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University of Canberra
Division of Business, Law and Information Sciences
School of Information Sciences and Engineering

Programming Graphical User Interfaces PG

Drawing Basics

1. The Graphics class: provides pens, brushes and drawing methods. The Graphics
class is included in the System.Drawing namespace. This namespace is
implemented on top of Graphics Device Interface Plus (GDI+). GDI+ is a
Win32DLL (gdiplus.dll).

2. The try-finally and using blocks:

The code for drawing on the Windows form is of the form

Graphics g = this.CreateGraphics();
try
{
// code for drawing
}
finally
g.Dispose();

The try-finally block is used to release an underlying resource hold by the


graphics object when we finish drawing. The resource is managed by Windows
when the graphics object is created

The try-finally block can be replaced by a using block as follows

using (Graphics g = this.CreateGraphics())


{
// code for drawing
}

The using block always calls the Dispose() method at the end of the block for
objects created in the using block

3. Drawing on a control: most of control objects have their own CreateGraphics


method
• Draw on Windows form: Graphics g = this.CreateGraphics();
• Draw on button1: Graphics g = this.button1.CreateGraphics();

4. If drawing methods are implemented in the Paint event handler, use the Graphics
object in the paint event argument e
Graphics g = e.Graphics;
5. If drawing methods are not implemented in the Paint event handler, use the
CreateGraphics() method as shown above and the method Refresh() to call the
Paint event and update the form. For example

private void MainForm_MouseMove(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.MouseEventArgs e)
{
using (Graphics g = this.CreateGraphics())
{
g.DrawRectangle(Pens.Black, 20, 20, 250, 120);
this.Refresh();
}
}

The Refresh() method can be regarded as the combination of the Invalidate()


method (to ask Windows for a Paint event for the Windows form) and the
Update() method (to force the Paint event to happen)

6. If drawings on the form are cha nged when resizing the Windows form, add the
following code to the constructor (after the InitializeComponent() method)

this.SetStyle(ControlStyles.ResizeRedraw, true);

7. To reduce flicker when drawing with mouse, add the following to the constructor
this.SetStyle(ControlStyles.DoubleBuffer, true);
this.SetStyle(ControlStyles.UserPaint, true);
this.SetStyle(ControlStyles.AllPaintingInWmPaint, true);

Using ControlStyles.DoubleBuffer and true , drawing is performed in a


buffer, and after it completes, the result is output to the screen. Double-buffering
prevents flicker caused by the redrawing of the control. To fully enable double-
buffering, you must also set the UserPaint and AllPaintingInWmPaint style bits
to true .
University of Canberra
Division of Business, Law and Information Sciences
School of Information Sciences and Engineering

Programming Graphical User Interfaces PG

Drawing Methods (including Drawing Text)

The following examples show how to use all Drawing methods available in the
Drawing and Drawing 2D namespaces. Code is added to the Paint event handler. The
form name is MainForm.

1. Drawing Line :

Syntax: DrawLine(Pen pen, Point pt1, Point pt2);

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
Pen myPen = new Pen(Color.Black, 2);
Point pt1 = new Point(20, 20);
Point pt2 = new Point(250, 70);

using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)


g.DrawLine(myPen, pt1, pt2);
}

2. Drawing Lines:

Syntax: DrawLines(Pen pen, Point [] points);

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
Pen myPen = new Pen(Color.Black, 2);
PointF[] points =
{
new PointF(20.0F, 20.0F),
new PointF(250.0F, 120.0F),
new PointF(150.0F, 200.0F),
new PointF(20.0F, 20.0F)
};

using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)


g.DrawLines(myPen, points);
}
3. Drawing Ellipse and Circle :

Syntax: DrawEllipse(Pen pen, int x, int y, int width, int


height);

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
Pen myPen = new Pen(Color.Black, 2);
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
g.DrawEllipse(myPen, 20, 20, 200, 100);
g.DrawEllipse(myPen, 30, 45, 50, 50);
}
}

4. Drawing Arc :

Syntax: DrawArc(Pen pen, Rectangle rect, float startAngle,


float sweepAngle);

