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# Lesson Plan in Science

I. Objectives
At the end of the lesson, the students will be able to:
1. describe the characteristics of sound;
2. identify how organisms produce, transmit, and receive sound of various frequencies
(infrasonic, audible, and ultrasonic sound)

## II. Subject Matter

A. Topic: Sound
B. Materials: Visual aids, pictures, handkerchief, cotton balls
C. References:
Science Learners Material (Quarters 1-4) 7, pp. 31-34
Exploring Life Through Science Series, The New Grade 7, pp. 225-231
D. Science Process: Observing, Communicating, Comparing, Classifying
E. Value Integration: To appreciate the importance of sound

Teachers Activity Students Activity
A. Preliminary Activities
1. Prayer & Greetings
2. Checking of Attendance
3. Review/Motivation

B. Lesson Proper
1. Unlocking of difficult terms
vacuum an empty space in which there is
no air or other gas
larynx part of the throat that contains the
vocal cords
frequency the number of occurrences of a
repeating event per unit of time
audible loud enough to be heard

2. Activity
Procedure
1. Blindfold a volunteer.
2. Some of the students will stand forming a
circle around the volunteer.
3. The students will take turn making gentle
noises, such as a clap, a click of the fingers, a
whisper or a quiet call.
4. After each sound, the person with the
blindfold should point to where they think the
sound is coming from.
5. Try it again and this time with a cotton ball
on the ears of the blindfolded volunteer.

3. Analysis
Sound is a form of energy that travels
What is sound?
in invisible waves created by vibrating
objects. It cannot travel in vacuum.
Production of Sound
The source of sound is any vibrating object. The
vibration of the vocal chords in the larynx
produces human voice and also animals.

## The Audible Range

The audible range of frequency for humans is
from 20 20 000 Hz.

## What is infrasound? Sounds whose frequencies are lower

than 20 Hz.

Sources of infrasonic
Natural events: avalanches, earthquakes,
volcanoes, waterfalls, calving of icebergs,
meteors, and lightning
Animal communication: whales, elephants,
hippopotamuses, rhinoceros, giraffes, alligators

## What is ultrasound? Sounds with frequencies higher than

20 000 Hz.
They are used by some animals like bats
(echolocation), insects, dogs, cats, and dolphins.
Imaging is the most common use of ultrasound
in medicine.

Characteristics of Sound
What is pitch? Pitch refers to the highness and
lowness of a sound.

## According to the basic wave equation, a high-

frequency sound gives rise to a short wave and
a low-frequency sound, to a long wave.

## What is loudness? Loudness refers to the loudness and

softness of a sound.

## Sound Levels of different sound sources

Source of sound Level (dB)
Jet engine, 30 m away 140
Threshold of pain 120
Amplified rock music 115
Old subway train 100
Average factory 90
Busy street traffic 70
Normal conversation 60
Library 40
Close whisper 20
Normal breathing 10
Threshold of hearing 0

## What is quality or timbre? It is perceived as the quality of

different sounds.
The Human Voice
The human voice is regarded as the most
wonderful musical instrument. The vibration of
the vocal cords in the larynx produces music.

## What is noise? Noise is a term used to refer to an

unwanted or damaging sound.

4. Abstraction
What is sound? Sound is a form of energy that travels
in invisible waves created by vibrating
objects.
How does sound produced? Sound is produced by any vibrating
objects.
What are the characteristics of sound? Pitch, loudness, and quality.

5. Application
What would the world be if there is no sound? The world will be quiet and peaceful.

IV. Evaluation
Identification
1. A longitudinal wave that is created by vibrating objects
2. Sounds whose frequencies are lower than 20 Hz
3. Sounds with frequencies higher than 20 000 Hz
4. Threshold of pain (dB)
5. Refers to the highness and lowness of a sound
6. What is Hz?
7. What is dB?
8. Refers to the loudness and softness of a sound
9. The most wonderful musical instrument
10. Unwanted or damaging sound

V. Assignment
Bring any material that produces sound.

M.L.: ___________

I.D: ____________

Prepared by:
Patricia Ann F. Palencia
BSED IV Bio.Sci.