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Munday, Jeremy, ed. (2009): The Routledge


Companion to Translation Studies, revised edition,
Oxon: Routledge, 285 p.
Oliveira, JanineMartins, JosSantos, Orlanda

Volume 57, numro 3, Septembre 2012

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Oliveira, Janine. Martins, Jos. Santos, Orlanda. "Munday,


Jeremy, ed. (2009): The Routledge Companion to Translation
Studies, revised edition, Oxon: Routledge, 285 p.." Meta 573
(2012): 838841.

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838 Meta, LVII, 3, 2012

he fails to mention its Chinese originator G. S. Hu Marcus Tullius Cicero, the Roman rhetorician and
(a professor of translation studies from Tsinghua orator, to St Jerome, the translator of the Bible.
University, China). And the seven Chinese scholars Munday calls attention to the strategies adopted
briefly quoted in the book are just for a supple by these translators and their annotated comments
mentary reinforcement of the ideas put forward on their translating work. He brings historical texts
by western theorists. and references into the scene with a view to guiding
the reader towards the influential contribution
Xiangjun Liu
Shanghai University of Finance
of classical translators, claiming that persistent
& Economics, Shanghai, China revisiting of such writings has transfused transla
tion studies in recent decades (p.4).
NOTES Munday examines Holmess insightful con
1. Opinions vary as to the category the German tribution to the field with his naming the area
functional theories of translation belong to. Translation Studies, in 1972, a designation still in
Here we follow Munday (2001: 2) by putting use today to refer to the disciplinary field estab
them under the linguistic perspective though lished in early 70s. Considering the task of defining
Hermans (2007: 90), for example, treats them translation a notoriously slippery action (p. 6)
as a functionalist approach parallel to the Munday concentrates on the ambit of transla
linguistic approach. tion with its three aspects: (1) the process of
2. Of course, variations are not limited to simpli transferring a written text from SL to TL, con
fication. There are also some shifts of emphasis ducted by a translator, or translators, in a specific
and/or amplifications. For example, in Section socio-cultural context; (2) the written product,
1 of Chapter 2 (corresponding to Mundays or TT, which results from that process and which
Chapter 2), Zhang uses translation principles
functions in the socio-cultural context of TL;
instead of Mundays degree of systematicity of
(3) the cognitive, linguistic, visual, cultural and
translation thought (Munday 2001: 24-27) as
the clue to thread through the discussions of ideological phenomena which are integral part of
Dryden, Dolet, Tytler and Savory. Here only (1) and (2) (p.7). Despite its inclusiveness, Munday
Savory is Zhangs addition. concedes the limitation of his proposed meaning
for the term, suggesting that such definitions
REFERENCES still do not answer the question of the limits on
Hermans, Theo (2007): Literary Translation. In: translation and the boundaries between transla-
Piotr Kuhiwczak and Karin Littau, eds. A tion, adaptation, version, transcreation, etc. that
Companion to Translation Studies, Clevedon/ have key implication for the criteria by which the
Buffalo/Toronto: Multilingual Matters Ltd., target text is judged (p.7).
77-91. Additionally, Munday focuses on the roles
Munday, Jeremy (2001): Introducing Translation cultural studies play in translation. He refers to the
Studies: Theories and Applications, London/ relevance of Bassnet and Lefeveres (1990) expres
New York: Routledge. sion cultural turn, mentioning the shift that the
term has caused to the research paradigms, and
the resulting consequences on the notion of ST-TT
Munday, Jeremy, ed. (2009): The Routledge equivalence, on the agents of translation and inter
Companion to Translation Studies, revised edi preting, and on fragmentation of the discipline.
tion, Oxon: Routledge, 285 p. Munday enlarges the scope of the chapter
with the challenges to perceptions of translation,
This volume of the series Language Studies and not only insisting on the fact that translation is an
Linguistics, addressed to students, researchers, and intercultural phenomenon (p.18), but also on the
professionals of translation, brings to the fore an idea that the cultural turn ushered in a stream of
authoritative voice on interfaces among linguistics, investigation that transformed the discipline and
context, culture, politics, ethics, cognitive theories, what is understood as translation, thus aligning
technology, interpreting and audiovisual transla himself with Tymoczkos (2006) insistence on the
tion. Its contributors offer the readers invaluable need to challenge presuppositions that have domi
insights into translation studies, providing, in nated the discipline (p.18). Additionally, he pres
editor Mundays words, an overview, a definition ents a brief summary of the volume with the content
of key concepts, a description of major theoretical of each chapter and contributors thoughts, and the
work and an indication of possible avenues of role of key concepts at the end of the book and their
development (p.1). connection with the ideas discussed by researchers
The volume opens with an introductory in general and the contributors in particular.
chapter Mundays Issues in Translation Studies Chapter two, Newmarks The linguistic and
which brings a brief history of translation from communicative stages in translation theory, initially

