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HYDROPOWER

Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy A hydroelectric power plant consists of a high dam that is built across a large river to create a reservoir, and a station where the process of energy conversion to electricity takes place. The first step in the generation of energy in a hydropower plant is the collection of run-off of seasonal rain and snow in lakes, streams and rivers, during the hydrological cycle. The run-off flows to dams downstream. The water falls through a dam, into the hydropower plant and turns a large wheel called a turbine. The turbine converts the energy of falling water into mechanical energy to drive the generator which in turn produces electric power. After this process has taken place electricity is transferred to the communities through transmission lines and the water is released back into the lakes, streams or rivers. This is entirely not harmful, because no pollutants are added to the water while it flows through the hydropower plant.
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HYDROLOGIC CYCLE

HYDROPOWER TO ELECTRIC POWER


Potential Energy Electrical Energy Electricity

Kinetic Energy

Mechanical Energy
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HYDROELECTRIC POWER - HOW IT WORKS

SOURCES OF ELECTRIC POWER INDIA

The Indian Scenario


The potential is about 84000 MW at 60% load factor spread

across six major basins in the country. Pumped storage sites have been found recently which leads to a further addition of a maximum of 94000 MW. Annual yield is assessed to be about 420 billion units per year though with seasonal energy the value crosses600 billion mark. The possible installed capacity is around 150000 MW (Based on the report submitted by CEA to the Ministry of Power)

Renewable Energy Sources

HYDROELECTRIC PLANTS IN NORTH INDIA

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NATHPA JHAKRI HYDRO POWER PLANT


The 1500 MW, Nathpa Jhakri Hydro Power Station NJHPS (the largest underground hydro - electric power Project) was the first project undertaken by SJVN for execution and has since been commissioned during the 10th Plan. Prior to formation of SJVN (NJPC), NJHPS was being executed by Himachal Pradesh State Electricity Board (HPSEB). The generation component of 1500 MW NJHPS was sanctioned in April 1989 for execution by SJVN (NJPC). SJVN (NJPC) officially took over NJHPS on August 01, 1991, following an agreement between GOI and GOHP during July 1991. However, the effective takeover of the NJHPS could result only during February 1992, due to an agitation by the employees of HPSEB. The Major Civil Works of NJHPS were awarded during June Sep. 1993 and the construction works commenced in early 1994.

LOCATION
Nathpa Jhakri Hydro Power Station NJHPS, is located in the state of Himachal Pradesh, on the downstream of wangtoo Bridge and derives its name from the names of two villages in the Project vicinity - Nathpa in district Kinnaur and Jhakri in district Shimla - in the interiors of Himachal Pradesh. The Project was conceived as a run-of-river type hydro power development, harnessing hydro-electric potential of the middle reaches of the river Sutlej, one of the principal tributaries of the river Indus, in the south west Himalayas. The Project's Dam has been constructed near village Nathpa and its Power House has been constructed on the left bank of the river Sutlej at village Jhakri. The power house site is about 150 km from the nearest railhead (narrow gauge), Shimla. The Project stretches over a length of about 50 kms. from the Dam site to the Power House site, on the Hindustan-Tibet Road (NH-22), which also connects the rail head to the Project.

SALIENT FEATURES
The NJHEP project with an installed capacity of 1500 MW ( 6 X 250 MW ), envisaged construction of the following major components :A 62.50 m. high concrete Dam on Satluj river at Nathpa to divert 486 cumecs of water through four Intakes. An underground De-silting Complex, comprising four chambers, each 525 m. long, 16.31 m. wide and 27.5 m. deep, which is one of the largest underground complex for the generation of hydro - power in the World. A 10.15 dia. and 27.394 km. long Head Race Tunnel, which is one of the longest hydro power tunnels in the World, terminating in a 21.60 m / 10.20 m dia and 301m deep Surge Shaft. Three circular steel lined Pressure Shafts, each of 4.90 m dia and 571 m to 622 m length, each bifurcating into two near the Power House, to feed six generating units.

An underground Power House with a cavern size of 222 m x 20 m x 49 m having six Francis Turbine Units of 250 MW each, to utilize a design discharge of 405 cumecs and a design head of 428 m.
6 nos. vertical axis Francis turbines Generating Units, each of 250 MW, with the total installed capacity as 1500 MW. A 10.15 m dia and 982 m long Tail Race Tunnel to discharge the water back into the river Satluj.

PROJECT BENEFITS
The 1500 MW NJHEP has been designed to generate 6950.88 MU of electrical energy in a 90% dependable year with 95 % machine availability. It is also providing 1500 MW of valuable peaking power to the Northern Grid.Out of the total energy generated at the bus bar, 12 percent is supplied free of cost to the home state i.e. Himachal Pradesh. From the remaining 88% energy generation, 25% is supplied to HP at bus bar rates. Balance power has been allocated to different states / UTs of Northern Region by Ministry of Power, Government of India, as detailed ahead :

BHAKRA NANGAL DAM


Bhakra-Nangal Project is a joint venture by the states of Punjab, Rajasthan and Haryana. This project is considered as the major multi-purpose project in India. The Bhakra-Nangal Project was started in the year 1948 and it was completed in 1968. The name of this project came from the two dams Bhakra and Sutlej River, constructed on a tributary of the Indus River, the Sutlej River. This jointly-undertaken project consists of the Nangal and the Bhakra dams, two power houses at Bhakra dam, the Nangal Hydel channel and two power stations situated in Kotla and Ganguwal. Nangal Dam is at a distance of about 13 kilometres to the downstream of Bhakra Dam and is of a height of 95 feet. This dam comprises 26 bays of 30 feet each, modeled to divert the water of Sutlej River into the Nangal Hydel Channel and Anandpur Sahib Hydel Channel for the generation of power and irrigation purpose. Apart from the prevention of floods, Bhakra-Nangal Project provides water for the irrigation purposes in the state of Rajasthan, Delhi, Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh. This project also generates one million kilowatt of hydro-electricity.
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LOCATION
BHAKRA DAM
Bhakra Dam is a concrete gravity dam across the Sutlej River, and is near the border between Punjab and Himachal Pradesh in northern India. The dam, located at a gorge near the (now submerged) upstream Bhakra village in Bilaspur district of Himachal Pradesh.

