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Want your Future to Flourish here ?

Think…. Respond…. & Act NOW

Slide 1
Global Environmental Issues
What is the Environment?
• The environment encompasses the
whole of life on earth and the complex
interactions that link the living world with
the physical world
• In a general sense, this covers
everything contained within the air, land
and water
• Time also is a key factor as historic
issues have an influence on the status
of the environment - locally and globally,
both now and in the future.

Slide 3
Environmental Change
• Sudden and dramatic natural changes to the
environment have occurred in the distant past, but
only relatively recently has one species had the
potential to upset the whole balance of the Earth's
• The global population has risen
dramatically during the last century
• The rise of industry and its rapid
expansion has been a major
source of pollution. This has
caused changes in the balance
of our environment
Slide 4
Global Environmental Issues
• Global Warming
• Ozone Layer Depletion
• Acid Rain
• Deforestation
• Loss of Biodiversity
• Water Pollution
• Desertification
• Waste disposal

Slide 5
Global Warming
• Greenhouse gases help to maintain the earth’s
temperature at a level suitable to support life
• Human activities are increasing the amount of
greenhouse gases in the atmposphere, which cause
more heat to be trapped
• Predicted effects of global warming include:
– Higher sea levels
– Higher temperatures
– Variable climatic conditions
– These changes are expected to cause a significant impact
on agriculture and ecosystems.
Slide 6
Ozone Layer Depletion
• The ozone layer protects the earth from harmful
ultraviolet (UV) light
• The use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other
ozone depleating substances as refrigerants, solvents
and insulation is destroying the ozone layer
• A ‘hole’ is observed over Antarctica every autumn
• Depleated ozone levels cause the following impacts:
– Increased penetration of UV light to earth
– Increased risks of skin cancer and eye diseases
– Damage to agricultural crops
– Disruption to marine food chains

Slide 7
Acid Rain
• The burning of fossil fuels leads to atmospheric emissions of
NOx and SO2
• These gases react with water and oxygen to make sulfuric and
nitric acids. Sunlight increases the rate of these reactions
• Rain, snow and fog can be polluted with these acidic
compounds, which is then deposited at the earths surface
• The deposition of acids can:
– Damage forests and soils
– Causesacidification of lakes and other waterbodies
– Disturb wildlife
– Cause the decay of building and other structures
– Impact on human health

Slide 8
• The deforestation of tropical rainforests is a major
global problem-each year millions of hectares are lost
• Deforestation rates in some countries continue to
increase despite worldwide pressures
• Rainforests are destroyed for wood products, and to
make way for agricultural activities, mining and dams
• The impacts of deforestation include:
– Loss of livelihood for local inhabitants
– Variable environmental conditions (susceptability to flood,
aggravated droughts, soil erosion etc)
– Loss of biodiversity and disturbance to ecosystems
– Loss of carbon sink
Slide 9
Loss of Biodiversity
• Biodiversity has three key components:
– Genetic diversity
– Species diversity
– Ecological diversity
• Approximately 2.1 million species are known to exist, but up to
50 million still to be discovered
• Biodiversity is important for food, drugs, maintaining ecological
stability, aesthetic and cultural benefits
• Natural causes and human activity can threaten biodiversity
• The loss of biodiversity means ecosystems are destabilised,
vital resources are lost and genetic variation is reduced

Slide 10
Water Pollution
• A change in water quality that impacts on
living organisms
• Types and effects of water pollution include:
– Infectious agents, such as typhoid, cholera
– Nutrients and eutrophication
– Toxic materials, through mining
– Organic chemicals
– Sediments can disrupt
aquatic ecosystems
Slide 11
• Removing ground cover and degrading fertile
land initiates desertification
• Water washes away nutrients, the land
becomes inhospitable
• The process is accelerated by expanding
populations and the need to overuse fragile
areas of land

Slide 12
Waste Disposal
• Waste disposal methods include:
– Open dumping and landfill
– Ocean dumping
– Exporting waste
– Waste to energy plants
• Minimising the waste stream:
– 3R’s: reduce, reuse, recycle
– Composting
– Waste to energy
• Hazardous waste disposal
– Needs to be safely handled and disposed of to minimise threats to
the environment and human health