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comptes rendus 839

looks at the different phases translation theory has membership of a text (p. 39). Hatim suggests
gone through from the 1950s to 2000s, namely the that, within Translation Studies, proponents of
linguistic, communicative, functionalist and ethic/ skopos theory like Vermeer (1978; 1989) show
aesthetic ones, later concentrating on the linguistic good examples of how the field dynamics utilizes
and communicative one. Nida (1964) is, here, traditional register analysis to investigate minimal
referred to as the most influential world figure in units of translation. He sums up: discourse- and
translation because he has created the first theory register-based analysis assists in uncovering and
of communicative translation, putting forward the understanding the attitudes conveyed and, when
notion of functional equivalence so as to establish used in translation practice, is a valuable tool
a distinction between functional equivalence and in enabling these attitudes to be communicated
formal correspondence. appropriately in the target text (p.53).
Newmark closes his chapter with a few com In chapter 4, Translation as a Cognitive
ments on both the functionalist and the ethical/ Activity, considering the relevance of cognitive
aesthetic phases. He refers to the functionalist approaches to translation, Albir and Alves bring to
one as a translational shift from academic to real discussion six of [its] most representative models
world texts. With regard to ethical/aesthetic (p.54), together with translation competence (TC)
stage, he ponders that translators preferably deal and empirical-experimental research within a
with official documental texts and serious literary recent field designated by Muoz (2007) as cogni
works. Advising us that the translators responsi tive translation studies (CTS). These six models
bility lies in seeking truth, New mark insists on address interpretive theory of translation model,
the argument that the professionals work is to be Bells linguistic and psycholinguistic model, Kiralys
attentive to the details of appropriate information, sociological and psycholinguistic model, Wilss
with the help of footnotes when necessary. The translation as a decision-making type of behavior,
contributor invokes the Universal Declaration of Gutts relevance-theoretic approach to translation
Human Rights to defend the importance of truth and finally Giles effort model. Additionally, Albir
and respect for the reader of translated texts. and Alves argue that translation competence con
Chapter three, Hatims Translation Text in tributes to translators and interpreters carrying
Context, looks at various communicative resources, out of cognitive operations.
examining them specifically from the vantage With regard to expert knowledge Albir and
point of the translators. A translator and researcher Alves focus on how the gathering of data on
in Applied Linguistics himself, Hatim tries to dis translation processes and translation competence
entangle some of the terminological confusion can mutually cooperate in dealing with written
involving communication from the perspective translation and interpreting. They close the essay
of the translator. In this context, he considers evaluating the years to come within research on
the need to discuss language processing models, written translating and interpreting, suggesting
among them, text linguistics (Beaugrande, 1980), that the borrowing of tools from other disciplines
systemic-functional linguistics (Halliday, 1985/94; like psychology can be compensated by redefinition
Halliday and Matthiessen, 2004), critical discourse of experimental designs and replication of studies.
analysis (Fairclough, 1989/2001, 2003), and con In chapter 5, Translation as Intercultural Com
trastive rhetoric (Connor, 1986) (p.37). munication, Katan looks at translation as a com
In his analysis of the relation between text municative interaction between different cultures,
and context, Hatim says: contexts tend to shape a view that continues debatable due to the difficulty
and are in turn shaped by texts (p.37). Regarding to establish clear-cut definition of culture. Applying
text-context relation, he copes with textualization the metaphor of the iceberg to culture, Katan argues
in terms of production and reception of texts, that two views are possible: like an iceberg, culture
defining textualization, then, as being a process has a visible part and a hidden one. Intervention
which impinges on both the production and recep on the visible or the invisible aspects of culture
tion of texts and which at one and the same time depends on the translators interest on the top or
involves a set of procedures (i.e. strategies) and a the bottom of the iceberg. Considering culture a
diverse range of products (artifacts) generically system of frames that comprise what is visible and
known as texts (p. 37). He discusses register, what is invisible, Katan comes up with three types
text, discourse and genre from the perspective of of culture technical, formal and informal each
Applied Linguistics, aiming at highlighting the of them projecting a specific view of translation.
kind of influences they may have on the transla At last, Katan disregards translators deliber
tion process. He writes: () the field (or subject ate intervention to restate his beliefs in the transla
matter), the tenor (related to level formality) and tor who is, in fact, a cultural mediator, making
the mode (involving various aspects of textuality efforts to negotiate the constant state of flux that
such as cohesion) collectively make up the register translation allows to take place between specific

