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UNFAIRADMINISTRATIONOFRELIEF

6 7
a s y s t e m o f s e l f - t ax at i o n w h i c h , ad d e d t o t h e i r n o r m al -
o r r at h e r n o r m al l y e x c e s s i ve - bur d e n o f t ax at i o n i s
p r ac t i c al l y i m p o ve r i s h i n g t h e m .Th e s m al l Je w i s h c o m -
m un i t y o f Mo s c o w al o n e g i ve s abo ut 85, 000r o ubl e s a
m o n t h , r an g i n g f r o m an ave r ag e o f 200r o ubl e s p e r
m o n t h i m p o s e d up o n 26 5m an uf ac t ur e r s d o w n t o t h e 10
r o ubl e s p e r m o n t h i m p o s e d up o n t h e i r p o o r e s t c l e r ks .
Ot h e r c i t i e s ar e c o n t r i but i n g i n p r o p o r t i o n but t h e y
c an n o t p o s s i bl y ke e p p ac e w i t h t h e e ve r - g r o w i n g n e e d .
Un f ai r Ad m i n i s t r at i o n o f Re l i e f
An d i n t h e m i d s t o f t h i s c at as t r o p h e t h e o l d s t r ug g l e
be t w e e n t h e P o l e s an d Je w s h as c o n t i n ue d w i t h un abat e d
f e r o c i t y .Th e l o c al r e l i e f c o m m i t t e e s r e f us e d t o ac c e p t
Je w s as r e p r e s e n t at i ve s , d e n i e d Je w s an y h e l p w h at s o e ve r
an d e ve n d r o ve t h e m aw ay , .by i n t i m i d at i o n an d f o r c e ,
f r o m t h e r e l i e f s t at i o n s s up p o r t e d by t h e i r o w n p e o p l e .
Of s e ve n t y - o n e r e l i e f c o m m i t t e e s o p e r at i n g i n P o l an d ,
f i f t y - t w o c o n t ai n e d n o Je w i s h m e m be r s , al t h o ug h t h e
Je w s c o n s t i t ut e d n e ar l y , o n e - h al f o f t h e ur ban p o p ul at i o n
an d
t h i r t e e n t o f o ur t e e n p e r c e n t .o f t h e r ur al p o p ul at i o n
i n t h e s e p l ac e s .In t h e o t h e r n i n e t e e n c o m m i t t e e s t h e
Je w i s h m e m be r s h i p c o n s t i t ut e d s c ar c e l y t e n p e r c e n t .
o f t h e t o t al , al t h o ug h t h e Je w i s h p o p ul at i o n r an f r o m
t h i r t y - f i ve t o s i x t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t .o f t h e t o t al p o p ul a-
t i o n i n t h e c i t i e s an d f r o m t e n t o f i f t e e n p e r c e n t .i n t h e
r ur al d i s t r i c t s .*An d i n m o s t o f t h e s e p l ac e s t h e Je w s
h ad c o n t r i but e d t h e m ajo r p ar t o f t h e r e l i e f f un d s
.
Eve n i n s t i t ut i o n s s up p o r t e d s o l e l y by Je w i s h c o n t r i but i o n s
w e r e e x p r o p r i at e d by t h e P o l e s .
Th us "t h e m ag n i f i c e n t l y e qui p p e d Ho s p i t al f o r t h e
Wo un d e d , i n War s aw , c r e at e d at t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e
* "Raavi e t " Jan uar y 4 ( 17 ) . 19 15, p .3 1- 2 .
THEJEWSINTHEEASTERNWARZONE
Je w i s h K e h i l l ah , w h i c h h ad r e f i t t e d t h e Ro m an Ho t e l
f o r t h e p ur p o s e , h as be e n r un n i n g un t i l n o w un d e r t h e
o f f i c i al n am e o f t h e War s aw Lo c al Re l i e f C o m m i t t e e .
B ut t h i s h as t ur n e d o ut t o be an an t i - Se m i t e o r g an i z at i o n
w i t h o ut as i n g l e Je w i s h r e p r e s e n t at i ve , i t s bo ar d be i n g
m ad e up o f r abi d Jud e o p h o be s , w h o f e e l n o s c r up l e s i n
t h e m e t h o d s an d m e an s o f t h e i r an t i - Je w i s h p o l i c y
.