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
Pen myPen = new Pen(Color.Black, 2);
Rectangle rect = new Rectangle(20, 20, 200, 200);
g.DrawRectangle(myPen, 20, 20, 200, 200);
g.DrawArc(myPen, rect, 0.0f, 135.0f);
}
}

5. Drawing Pie:

Syntax: DrawPie(Pen pen, Rectangle rect, float startAngle,


float sweepAngle);

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
Pen myPen = new Pen(Color.Black, 2);
Rectangle rect = new Rectangle(20, 20, 200, 200);
g.DrawPie(myPen, rect, 0.0f, 135.0f);
}
}

6. Drawing Bezier: A Bézier spline is a curve specified by four points: two end
points and two control points. The curve begins at pt1 and ends at pt2. The
curve doesn't pass through the control points, but the control points act as
magnets, pulling the curve in certain directions and influencing the way the
curve bends

Syntax: DrawBezier (Pen pen, Point pt1, Point pt2, Point


pt3, Point pt4);

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
Pen myPen = new Pen(Color.Black, 2);
g.DrawBezier(myPen,
new PointF(20.0F, 20.0F),
new PointF(250.0F, 120.0F),
new PointF(50.0F, 50.0F),
new PointF(220.0F, 20.0F) );
}
}

7. Drawing Beziers :

Syntax: DrawBeziers (Pen pen, Point [] points);

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
Pen myPen = new Pen(Color.Black, 2);
PointF[] points =
{
new PointF(20.0F, 20.0F),
new PointF(250.0F, 120.0F),
new PointF(150.0F, 200.0F),
new PointF(20.0F, 20.0F)
};
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
g.DrawBeziers(myPen, points);
}

8. Drawing Curve :

Syntax: DrawCurve (Pen pen, Point [] points, int offset, int


numberOfSegments, float tension);

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
Pen myPen = new Pen(Color.Black, 2);
float tension = 0.5F;
PointF[] points =
{
new PointF(40.0F, 10.0F),
new PointF(50.0F, 35.0F),
new PointF(100.0F, 35.0F),
new PointF(200.0F, 120.0F),
new PointF(200.0F, 30.0F)
};
int offset = 1;
int segments = 3;

using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)


g.DrawCurve(myPen, points,
offset, segments, tension);
}

9. Drawing Closed Curve : requires the Drawing2D namespace

Syntax: DrawClosedCurve (Pen pen, Point [] points, float


tension, FillMode mode);

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
Pen myPen = new Pen(Color.Black, 2);
float tension = 0.5F;
PointF[] points =
{
new PointF(40.0F, 10.0F),
new PointF(50.0F, 35.0F),
new PointF(100.0F, 35.0F),
new PointF(200.0F, 120.0F),
new PointF(200.0F, 30.0F)
};

using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)


g.DrawClosedCurve(myPen, points,
tension, FillMode.Alternate);
}
10. Drawing Rectangle :

Syntax: DrawRectangle (Pen pen, int x, int y, int width, int


height);

Example: refer to example 8

11. Drawing Rectangles:

Syntax: DrawRectangles (Pen pen, Rectangle [] rects);

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
Rectangle rect1 = new Rectangle(20, 20, 200, 100);
Rectangle rect2 = new Rectangle(50, 50, 100, 100);

Rectangle [] rects = {rect1, rect2};

using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)


g.DrawRectangles(myPen, rects);
}

12. Drawing Path: requires the Drawing2D namespace

Syntax: DrawPath (Pen pen, GraphicsPath path);

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
GraphicsPath path = new GraphicsPath();
path.AddLine(20, 20, 100, 100);
path.AddLine(100, 100, 400, 100);
path.AddLine(400, 100, 20, 20);
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
g.DrawPath(myPen, path);
}

13. Drawing Polygon:

Syntax: DrawPolygon (Pen pen, Point [] points);

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
Graphics myGraphics = e.Graphics;
PointF[] points =
{
new PointF(40.0F, 10.0F),
new PointF(50.0F, 35.0F),
new PointF(100.0F, 35.0F),
new PointF(200.0F, 120.0F),
new PointF(200.0F, 30.0F)
};
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
g.DrawPolygon(myPen, points);
}