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840 Meta, LVII, 3, 2012

cultures. On this intercommunicating level, the like eXtensible Markup Language (XML), Con
translator, as a bicultural subject, moves toward trolled Language (CL), Machine Translation (MT),
intercultural sensitivity, an ability that allows him Computer-Aided Translation (CAT), Translation
to (1) generate many but (2) select one viable text. Memory (TM) or others.
Hermanss contribution in chapter six, Hartley brings significant concepts to Trans
entitled Translation, Ethics and Politics, brings to lation Studies, allowing the meta-discussion
the readers consideration the aspects that ener begin to use Holmess expression. Among them
gize Translation Studies with the incorporation are terms like internationalization, localization
of power-oriented perspective of ethical, political and globalization. After having introduced some
and ideological views in TS. Considering ethi of translation tools, the contributor concludes his
cal concerns and political orientation, these new article arguing that they merit assessment for the
perspectives propose a view of translation that benefit they bring to the field, specifically three of
has much to do with the translators deliberate them: determining whether a tool is fit for purpose,
interventions. A step forward in relation to the tracking its performance on different kinds of data,
70s, the 80s makes itself a self-reflexive turn and measuring its cost-effectiveness over time.
in translation studies (p. 94). The phenomenon Chapter Eight, Pchhackers Issues in Inter-
covers a great deal of scholars and contributions. preting Studies, explores the position of inter
Lefeveres key concept patronage, for example, preting studies within the broader discipline of
emphasizes patrons economic and political inter Translation Studies as ambiguous. It highlights
ests in deciding that ideology should prevail over diversification in interpreting as both professional
poetics, literature and language. Besides Lefeveres practice and research object, which has given rise
patronage, other cases are Brazilian de Camposs to many new areas of interdisciplinary interface,
transcreation, a concept which proposes, on its thus making it even more difficult to accommodate
own terms and for its own purposes (p.103), the interpreting studies within the boundaries, how
ingestion of the colonial culture and foreignizing ever fuzzy, of translation studies. Along with pre
attitudes of Spivak, Appiah and Venuti. senting academic foundations and ways running
Hermanss analysis covers the 1990s, sug through the area even today, Pchhackers article
gesting that both gender and post-colonial stud claims that interpreting has been expressly open to
ies join translation studies with the previous all areas of interpreting, including court interpret
contributions. He argues that women translation ing, community interpreting and signed language
scholars and practitioners advocate reparative interpreting. He covers a conceptual spectrum of
perspectives of translation. Similarly, post-colonial interpreting, emphasizing the twofold distinction
professionals in the field tend to work as repair between international versus community-based
ers or re-enunciators. Here, emphasis on the interpreting, and between conference and liaison
dynamics of textual interweavings (p.102) con interpreting.
nects translation to hybridity and rhizome, point Additionally, he presents one section with
ing out to cultural and linguistic in-betweenness some of the thematic focal points of research in
implied by both concepts. Hermans insists, then, interpreting studies, talking about cognitive pro
that in-betweenness in translation strengthens cessing, quality, training, ethics and role, technol
Cronins idea, which considers translation as a ogy and history. And closes his essay saying that,
cultural phenomenon, able to increase the totality across its various paradigms, interpreting studies
of humanitys knowledge base without undermin has built up a rather extensive conceptual and
ing cultural specificity (p. 105), by advocating methodological repertoire that includes cognitive-
micro-cosmopolitanism. psychological experiments, corpus-linguistic
Chapter seven, Hartleys Technology and quantification, web-based surveys, sociolinguistic
Translation, opens with the statement that, in discourse analysis, sociological modeling of insti
the 1990s, translation as a commercial activity tutions and interaction, and ethnographic work
has become a global business, whose growth has inspired by cultural anthropology.
entirely taken worlds commerce, citing Boucau The final chapter, Chiaros Issues in Audiovi-
(2006). Hartley lists some of the causes of this sual Translation, deals with both the concept and
growth: globalization, small companies having the situation of audiovisual translation, in special
entered international market through internet, with media translation, multimedia translation,
consumer society, and huge spread of informa multimodal translation and screen translation
tion and products. In this changing context, it (especially dubbing and subtitling process,
emphasizes the need of the existence of sophisti advantages and disadvantages). It introduces some
cated programs assisting the translation of these news in the dubbing and subtitling area. In the
products, and introduces some of basic terms and dubbing scenario, for example, Chiaro insists that
tools concerning technology and translation areas, new technology helps modifying lip sync or voice