P r i vat e d o n at i o n s , t h e p e r s o n al l abo r o f Je w s - al l t h i s
h as g o n e i n t o P o l i s h i n s t i t ut i o n s , al l t h i s h as d i s ap p e ar e d
i n t h e P o l i s h r i ve r - be d , "d e c l ar e s "No vy Vo s kh o d , "
Se p t .11
( 24 ) ,
19 14 .
Th e p r e s e n t at t i t ud e o f t h e Je w s o f Rus s i at o w ar d t h i s
p r o bl e m i s w e l l r e f l e c t e d i n al e t t e r , p ubl i s h e d i n ar e c e n t
i s s ue o f "Evr e y s kay aZh i z n , "*f r o m aJe w , t h e o w n e r
o f as al t m i n e , w h o h ad be e n i n vi t e d , am o n g o t h e r s , t o
c o n t r i but e s al t f o r t h e p o o r e r p e o p l e o f War s aw , w i t h o ut
d i s t i n c t i o n o f r ac e o r c r e e d .He r e p l i e d , i n e f f e c t , t h at
t h e p r o p o s al m e t w i t h h i s d e e p e s t s y m p at h y , but h e t o o k
t h e l i be r t y o f i n qui r i n g as t o w h o w o ul d h ave c h ar g e o f
t h e d i s t r i but i o n o f t h e s al t ."Eve r y bo d y kn o w s , "h e
w r o t e , "t h e i n t o l e r an t at t i t ud e o f t h e P o l i s h Re l i e f
C o m m i t t e e t o w ar d t h e Je w s .Th i s m ake s us d o ubt
w h e t h e r y o ur h i g h p r i n c i p l e w o ul d be c ar r i e d o ut c o n -
s c i e n t i o us l y i f ad m i n i s t e r e d by P o l i s h h an d s
.Th e War -
s aw C o m m i t t e e i s p ar t i c ul ar l y d i s t r us t e d , an d i t w o ul d
be e x t r e m e l y un p l e as an t f o r m e t o f e e l t h at t h e n e c e s -
s ar i e s t h at w e c o n t r i but e d s h o ul d be w i t h h e l d f r o m o ur
o w n f e l l o w Je w s . - On t h e o t h e r h an d , w e w o ul d w e l c o m e
g l ad l y e ve r y e f f o r t o n t h e p ar t o f Rus s i an o r g an i z at i o n s
t o un d e r t ake t o c o o p e r at e w i t h P o l e s an d Je w s i n t h i s
m at t e r t o i n s ur e an e qui t abl e d i s t r i but i o n ."
Wh e n t h e C e n t r al C i t i z e n s 'C o m m i t t e e o f War s aw
w as d i s s o l ve d by t h e Ge r m an g o ve r n o r o f P o l an d , i n
*Jul y 5 ( 18) , 19 15, p p
.3 0- 3 1 .
UNFAIRADMINISTRATIONOFRELIEF

89
Se p t e m be r , 19 15, i t s ac c o un t s s h o w e d t h at i t h ad d i s -
t r i but e d o ve r e l e ve n m i l l i o n r o ubl e s ( $ 5, 500, 000) s i n c e
t h e o ut br e ako f t h e w ar , o f w h i c h t h e Je w s r e c e i ve d
s c ar c e l y 100, 000, al t h o ug h t h e y c o n s t i t ut e o n e - s i x t h o f
t h e p o p ul at i o n an d t h e f un d s h ad be e n g at h e r e d w i t h
t h e e x p r e s s un d e r s t an d i n g t h at t h e d i s t r i but i o n be ab-
s o l ut e l y w i t h o ut d i s c r i m i n at i o n be t w e e n P o l e s an d Je w s .
Th e Li qui d at i o n C o m m i s s i o n w h i c h d i s p o s e d o f t h e
bal an c e o n h an d at t h e t i m e o f t h e d i s s o l ut i o n o f t h e
C e n t r al C o m m i t t e e - s o m e 1, 29 0, 000r o ubl e s - al l o t t e d i t
al l t o P o l i s h i n s t i t ut i o n s .Al t h o ug h t h e r e ar e 3 00, 0000
Je w s i n War s aw , t h e m ajo r i t y o f t h e m i n d i r e n e e d ,
n o t ar o ubl e w as o f f e r e d f o r t h e i r r e l i e f
.
