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THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM


CONSISTS of:

lymphatic capillaries (smallest) lymphatic vessels lymphatic nodes (largest) cysterna chyli --- sac-like structure lying in front of the 1st two lumbar vertebrae thoracic duct right lymphatic duct

FUNCTIONS
Protection against foreign invaders

ways:

phagocytosis immune response

Drain excess fluid from tissues

conservation of vital substances (proteins)


Absorb fats from small intestines

LYMPHOID TISSUE
Found throughout the body

GENERAL FUNCTIONS: - filtration & phagocytosis - formation of antibodies & antitoxins - formation of lymphocytes

LYMPHOID TISSUE
LYMPH NODES
- small oval bodies found at intervals in the lymphatic vessels - size: pinhead to 2.5 cm. (1 in.) FUNCTION: STRUCTURE: filters the lymph

cortex (densely packed lymphocytes) medulla (loosely packed lymphocytes) fibrous capsule lymphocytes, macrophages, other WBC -- active in immunity 3 MAJOR LYMPH NODES: cervical LN, axillary , inguinal LN

LYMPHOID TISSUE
TONSILS
palatine pharyngeal (adenoids) lingual FUNCTION: filter the tissue fluid

LYMPHOID TISSUE
THYMUS
-

location:

upper thorax beneath the sternum

Flat, pinkish gray, two-lobed organ T lymphocytes = developed under the effect of hormone thymosin Active during fetal & early life shrinks (atrophy) after puberty

FUNCTION: plays a key role in immune system development before birth & during the 1st few months of infancy

LYMPHOID TISSUE
SPLEEN
-

soft, vascular, oval body 5 in. long & 3 in. wide Weight: 7 ounces Location: left upper abdomen beneath the diaphragm & behind the lower ribs & costal cartilages

LYMPHOID TISSUE
SPLEEN
FUNCTION: - production of blood cells - destruction of erythrocytes -- old RBC after 120 days destroyed in all parts of the RES - immunologic function -- immune system participation body defense (T & B lymphocytes) (+) of antigen B lymphocytes proliferate give rise to antibodyproducing plasma cells - storage of blood --- serves as blood reservoir - produce RBC before birth

CELLULAR & HUMORAL IMMUNITY


CELLULAR IMMUNITY

= livings things interact with & destroy foreign cells = mediated by thymusderived lymphocytes (T cells)
HUMORAL IMMUNITY

= specific circulating glycoproteins (Igs, Abs) interact with foreign substances & promote their inactivation or destruction. = lymphocytes maturing in the bone marrow differentiate into plasma cells after encountering a foreign substance synthesize & secrete large quantities of Ig. B lymphocytes require the cooperation of T lymphocytes to produce Abs.

NATURAL IMMUNITY
Resistance that is not required through contact with

an Ag
Nonspecific; includes barriers to infectious agents

skin, mucous membrane, natural killer cells, phagocytic cell, inflammation, interferon
Specific defense mechanisms

lymphocytes, antibodies, macrophages

ACQUIRED IMMUNITY

Occurs after exposure to an Ag e.g.: infectious agent --- specific, mediated by either Ab or lymphoid cells
PASSIVE or ACTIVE A. PASSIVE IMMUNITY = transmitted by Abs or lymphocytes preformed in another host = passive administration of Ab against bacteria = ready made Abs: diphtheria, tetanus, botulism viruses (Hep A/B, rabies) = limit viral multiplication Adv: with preformed Abs = prompt availability of large amounts of Ab Disadv: short life span; hypersensitivity reaction.

ACQUIRED IMMUNITY
B. ACTIVE IMMUNITY = induced after contact with foreign Ags (e.g.: microorganisms & their products) = immunization with live or killed infectious agents or their Ags (attenuated --- weakened; killed m.o.) Adv: long term resistance (e.g.: toxoids)

Disadv: slow onset of resistance & need prolonged or repeated contact with an Ag.

ANTIGEN & ANTIBODY


ANTIGEN (Ag)

= foreign substances that produces an immune response


ANTIBODY (Ab)

= substance produced in response to specific antigen = circulating plasma proteins (e.g.: Igs, gamma globulins) that can interact specifically with antigenic determinant that elicit their formation.

5 classes of immunoglobulins IgG IgA IgM IgE IgD

ANTIGENANTIBODY REACTION
Antibody produced in response to specific antigen (e.g.: bacterial cell wall or toxin) has the shape that matches some parts of the antigen similar to lock & key configuration antibody bound to specific antigen destruction & inactivation of the Ag precipitation agglutination

e.g.: typing of RBC

IMMUNOGLOBULINS (Igs)

CLASSES
1. Immunoglobulin G (IgG)
= predominant Ab in secondary response = constitutes an important defense against bacteria & viruses = only Ab to pass the placenta --- most abundant in newborn

2. Immunoglobulin M (IgM)
= main Ig produced early in primary immune response

3. Immunoglobulin A (IgA)
= main Ig in secretions such as milk, saliva, tears, secretions of the respiratory, intestinal, & genital tracts = mucous membrane --- protection against bacteria & viruses

4. Immunoglobulin E (IgE)
= allergic responses (anaphylactic type) = increase during helminthic infestation

5. Immunoglobulin D (IgD)
= act as an Ag receptor when present on the surface of certain B lymphocytes = also occurs on cells of some leukemias