14. Drawing Icon:

Syntax: DrawIcon (Icon icon, Rectangle targetRect);

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
Icon icon1 = new Icon("ARW03RT.ICO");
Icon icon2 = new Icon("ARW03LT.ICO");
Icon icon3 = new Icon("ARW03UP.ICO");
Icon icon4 = new Icon("ARW03DN.ICO");

using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)


{
g.DrawIcon(icon1, 20, 20);
g.DrawIcon(icon2, 90, 20);
g.DrawIcon(icon3, 160, 20);
g.DrawIcon(icon4, 230, 20);
Rectangle rect = new Rectangle(90, 70, 100, 40);
g.DrawRectangle(myPen, rect);
g.DrawIconUnstretched(icon2, rect);
}
}

DrawIconUnstretched method: draws the image represented by the specified


Icon object without scaling the image

15. Drawing Image :

Syntax: DrawImage (Image image, Point point);


DrawImageUnscaled (Image image, Point point);

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
Image image =
Image.FromFile("summer2004_synchro_swim.gif");
Point displayPoint = new Point(20, 20);
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
g.DrawImage(image, displayPoint);
}
16. Drawing Text:

Syntax: DrawString (String s, Font f, Brush b, Rectangle r,


StringFormat format);

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
SolidBrush myBrush = new SolidBrush(Color.Black);
Rectangle myRect = new Rectangle(20, 20, 200, 40);
Font myFont = new Font("Times New Roman", 14);

using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)


g.DrawString("University of Canberra",
myFont, myBrush, myRect);
}

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
SolidBrush myBrush = new SolidBrush(Color.Black);
Rectangle myRect = new Rectangle(20, 20, 200, 40);
Font myFont = new Font("Times New Roman", 14);

StringFormat format = new StringFormat();


format.FormatFlags =
StringFormatFlags.DirectionVertical;

using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)


g.DrawString("University of Canberra",
myFont, myBrush, myRect, format);
}
University of Canberra
Division of Business, Law and Information Sciences
School of Information Sciences and Engineering

Programming Graphical User Interfaces PG

Filling Shapes

• Any of the shapes in the Graphics library that contain an interior can also be
filled. Simple shapes such as rectangles and ellipses have obvious interiors. If
a filling operation is applied to an open curve, Graphics will add an extra line
segment to close the curve.
• Drawing a shape requires a Pen and filling a shape requires a Brush.
• Note that filling and drawing are two separate operations . For example,
FillRectangle() produces a rectangle containing only the filled interior
(without any outline of the edges) of the rectangle. To produce a filled interior
and a drawn outline, we need to call FillRectangle() and then
DrawRectangle() in this order.
• Five brushes available for filling shapes are SolidBrush, HatchBrush,
TextureBrush, LinearGradientBrush and PathGradientBrush.
• Two filling modes available for filling a more complex shape (e.g. a
polygon) are FillPolygon() and FillPath().

The following examples can be placed in the Paint event handler of a Windows
Application project using C#. The project name is FillingShapes and the Form1 is
replaced with MainForm.

1. Filling a rectangle or an ellipse with the SolidBrush

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using(Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
Pen pen = new Pen(Color.Black, 2);
SolidBrush brush = new SolidBrush(Color.Gray);
g.FillRectangle(brush, 10, 10, 270, 120);
g.DrawRectangle(pen, 10, 10, 270, 120);
}
}
We can create a Rectangle object before calling filling and drawing operations as
follows
private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,
System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using(Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
Pen pen = new Pen(Color.Black, 2);
SolidBrush brush = new SolidBrush(Color.Gray);
Rectangle rect = new Rectangle(10, 10, 270, 120);
g.FillRectangle(brush, rect);
g.DrawRectangle(pen, rect);
}
}
The Rectangle object can be used in the FillEllipse() as follows