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comptes rendus 841

quality, and software is now available to provide Alicante, capitale de la province homonyme, est
automatic footage modification, helping an actor to la deuxime ville la plus importante de la commu
mouth words that he or she did not actually speak naut valencienne dans le sud-est de lEspagne.
in the original. Cette communaut est, avec la rgion autonome
With regard to subtitling, speech recognition de la Catalogne, et les les Balares, un des trois
software is able to transform oral speech into territoires catalophones autonomes dEspagne1. La
written subtitles with a certain degree of accuracy. question linguistique revt donc une importance
Citing Antonini (2005), Chiaro deals with the three marque dans cette rgion.
major operations elimination, rendering and De lUniversit dAlicante, qui compte un
simplification that the translator must carry out dpartement de traduction et dinterprtation
in order to obtain effective subtitles. Chiaro closes depuis 2007, nous connaissons la collection MONTI
her article emphasizing that new technologies Monographies de Traduction et dInterprtation,
can indeed speed up the processes of dubbing publie en cinq langues (espagnol, catalan, anglais,
and subtitling. However she calls attention to the franais et allemand) depuis 2009 en collaboration
quality of the translation itself as something so avec les deux autres universits publiques de la
crucial that no subtitling and dubbing software rgion, savoir: lUniversit Jaume-I et lUniversit
imaginable can replace. de Valence.
Translation readers of all kinds students, Louvrage dont il est question ici est antrieur
practitioners and scholars will profit from the cette collection et peut ds lors tre considr
reading of this volume, finding in it answers to comme lopera prima dun groupe de traducto
potential and crucial questions and advancements logues espagnols dsireux de diffuser leurs tra
to their investigative needs. The extensive selection vaux. Dans ce volume, ils font en outre appel
of articles on translation and related areas has des auteurs reconnus au niveau international. Le
covered academic thinkers from both historic and Canada se trouve en tte avec un article de Georges
contemporary periods and backgrounds, whose L. Bastin, sur la pdagogie de la traduction. Alexis
insightful thoughts and analytical contributions Nouss, qui enseigne maintenant Cardiff, mais
have greatly impacted on Translation Studies. The dont le nom a longtemps t associ lUniversit
variety of issues will provide the readers with an de Montral, est galement prsent dans le premier
invaluable theoretical and practical picture of the bloc de textes intitul: De la visin histrica a
field of translation studies and their adjacent areas los nuevos retos en traduccin e interpretacin.
like cultural, linguistic and post-colonial studies, Larticle de Nouss pose la question, fondamentale,
just to mention some of them, which recur in the de savoir comment la traductologie dfinit ses
contributors words. objectifs et ses mthodes danalyse.
Lawrence Venuti, Mourad Zarrouk, de
Janine Oliveira
lUniversit de Grenade en Espagne et de lcole
Jos Endoena Martins
Suprieure Roi Fahd de Tanger, ainsi que Teresa
Orlanda Miranda Santos
Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tomaszkiewicz, de lUniversit Adam Micikiewicz
(UFSC), Florianpolis, Brazil. de Poznan en Pologne, sont les trois autres auteurs
internationaux invits participer ce recueil
RFRENCES de textes auquel ont galement collabor des
Baker, Mona and Saldanha, Gabriela, eds. (2008): chercheurs, des professeurs, des professionnels et
Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies, des tudiants espagnols.
2nd ed., London: Routledge. La formation des traducteurs, mais aussi
Lefevere, Andr (2007): Traduo, Reescrita e les outils didactiques, la traduction littraire, la
Manipulao da Fama Literria. (Translated traduction spcialise et lhistoire de la traduction
by Cludia Matos Seligmann) Bauru, SP: sont traits dans cet ouvrage thmes trs varis.
Edusp. la premire partie qui prsente le texte des auteurs
Morrison, Toni (1984): Rootedness: The Ancestor invits et celui de deux des directeurs de louvrage,
as Foundation. In: Mari Evans, ed. Black sajoute une deuxime partie subdivise en quatre
Women Writers (1950-1980): A Critical Evalu- chapitres consacrs aux thmes mentionns ci-
ation. New York: Anchor Books, 339-345. dessus. Les contributions proviennent dauteurs
associs pour la plupart lUniversit dAlicante.
Suivent lUniversit de Grenade et six autres uni
Navarro Domnguez, Fernando et al. (dir.) versits espagnoles. Figurent galement des textes
(2008): La traduccin: balance del pasado y retos en provenance duniversits du Prou, du Costa
del futuro. Alicante: Editorial Aguaclara y Rica et dAllemagne. Les contributions, quoique
Dpartement de traduction et dinterprtation portant essentiellement sur lEspagne et lEurope
de lUniversit dAlicante, 511 p. occidentale, font des allers-retours dans dautres

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