Fi n al l y i t m us t be n o t e d t h at t h e o c c up at i o n o f
P o l an d by t h e Ge r m an f o r c e s h as af f o r d e d l i t t l e r e l i e f
t o t h e Je w s , as t h e s c ar c i t y o f f o o d i n Ge r m an y p r e -
c l ud e s t h e s h i p m e n t o f an y c o n s i d e r abl e quan t i t i e s o f
p r o vi s i o n s t o am e l i o r at e t h e d i s t r e s s o f t h e s t ar vi n g
Je w s o f P o l an d .
7 0
THEJi WSINTHEEASTERNWARZONE
P ROTESTSOFLIB ERALRUSSIA
Th e c r ue l t y o f t h e g o ve r n m e n t 's p o l i c y t o w ar d t h e
Je w s h as n o t r e c e i ve d 't h e s up p o r t o f t h e Rus s i an p e o p l e ,
as t h e n um e r o us p r o t e s t s ut t e r e d i n t h e Dum a, i n p ubl i c
as s e m bl i e s an d i n t h e p r e s s c l e ar l y i n d i c at e .Wh e n i t
i s r e m e m be r e d t h at t h o s e n o n Je w s w h o , i n Rus s i a, d ar e
t o ut t e r aw o r d i n f avo r o f t h e d e s p i s e d Je w s , r i s kt h e i r
p o s i t i o n an d p r e s t i g e t o ad e g r e e un p ar al l e l e d i n an y
o t h e r c o un t r y , t h e f o l l o w i n g c al e n d ar o f p r o t e s t s an d
m an i f e s t o e s c o n s t i t ut e s abo d y o f e vi d e n c e ag ai n s t t h e
Rus s i an g o ve r n m e n t w h i c h m us t c o m p e l c o n vi c t i o n .
Th e s e p r o t e s t s h ave be e n g r o up e d ., f o r c o n ve n i e n c e ,
i n t o f o ur c l as s e s :
THEVOIC EOFTHEDUMA
Ear l y i n t h e s e s s i o n o f t h e Dum at h e Le f t g r o up s
p r o p o s e d an i n t e r p e l l at i o n o f t h e Go ve r n m e n t w i t h r e s p e c t
t o i t s i l l e g al ac t s ag ai n s t t h e Je w s .Af t e r s o m e d e bat e
t h e p r o p o s e d que s t i o n s w e r e r e f e r r e d t o t h e C o m m i t t e e
o n In t e r p e l l at i o n s , w h i c h r e p o r t e d t h e m o ut , o n Aug us t
3 0, 19 15, i n t h i s f o r m :
I .Do t h e p r e s i d e n t o f t h e C o un c i l o f Mi n i s t e r s
an d t h e Mi n i s t e r s o f t h e In t e r i o r an d Jus t i c e
kn o w o f t h e i l l e g al c o n d uc t o f t h e i r ad m i n i s -
t r at i ve o f f i c e r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e f o l l o w i n g :
1 .Th at o f f i c e r s o f t h e p r i s o n ad m i n i s t r at i o n
r e c e i ve d p e r s o n s t ake n by t h e m i l i t ar y aut h o r i t i e s
as h o s t ag e s f r o m t h e l o c al Je w i s h p o p ul at i o n o f
Ri g a, P r us h ko v .

. e t c .?
2 .Th at t h e p r o s e c ut i n g at t o r n e y s t o o kn o
s t e p s t o o bt ai n t h e i m m e d i at e r e l e as e o f t h e s e
THEP EOP LEVS.THEGOVERNMENT

7 1
p e r s o n s , ac c us e d o f n o c r i m e an d i l l e g al l y i m -
p r i s o n e d ?
3
.Th at t h e e x p e l l e d w e r e d r i ve n by ag e n t s o f
t h e p o l i c e i n Vi l i ko m i r , Zh ag o r y an d Sh ad o vi n t o
f r e i g h t c ar s i n ad e quat e f o r t h e ac c o m m o d at i o n o f
o n e - t e n t h o f t h e m , an d t h at t h e r e m ai n d e r , i n -
c l ud i n g c h i l d r e n , ag e d m e n an d w o m e n , an d
i n val i d s w e r e c o m p e l l e d t o f o l l o w af o o t ?