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using(Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
Pen pen = new Pen(Color.Black, 2);
SolidBrush brush = new SolidBrush(Color.Gray);
Rectangle rect = new Rectangle(10, 10, 270, 120);
g.FillEllipse(brush, rect);
g.DrawRectangle(pen, rect);
}
}

2. Filling a rectangle or an ellipse with the Texture Brush

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using(Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
Pen pen = new Pen(Color.Black, 2);
Image image = Image.FromFile("dolphins.jpg");
TextureBrush brush = new TextureBrush(image);
Rectangle rect = new Rectangle(10, 10, 270, 120);
g.FillRectangle(brush, rect);
g.DrawRectangle(pen, rect);
}
}
private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,
System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using(Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
Pen pen = new Pen(Color.Black, 2);
Image image = Image.FromFile("dolphins.jpg");
TextureBrush brush = new TextureBrush(image);
Rectangle rect = new Rectangle(10, 10, 270, 120);
g.FillEllipse(brush, rect);
g.DrawRectangle(pen, rect);
}
}

3. Filling a pie with the HatchBrush: note that the System.Drawing.Drawing2D


namespace is required

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using(Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
Pen pen = new Pen(Color.Blue, 1);
HatchBrush brush = new HatchBrush(
HatchStyle.BackwardDiagonal,
Color.White, Color.Black);
Rectangle rect = new Rectangle(10, 10, 370, 120);
g.FillPie(brush, rect, 0, 90);
g.DrawEllipse(pen, rect);
}
}
4. Filling a rectangle or an ellipse with the LinearGra dientBrush: note that the
System.Drawing.Drawing2D namespace is required

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using(Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
Pen pen = new Pen(Color.Blue, 2);
Rectangle rect = new Rectangle(10, 10, 370, 120);
LinearGradientBrush brush = new
LinearGradientBrush(
rect, Color.Blue,
Color.Yellow,
LinearGradientMode.ForwardDiagonal);
g.FillEllipse(brush, rect);
g.DrawEllipse(pen, rect);
}
}

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using(Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
Pen pen = new Pen(Color.Blue, 2);
Rectangle rect = new Rectangle(10, 10, 370, 120);
LinearGradientBrush brush = new
LinearGradientBrush(
new Point(10,10), new Point(50,50),
Color.BlueViolet, Color.AliceBlue);
g.FillRectangle(brush, rect);
g.DrawRectangle(pen, rect);
}
}
5. Filling a rectangle or an ellipse with the PathGradientBrush: note that the
System.Drawing.Drawing2D namespace is required

The following examples are equivalent

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using(Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
Pen pen = new Pen(Color.Blue, 2);
Point [] points = {new Point(220, 20),
new Point(20, 120), new Point(420, 120)};
GraphicsPath path = new GraphicsPath();
path.AddLines(points);
PathGradientBrush brush = new
PathGradientBrush(path);
brush.CenterColor = Color.Yellow;
Color [] surround =
{Color.Red, Color.Green, Color.Blue};
brush.SurroundColors = surround;
Rectangle rect = new Rectangle(10, 10, 420, 120);
g.FillRectangle(brush, rect);
g.DrawRectangle(pen, rect);
}
}

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using(Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
Pen pen = new Pen(Color.Blue, 2);
Point [] points = {new Point(220, 20),
new Point(20, 120), new Point(420, 120)};
PathGradientBrush brush =
new PathGradientBrush(points);
brush.CenterColor = Color.Yellow;
Color [] surround =
{Color.Red, Color.Green, Color.Blue};
brush.SurroundColors = surround;
Rectangle rect = new Rectangle(10, 10, 420, 120);
g.FillRectangle(brush, rect);
g.DrawRectangle(pen, rect);
}
}
6. Filling a polygon with the PathGradientBrush: note that the
System.Drawing.Drawing2D namespace is required

The first example uses FillPolygon() and the second one uses FillPath(). The
FillMode.Alternate is used. Both produce the same result