NANGAL DAM
The Nangal dam was erected over the River Sutlej and it is about twelve kilometers downstream at Nangal in the state of Punjab. This reservoir is used as a backup in case the Bhakra dam fluctuates. Storing the water of the Sutlej River coming from the Bhakra dam, a six kilometer long artificial lake is formed by the Nangal dam.

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SALIENT FEATURES
BHAKRA DAM
Bhakra Project is a marvel in engineering. The 225.55 m high Dam is of concrete straight gravity type having a gross storage capacity of 9340 million cum. This project generates a total of 1325 MW power from its Right and Left bank power houses.
Type Of Dam Concrete Straight Gravity Height above the deepest foundation 225.55 m (740 ft.) Height above the river bed 167.64 m (550 ft.) Catchment Area 56,980 sq. Kms (22,000 sq. miles) Area of reservoir 168.35 sq. Kms (65 sq. miles) Gross storage capacity at El. 1680 ft 9340 million cum (7.57 million acre ft.) Live storage capacity at El. 1680 ft. 6911 million cum (5.60 million acre ft.)
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Spillway Type of spillway Overflow gated Spillway Crest Level 501.46 m No. of Spillway gates 4 Maximum outflow through spillway Overflow gated 5587 cumecs (197300 Cusecs) Left Bank Power Plant Installed capacity 5 X 108 MW Type of turbine Vertical shaft, Francis Type Speed 166.7 r.p.m. Right Bank Power Plant Installed capacity 5 X 157 MW Type of turbine Vertical shaft, Francis Type Speed 187.5 r.p.m.

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Nangal Dam
Height29 m (95 feet) Length304.8 m (1000 feet) Nangal Hydel Channel Length of Nangal Hydel Channel64.5 km (40 miles) Discharge354 cumecs (12500 cusecs) Kotla Power House No. of Units3 Installed capacity77.65 MW 1 x 28.94 MW +2 x 24.2 MW Type of turbine Vertical shaft, Kaplan Type (1) Propeller Type (2) Speed166.7 r.p.m.

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PROJECT BENEFITS
A huge load of Power generation is not the only useful function of Bhakra Nangal Dam. It receives water for River Beas and provides it for irrigation in nearby states like Himachal Pradesh and Haryana. It also works as an efficient flood controller for the adjacent areas. There are four main flood gates which are completely in use during heavy rains. Breeding of fishes is also an activity taking place in Bhakra Nangal Dam. The dam provides irrigation to 10 million acres (40,000 km) of fields in Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, and Rajasthan. Bhakra and Nangal dams house hydroelectric power generators, which are situated on both the sides of the dams. Nangal hydel Channel and Anandpur Sahib Channel are used for power generation and irrigation purposes. Each power plant consists of five turbines. Two power houses with a total capacity of 1325 MW flank the dam, on either side of the river. The power generated at Bhakra Power houses is distributed among partner states of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Himachal Pradesh and also supplied to common pool consumers like National Fertilizers Ltd. and Chandigarh.

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ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION

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Meeting Peak Demands


Hydroelectric plants: Start easily and quickly and change power output rapidly Complement large thermal plants (coal and nuclear), which are most efficient in serving base power loads. Save millions of barrels of oil

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Impacts of Hydroelectric Dams

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Ecological Impacts
Loss of forests, wildlife habitat, species
Degradation of upstream catchment areas due to inundation of

reservoir area Rotting vegetation also emits greenhouse gases Loss of aquatic biodiversity, fisheries, other downstream services Cumulative impacts on water quality, natural flooding Disrupt transfer of energy, sediment, nutrients Sedimentation reduces reservoir life, erodes turbines
Creation of new wetland habitat Fishing and recreational opportunities provided by new reservoirs

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Environmental and Social Issues


Land use inundation and displacement of people Impacts on natural hydrology
Increase evaporative losses Altering river flows and natural flooding cycles Sedimentation/silting

Impacts on biodiversity
Aquatic ecology, fish, plants, mammals

Water chemistry changes


Mercury, nitrates, oxygen Bacterial and viral infections Tropics

Seismic Risks Structural dam failure risks


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Hydropower Pros and Cons


Positive Negative
Emissions-free, with virtually no CO2, NOX, SOX, hydrocarbons, or particulates Renewable resource with high conversion efficiency to electricity (80+%) Dispatchable with storage capacity Frequently involves impoundment of large amounts of water with loss of habitat due to land inundation Variable output dependent on rainfall and snowfall Impacts on river flows and aquatic ecology, including fish migration and oxygen depletion Social impacts of displacing indigenous people Health impacts in developing countries High initial capital costs Long lead time in construction of large projects
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Usable for base load, peaking and pumped storage applications Scalable from 10 KW to 20,000 MW Low operating and maintenance costs Long lifetimes

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