4 .Th at t h e o f f i c e r s o f t h e l o c al g o ve r n m e n t s
t o o kn o s t e p s t o c h e c kt h e r e p e at e d r o bbe r i e s by t h e
l o c al p o p ul at i o n o f t h e p r o p e r t y l e f t by t h e e x i l e s ?
5
.Th at t h e o f f i c e r s o f t h e Ge n d ar m e r i e o f
Ho m e l p r o h i bi t e d t h e s up p l y i n g o f f o o d t o t h e
.e x i l e s , e ve n t h o ug h t h e y w e r e at t h e p o i n t o f e x -
h aus t i o n f r o m h un g e r an d t h i r s t ?
6 . Th at i n No vo z y bko vi n d i vi d ual s w h o s e n t
t e l e g r am s ap p e al i n g f o r h e l p w e r e ar r e s t e d ?
7 .Th at t h e o f f i c e r s o f t h e Ge n d ar m e r i e , w i t h
ar m e d t h r e at s , r e f us e d t o ad m i t t o s e al e d c ar s
p e r s o n s w h o br o ug h t f o o d t o t h e e x p e l l e d at
t h e s t at i o n o f B i e l i t s a, o n t h e P o l i e s s r ai l r o ad ?
8
.Th at t h e p o l i c e o f f i c e r s l o c ke d t h e e x i l e s i n
s e al e d c ar s f o r s e ve r al d ay s at at i m e ?
9
.Th at i n t h e s h i p m e n t o f t h e s e e x i l e s f r o m
Zo l o t o n o s h t o K o vn o an d bac ks o m e o f t h e m w e r e
ke p t i n t h e c ar s t e n d ay s ?
10 .Th at t h e l o c al g o ve r n m e n t ad m i n i s t r at i o n
o f t h e c i t i e s o f Mi n s k, Sam ar aan d Ro s t o vr e -
qui r e d t h e r e p r i n t i n g i n t h e
l o c al p ap e r o f t h e
s t o r y o f Je w i s h t r e as o n i n t h e vi l l ag e o f K uz h i ,
f i r s t p ubl i s h e d i n "Nas h Vi e s t n i k"?
11 .Th at t h e l o c al ad m i n i s t r at i o n o f Tas h ke n t
o r d e r e d p r ay e r f o r t h e d e l i ve r y o f t h e ar m y f r o m
t h e t r e ac h e r y o f t h e Je w s ?
7 2 THEJEWSINTHEEASTERNWARZONE
II . If t h e i l l e g al ac t s o f t h e aut h o r i t i e s ar e
kn o w n t o t h e i n d i c at e d i n d i vi d ual s w h at s t e p s
w e r e t ake n by t h e m t o w ar d s t h e p un i s h m e n t o f
t h e g ui l t y an d t h e p r e ve n t i o n o f s i m i l ar br e ac h e s
o f l aw i n t h e f ut ur e ?
Th e s i g n i f i c an c e o f t h i s i n t e r p e l l at i o n c an n o t be
o ve r e s t i m at e d , i n s o f ar as t h e f ac t s i m p l i e d i n t h e s e
que s t i o n s ar e o f f i c i al l y ac c e p t e d by t h e g r e at s t an d i n g
c o m m i t t e e o f t h e Dum aas w o r t h y o f c o g n i z an c e .Had `
t h e que s t i o n s o r i g i n al l y p r o p o s e d by t h e Le f t g r o up s
be e n w i t h o ut f o un d at i o n t h e y w o ul d h ave be e n r e je c t e d
w i t h o ut r e f e r e n c e t o t h e C o m m i t t e e o n In t e r p e l l at i o n s ;
an d h ad t h e C o m m i t t e e o n In t e r p e l l at i o n s f o un d , up o n
e x am i n at i o n o f t h e e vi d e n c e un d e r l y i n g e ac h que s t i o n
by bo t h t h e Ri g h t an d Le f t d e p ut i e s o n t h e C o m m i t t e e ,
t h at t h e e vi d e n c e w as d e f e c t i ve o r i n ad e quat e , t h e i n -
t e r p e l l at i o n w o ul d n e ve r h ave be e n r e p o r t e d o ut i n t h i s
f o r m ._Th e f ac t t h at i t w as s o r e p o r t e d i n d i c at e s
t h at t h e e vi d e n c e w as i n c o n t r o ve r t i bl e , an d w as s o
ac c e p t e d by t h e Li be r al s an d r e ac t i o n ar i e s al i ke . Th e
r e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i t t e e i s d at e d Aug us t 3 0, 19 15, but
as t h e Dum aw as p r o r o g ue d i m m e d i at e l y af t e r w ar d s ,
t h e Go ve r n m e n t 's an s w e r t o t h e - i n t e r p e l l at i o n i s n o t kn o w n .