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using(Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
Pen pen = new Pen(Color.Blue, 2);
Point [] points = {new Point(5, 88),
new Point(195, 88), new Point(41, 200),
new Point(100, 19), new Point(159, 200)};
GraphicsPath path = new GraphicsPath();
path.AddLines(points);
PathGradientBrush brush =
new PathGradientBrush(path);
brush.CenterColor = Color.Yellow;
Color [] surround =
{Color.Red, Color.Green, Color.Blue};
brush.SurroundColors = surround;
Rectangle rect = new Rectangle(10, 10, 420, 120);
g.FillPolygon(brush, points, FillMode.Alternate);
}
}

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using(Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
Pen pen = new Pen(Color.Blue, 2);
Point [] points = {new Point(5, 88),
new Point(195, 88), new Point(41, 200),
new Point(100, 19), new Point(159, 200)};
GraphicsPath path =
new GraphicsPath(FillMode.Alternate);
path.AddLines(points);
PathGradientBrush brush =
new PathGradientBrush(path);
brush.CenterColor = Color.Yellow;
Color [] surround =
{Color.Red, Color.Green, Color.Blue};
brush.SurroundColors = surround;
Rectangle rect = new Rectangle(10, 10, 420, 120);
g.FillPath(brush, path);
}
}

The FillMode.Winding is used below. The first example uses FillPolygon() and
the second one uses FillPath(). Both produce the same result

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using(Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
Pen pen = new Pen(Color.Blue, 2);
Point [] points = {new Point(5, 88),
new Point(195, 88), new Point(41, 200),
new Point(100, 19), new Point(159, 200)};
GraphicsPath path = new GraphicsPath();
path.AddLines(points);
PathGradientBrush brush =
new PathGradientBrush(path);
brush.CenterColor = Color.Yellow;
Color [] surround =
{Color.Red, Color.Green, Color.Blue};
brush.SurroundColors = surround;
Rectangle rect = new Rectangle(10, 10, 420, 120);
g.FillPolygon(brush, points, FillMode.Winding);
}
}

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using(Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
Pen pen = new Pen(Color.Blue, 2);
Point [] points = {new Point(5, 88),
new Point(195, 88), new Point(41, 200),
new Point(100, 19), new Point(159, 200)};
GraphicsPath path =
new GraphicsPath(FillMode.Winding);
path.AddLines(points);
PathGradientBrush brush =
new PathGradientBrush(path);
brush.CenterColor = Color.Yellow;
Color [] surround =
{Color.Red, Color.Green, Color.Blue};
brush.SurroundColors = surround;
Rectangle rect = new Rectangle(10, 10, 420, 120);
g.FillPath(brush, path);
}
}

7. Filling a region: a region describes a set of pixels, a pixel is considered either fully
inside, or fully outside the region. Consequently, FillRegion does not antialias the
edges of the region.

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using(Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
Pen pen = new Pen(Color.Brown, 5);
SolidBrush blueBrush = new SolidBrush(Color.Blue);
Rectangle rect = new Rectangle(100, 10, 200, 100);
Region region = new Region(rect);
g.DrawRectangle(pen, rect);
g.FillRegion(blueBrush, region);
}
}
University of Canberra
Division of Business, Law and Information Sciences
School of Information Sciences and Engineering

Programming Graphical User Interfaces PG

Using Pens

• A Pen object is a Microsoft Windows Graphics Device Interface Plus


(GDI+) object used to draw lines and curves.
• A Pen object has attributes that can be set to adjust the width, colour,
and style used to draw lines and curves.

The following examples show how to use pens. Code is added to the Paint event
handler. The form name is MainFo rm.

Syntax:
Pens.selectedColor (with a width of 1)
Pen(System.Drawing.Color color, float width)
Pen(System.Drawing.Brush brush, float width)

Example 1: Pens.selectedColor (with a width of 1)

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
Pen myPen = Pens.Black;
g.DrawRectangle(myPen, 20, 20, 250, 120);
}
}

Example 2: Pen(System.Drawing.Color color, float width)

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
Pen myPen = new Pen(Color.Black, 1);

g.DrawRectangle(myPen, 20, 20, 250, 120);


}
}

We can reset the Width and Color attributes after creating the pen

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{

Pen myPen = new Pen(Color.Black, 1);


g.DrawRectangle(myPen, 20, 20, 250, 120);

myPen.Width = 2;
myPen.Color = Color.White;

g.DrawEllipse(myPen, 20, 20, 250, 120);


}
}

We can also set the DashStyle attribute after creating the pen

myPen.DashStyle = DashStyle.Dash;
Other attributes such as DashDot, DashDotDot and Dot are available.