Slide 13
Environmental Management
• Environmental pollution is a serious burden on our
ecosystems and finances world-wide
• Administrations, commercial organisations and
individuals are affected by environmental change and
its associated dangers, long-term effects and
• Both legislative obligations and voluntary
mechanisms can address the environment and to
integrate it into the mainstream of business activity
• Consequently, environmental management is a
crutial part of all organisations’ operations

Slide 14
Ozone Layer Depletion

Ozone layer thickness measured in Dobson Units

Slide 15
Regional Environmental
Regional Environmental
• From UNEP Global Environmental Yearbook 2003
• Major Environmental Issues in the
Asia/Pacific Region include:
– Land Degradation
– Loss of Biodiversity
– Air Pollution

Slide 17
Land Degradation
• Many Asian nations, particularly India, China,
Afghanistan and Mongolia are facing the
challenges of desertification
• Desertification in these areas is caused by:
– Overgrazing
– Overploughing
– Vegetation removal
• These problems continue to intensify as
human and livestock numbers continue to
Slide 18
Loss of Biodiversity
• The region has a great diversity of birds, with
over 27% of all globally known species found
in the area
• However, one in eight species in the region is
globally threatened
• The major threats include habitat destruction
and over exploitation
• It is believed that 323 bird species are at risk
of extinction over the next 100 years

Slide 19
Air Pollution
• Air pollution is a major
environmental concern in
Asian cities
• Diseases related to air pollution kill more than
half a million people in the region each year
• Many nations have implimented new
emission standards aimed at reducing
atmospheric suspended matter, primarily in
the motor vehicle sector
Slide 20
Local Environmental Issues
Local Environmental Issues
• From State of the Environment, Vietnam 2001
• Land Degradation
• Forest Degradation
• Loss of Biodiversity
• Water Pollution
• Air Pollution
• Solid Waste Management
Slide 22
Land Degradation
• Soils have been badly affected by:
– Leaching
– Erosion
– Deforestation
– Acidification
– Drought
– Desertification etc
• Degraded land accounts for nearly 50% of the total land area of
the country
– 3.2 million ha lies in the plain and coastal land
– 13 million ha in mountainous areas
• A significant proportion of land degradation results from natural
and socio-economic conditions and deforestation.       

Slide 23
Forest Degradation
• Vietnam’s forests:
– 1943: 13.3 million hectares (43% of the land area)
– 1999: 9.6 million hectares (28.8% of the land area)
• Reasons for forest degradation include:
– Over-clearing of forests
– Fires
– War damage
– Shifting cultivation practices
– Firewood collection
– Livestock grazing
Slide 24
Loss of Biodiversity
• Vietnam is considered as one of the 10 centres of high or mega
biodiversity in the world
• There is a rich diversity of flora and fauna, including
– Over 13,000 species of plants
– Over 2,000 invertebrates
– 5,000 insects
– Many endemic species
• Major factors threatening
biodiversity include:
– Habitat destruction
– Over exploitation of resources
• The number of wild animals decreases each year, more species
become threatened

Slide 25
Water Pollution
• Rapid urbanisation and industrialisation has resulted in the
growing demand for water use
• Water supply is insufficient, creating intense competition among
consumers and increasing exploitation.
• Pollution of water also contributes to a decline in available water
• Most of the monitored rivers are found to be polluted with
substances like N and P, from 4 to nearly 200 times the
• Generally, offshore marine environments have good water
quality, however coastal areas are more polluted

Slide 26
Air Pollution
• Most urban areas in Vietnam are polluted by dust. In
some locations the pollution is to an alarming degree
• Lead concentrations at large cross roads are close to
the maximum acceptable limit
• Although traces of acid rain are evident in Vietnam
the causes have not yet been determined clearly
• In general, the emission of greenhouse gases in
Vietnam is lower than many other countries, however
the rates of emission continue to rise

Slide 27
Waste Management
• The collection efficiency of solid waste is very
low, as collection services are not fully
established in most locations. The average
collection efficiency ranges from 40% - 70%
• Existing dumping sites are not properly
designed and do not meet the sanitary
• Most urban centres in Vietnam do not have
adequate and appropriate facilities to treat
hazardous wastes
Slide 28

It's impossible to bring change in our daily life

but it's prudent for our health and that of our
to make proper use of resources.

Proper management and public awareness

especially in youth would bring a great difference in
present situation.