In t h e c o ur s e o f t h e d e bat e s o n t h e s e an d o t h e r
que s t i o n s af f e c t i n g t h e Je w s t h e e x p r e s s e d at t i t ud e o f
t h e r e p r e s e n t at i ve s o f t h e g r e at bul ko f t h e Rus s i an
p o p ul at i o n l e f t n o d o ubt o f t h e i r abs o l ut e o p p o s i t i o n
t o t h e Go ve r n m e n t o n t h e Je w i s h que s t i o n
.*
P r o f e s s o r Mi l i uko v, t h e l e ad e r o f t h e C o n s t i t ut i o n al
De m o c r at s , d e c l ar e d o n Jul y 19 ( Aug us t 1) , 19 15
:
Th e s t r o n g e s t f ac t o r i n t h e d i s r up t i o n o f o ur n at i o n al un i t y
w as t h e g o ve r n m e n t 's p o l i c y t o w ar d o ur al i e n s ubje c t s . Th e f o ul
* s t e n o g r ap h i c r e p o r t o f t h e P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e Dum a.
VOIC EOFTHEDUMA

7 3
p l ay up o n t h e o bs c ur e r ac i al p r e jud i c e s o f t h e m as s e s , w i t h t h e
c us t o m ar y w e ap o n o f t h i s ki n d o f s t r i f e - an t i - Se m i t i s m an d t h e
p e r s e c ut i o n o f al l d i s s e n t i n g n at i o n al i t i e s o r r e l i g i o n s - h as be e n
e x e r c i s e d w i t h un p ar al l e l e d e f f r o n t e r y
.Un d e r t h e m as ko f m i l i -
t ar y p r e c aut i o n , m e as ur e s w o r s e t h an c r e d i bl e ar e t ake n ag ai n s t
c r i m e s t h at ar e i m ag i n ar y . . . At at i m e w h e n n at i o n s ar e
s t r ug g l i n g f o r t h e l i be r t i e s an d r i g h t s o f s m al l p e o p l e s , s uc h t e r r i bl e
d e e d s e m bi t t e r o ur f r i e n d s an d e vo ke jo y am o n g o ur e n e m i e s ."
( Lo ud ap p l aus e f r o m t h e l e f t .)
De p ut y K e r e n s ky ."We ar e f i g h t i n g t h i s w ar i n at e r r i t o r y
o c c up i e d by n o n - Rus s i an n at i o n al i t i e s
.B ut d i d n o t o ur g o ve r n -
m e n t , t h i s ve r y y e ar , c aus e t h e s e p e o p l e s t o d o ubt t h e w i s d o m o f
t h e p at h t h e y t o o kay e ar ag o , w h e n t h e y l i n ke d t h e i r d e s t i n y w i t h
o ur s ? "
De p ut y Tc
h k
h e i d z e .Aug .3
( 16 ) , 19 15
: "It i s w e l l kn o w n t o y o u
t h at t h e Go ve r n m e n t r e g i m e h as be e n bas e d o n Je w i s h o p p r e s s i o n
an d t h at at al l
c r i t i c al m o m e n t s i t ai m e d i t s bl o w s f i r s t o f
al l at t h e
Je w s , be c aus e t h e y w e r e i n t h e l i n e o f l e as t r e s i s t an c e . . . .