Example 3: Pen(System.Drawing.Brush brush, float width)

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
SolidBrush myBrush = new SolidBrush(Color.Black);
Pen myPen = new Pen(myBrush, 2);

g.DrawRectangle(myPen, 20, 20, 250, 120);


}
}

Example 4: using HatchBrush

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
HatchBrush myBrush = new HatchBrush(
HatchStyle.BackwardDiagonal,
Color.White, Color.Black);
Pen myPen = new Pen(myBrush, 20);
g.DrawRectangle(myPen, 20, 20, 250, 120);
}
}
Example 5: using LineCap

The LineCap enumeration specifies the type of graphic shape to use on the end of
a line drawn with a pen. The cap can be a square, circle, triangle, arrowhead,
custom, or masked (hidden). End caps can also "anchor" the line by centering the
cap at the end of the line

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
Pen myPen = new Pen(Color.Black, 10);
myPen.SetLineCap(LineCap.DiamondAnchor,
LineCap.ArrowAnchor, DashCap.Flat);
Point pt1 = new Point(50, 50);
Point pt2 = new Point(250, 50);
g.DrawLine(myPen, pt1, pt2);
}
}

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
Pen myPen = new Pen(Color.Black, 10);
myPen.StartCap = LineCap.Triangle;
myPen.EndCap = LineCap.Triangle;
myPen.DashCap = DashCap.Triangle;
myPen.DashStyle = DashStyle.Dot;
Point pt1 = new Point(50, 50);
Point pt2 = new Point(250, 50);
g.DrawLine(myPen, pt1, pt2);
}
}
private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,
System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
Pen myPen = new Pen(Color.Black, 10);
myPen.DashStyle = DashStyle.Dot;
myPen.SetLineCap(LineCap.RoundAnchor,
LineCap.Square, DashCap.Round);
Point pt1 = new Point(50, 50);
Point pt2 = new Point(250, 50);
g.DrawLine(myPen, pt1, pt2);
}
}
University of Canberra
Division of Business, Law and Information Sciences
School of Information Sciences and Engineering

Programming Graphical User Interfaces PG

Using Brushes

• A brush is an instance of any class that derives from the MustInherit


(abstract) Brush class, and can be used to fill shapes or paint text.
• Brushes are objects that are used with a Graphics object to create solid
shapes and to render text. There are several different types of brushes:
SolidBrush, HatchBrush, TextureBrush, LinearGra dientBrush and
PathGradientBrush.

The following examples show how to use brushes. Code is added to the Paint event
handler. The form name is MainForm.

1. Using system-defined brushes (for standard colours): these brushes are


included in the Brushes class
private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,
System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
g.FillRectangle(Brushes.AliceBlue, 50,50,150,100);
g.FillRectangle(Brushes.BlueViolet, 30,20,40,100);
}
}

2. SolidBrush: The SolidBrush class defines a solid colour Brush object used to fill
in shapes similar to the way a paint brush can paint the inside of a shape.

Syntax : SolidBrush(Color color)

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
SolidBrush myBrush = new SolidBrush(Color.Black);
g.FillRectangle(myBrush, ClientRectangle);
}
}

The form is black. The ClientRectangle is to get the rectangle that


represents the client area of the Windows form

3. HatchBrush: the System.Drawing.Drawing2D namespace is required

HatchBrush(HatchStyle hatchStyle, Color foreColor, Color backColor)

The HatchStyle enumeration specifies the hatch pattern consisting of a solid


background colour and lines drawn over the background

using System.Drawing.Drawing2D;

. . .

