radio systems can carry large quantities of information
High

frequencies mean short wavelengths, which require relatively small antennas.

Radio signals are more easily propagated around physical obstacles such as water and high mountains Fewer repeaters are necessary for amplification. Distance between switching centers are less.

Underground facilities are minimized. Minimum delay times are introduced. Minimal crosstalk exist between voice channels. Increased reliability and less maintenance are important factors.

It

is more difficult to analyze and design circuits at microwave frequencies. Measuring techniques are more difficult to perfect and implement at microwave frequencies It is difficult to implement conventional circuit components at microwave frequencies.

Transient

time is more critical at microwave frequencies. It is often necessary to use specialized components for microwave frequencies. Microwave frequencies propagate in a straight line, which limits their use to line-of-sight applications.

Analog

: FM

Digital

: PSK or QAM

BPSK

QAM

FM

is used in microwave radio system FM signals are less sensitive to random noise. FM can be propagated with lower transmit power. In FM, intermodulation noise is a function of signal amplitude and the magnitude of frequency deviation

AM

signals are more sensitive to amplitude nonlinearities. In AM, intermodulation noise is caused by repeater amplitude nonlinearity. In AM, intermodulation noise is a function of signal amplitude.

Letter

Frequency Band
3 - 30 MHz 30 - 300 MHz 300 - 1000 MHz 1000 - 2000 MHz 2000 - 4000 MHz 4000 - 8000 MHz 8 -12 GHz 12 -18 GHz 18-27GHz 27 - 40 GHz 40 - 75 kHz 75 -110 GHz

HF VHF UHF L S C X Ku K Ka V W