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oO el en) | Sars FOR ALL INSTRUMENTS IN TREBLE CLEF By EVERETT GATES «™ i i=. =e FOREWORD One of the most difficule problems confronting music educators coday is the adequate preparation of their students for the performance of contemporary music. In band, orchestra, ensemble, and solo music which is wricten in modern style the problems of time, meter, and rhythm are frequently the most perplexing. The lack of individual study materials of an interme diate level of technical difficulty further complicates the problem. Not infrequently the young musician (not to say his teacher) is first confronted septuple, and changing meters af advanced stage of technical and digital development. Because he cannot successfully cope with these unfamiliar types of rhythmic and metrical organization hhe has feeling of frustration and often comes to fear modern compositions which incorporate them. He may even develop a real aversion to modetm music, much fo the detriment of his musical growth. If he lacer enters the teaching profession this attitude is trans- mitted c his students. This is certainly an unhealthy situation, but one which is understandable. ‘These etudes have been written to help, at least in a small may, to correct this situation. [t would be presumptuous ‘on the part of the composer to claim for these etudes any great intrinsic musical value, but he does feel that there is @ pressing need for more study material of this nature, and hopes that this contribution to the teaching literature will be found acceptable. Copyright testrietions definitely limit the possibility of excerpt ing study material for separate publication from the works of our great contemporary masters, but the teacher and student should, by all means,, purchase scores and separate parts for individual study when these are available, Thete is a widespread misconception that quin- tuple meter, changing meter sigeacures, and compler syacopation are developments of the twentieth century. Therefore, the last three etudes have been excerpted from the masterworks of three of out greatest compos £15. This should help to dispel this false assumption, ‘The Tschaikomsky excerpt is, of course, familiar eo almost all musicians, but the Handel and Beethoven examples are less well-known. If may come as a sur- rise to some to learn that Handel was making use of changing meters as carly as 1717, and he was by no means the first to do so. The example from his opera “Orlando” (1732), written in 5/8 meter is, however, ‘one of the first examples of its use in art music, Folk music has utilized asymmetrical rhythms and meters for countless centuries, and the free thythms of Grego- rian Chane are familiar to most musicians. 1¢ is the twentieth century composer, however, who has nade asymmetrical organization an essential stylistic element, developing rhythms and meters to uapreced- ented complexity. The coneributions of American jazz are too well known to requite more than passing com ment. Since there is a wealth of good study material available which incorporates the distinctive thythms and syncopations of this type of music these etudes do not stress this aspect. This area should not be neg- lected, for a well-balanced study program should embrace all styles and types of music. The first eighteen etudes are original. They incorporate a great number of compositional techniques ‘employed by contemporary writers: modal and contrived scales, twelve-ione organization, retrograde melodic inversions, less usual formal organization, 3, 5, and 7 bar phrases, etc. The teacher should point out these features to the student. Extremes of range have been avoided. Phrases have been constructed with the limited breath control of young wind players kept in mind. Breath marks should be pencilled in by the teacher and should be adjusted to the level of advance- ment. The metronome marks should be considered as Buide and the tempos may be increased or decreased 85 seems accessary. A metronome is a must but may be dispensed with after the player begins to feel at case. The newer types of metronomes, such as the Duncan “Rhythocycle"” and ‘*Multi-Beat Metronome"? are wonderful study aids and should be investigated by the teacher. Simple one octave scales in the pattera of the erudes being studied will prove helpful, als. (See next ewo pages.) If these studies are used by violinists, the proper bowing and phrasing must, of course, be applied. EVERETT GATES Eastman School of Nusic EVERETT GATES is one of the most challenging figures in modem music education. As a professional he has worked on all of the woodwinds as well as viola. His activities as a periormer have been in Seed T oncett symphonic, show, and dance. Nationally he is highly reepected for hie work in theory, ics. 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