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
HatchBrush myBrush = new
HatchBrush(HatchStyle.Cross,
Color.Black, Color.White);
g.FillRectangle(myBrush, ClientRectangle);
}
}

HatchStyle.Cross

HatchStyle.BackwardDiagonal
HatchStyle.ZigZag

.
4. TextureBrush: The TextureBrush class defines a Brush object that contains an
Image object that is used to fill the interior of a shape

Syntax: TextureBrush(Image image)

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
Image myImage = new
Bitmap("summer2004_archery.gif");
TextureBrush myBrush = new TextureBrush(myImage);
g.FillRectangle(myBrush, ClientRectangle);
}
}

We can use a wrap mode to specify how a texture or gradient is tiled when it is
larger than the area being filled

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
Image myImage = new
Bitmap("summer2004_archery.gif");
TextureBrush myBrush = new TextureBrush(myImage);
myBrush.WrapMode = WrapMode.TileFlipX;
g.FillRectangle(myBrush, ClientRectangle);
}
}
5. LinearGradientBrush: The LinearGradientBrush class defines a brush that paints
a color gradient in which the color changes gradually across the stroke from the
starting boundary line to the ending boundary line. The color gradient has one
color at the starting boundary line and another color at the ending boundary.

Syntax:

LinearGradientBrush(Rectangle rect, Color color1, Color color2,


float angle, bool isAngleScalable)

or
LinearGradientBrush(Rectangle rect, Color color1, Color color2,
LinearGradientMode mode);

or
LinearGradientBrush(Point pt1, Point pt2, Color color1, Color
color2);

Examples for those constructor methods are as follows

Example 1:
private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,
System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
LinearGradientBrush myBrush = new
LinearGradientBrush(
ClientRectangle, Color.Black,
Color.White, (float) Math.PI/4, true);
g.FillRectangle(myBrush, ClientRectangle);
}
}
Example 2:
private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,
System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
LinearGradientBrush myBrush = new
LinearGradientBrush(
ClientRectangle, Color.Black,
Color.White, LinearGradientMode.Vertical);
g.FillRectangle(myBrush, ClientRectangle);
}
}

If the gamma correction is set to true:

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
LinearGradientBrush myBrush = new
LinearGradientBrush(
ClientRectangle, Color.Black,
Color.White, LinearGradientMode.Vertical);
myBrush.GammaCorrection = true;
g.FillRectangle(myBrush, ClientRectangle);
}
}

We can use the LinearColors method to set the starting and ending colors of
the gradient as follows

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
LinearGradientBrush myBrush = new
LinearGradientBrush(
ClientRectangle, Color.Black,
Color.White, LinearGradientMode.Vertical);
Color [] linearColors = {Color.White, Color.Gray};
myBrush.LinearColors = linearColors;
g.FillRectangle(myBrush, ClientRectangle);
}
}

Example 3:

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
LinearGradientBrush myBrush = new
LinearGradientBrush(
new Point(0,0), new Point(100,100),
Color.Black, Color.White);
g.FillRectangle(myBrush, ClientRectangle);
}
}

6. PathGradientBrush: A PathGradientBrush object stores the attributes of a


color gradient that you can use to fill the interior of a path with a gradually
changing color.

Syntax: PathGradientBrush(const GraphicsPath path);

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
GraphicsPath path = new GraphicsPath();
path.AddLine(20, 20, 100, 100);
path.AddLine(100, 100, 400, 100);
path.AddLine(400, 100, 20, 20);
PathGradientBrush myBrush = new
PathGradientBrush(path);
g.FillPath(myBrush, path);
}
}

We can fill colours using CenterColor and SurroundColors as follows

private void MainForm_Paint(object sender,


System.Windows.Forms.PaintEventArgs e)
{
using (Graphics g = e.Graphics)
{
GraphicsPath path = new GraphicsPath();
path.AddLine(110, 40, 20, 200);
path.AddLine(20, 200, 200, 200);
path.AddLine(200, 200, 110, 40);
PathGradientBrush myBrush = new
PathGradientBrush(path);
myBrush.CenterColor = Color.Aqua;
Color [] surround = {Color.Red, Color.Green,
Color.Blue, Color.Brown};
myBrush.SurroundColors = surround;
g.FillPath(myBrush, path);
}
}