"Ay e ar ag o t h e w ar be g an an d at o n c e ac c us at i o n s o f t r e ac h e r y
ag ai n s t t h e Je w s w e r e s t ar t e d by t h e Go ve r n m e n t .To - d ay Rus s i a
an d t h e w h o l e w o r l d kn o w s w h o i s t o bl am e f o r t h e c o n d i t i o n i n
w h i c h Rus s i af o un d h e r s e l f .Th e g ui l t y o n e s w e r e n o t at al l t h e
Je w s , as t h e w h o l e c o un t r y w i l l c o n f i r m , but t h o s e w h o s t uf f e d t h e i r
p o c ke t s w i t h t h e m o n e y w h i c h t h e y m ad e o n Go ve r n m e n t o r d e r s
f o r ar m y s up p l i e s ( s h o ut s f r o m t h e l e f t : "Th at 's t r ue ! ") Th e
g ui l t y o n e s w e r e t h o s e w h o , w i t h t h e ai d o f m e n l i ke My as o y o d y e f f ,
Gr o t g us an d o t h e r t r ai t o r s , be t r ay e d Rus s i a . . . .
"Th i s i s s up p o s e d t o be aw ar f o r l i be r t y , f r at e r n i t y , an d e qual i t y ,
but w h at jus t i c e i s t h e r e i n m aki n g aw h o l e n at i o n an s w e r f o r t h e
c r i m e s
o f i n d i vi d ual s , g r an t i n g t h at t h e r e ar e an y ?
"In t h e n am e o f w h at t r ut h i s t h e K uz h i s l an d e r be i n g p ubl i s h e d
i n t h e 'P r avi t e l s t ve n n y Vi e s t ai k? '
"In t h e n am e o f w h at t r ut h ar e t h e var i o us p e r i o d i c al p ubl i -
c at i o n s o r d e r e d t o r e p r i n t t h i s c o m m un i c at i o n un d e r p e n al t y o f a
f i n e ?
"Wh at jus t i c e d e m an d s t h at aJe w i s h vo l un t e e r w h o h as s e ve r al
t i m e s be e n w o un d e d be e x p e l l e d w i t h i n t w e n t y - f o ur h o ur s w h e n
h e t r i e s t o f i n d ap l ac e i n Rus s i a t o r e c o ve r f r o m h i s w o un d s ?
"In t h e n am e o f w h at h um an i t y i s i t f o r bi d d e n t o h an d f o o d t o
s t ar vi n g Je w i s h r e f ug e e s c o o p e d up i n f r e i g h t t r ai n s ? In t h e n am e
7 4 i t i t + JEWSINTHEEASTERNWARZONE
o f w h at br o t h e r h o o d i s o n e p ar t o f t h e ar m y ar o us e d ag ai n s t t h e
.
Je w i s h s o l d i e r s w h o ar e i n t h e t r e n c h e s s i d e by s i d e w i t h o ur o w n
s o l d i e r s ?
"We ac c us e t h e Ge r m an s o f br e aki n g t h e l aw s o f w ar f ar e , o f
us i n g p o i s o n g as e s an d m ut i l at i n g p r i s o n e r s .Suc h ac t s c an c al l
f o r t h o n l y i n d i g n at i o n an d p r o t e s t .Le t t h e s e ac t s be as t ai n up o n
t h e r ul i n g c l as s e s o f Ge r m an y .B ut , g e n t l e m e n , i n t h e n am e o f
w h at l aw s o f h um an i t y ar e o r d e r s i s s ue d t o t h e Rus s i an ar m y t o
d r i ve p e ac e f ul Je w s ah e ad o f t h e t r o o p s an d t o e x p o s e t h e m t o
f i r e ?
"In t h e n am e o f w h at l aw s o f h um an i t y ar e Je w i s h - Rus s i an
s ubje c t s t ake n as h o s t ag e s an d p ut i n t o p r i s o n s an d t o r t ur e d an d
s h o t ?
"We d e n o un c e d t h e Ge r m an s f o r h avi n g d e s t r o y e d Lo uvai n
an d t h e C at h e d r al o f Rh e i m s ; but Ias ky o ui n t h e n am e o f w h at
e t h i c al o r e s t h e t i c p r i n c i p l e s i s aJe w i s h w o m an w h o s e e ks r e f ug e
i n t h e s y n ag o g ue vi o l at e d ? "
B ar o n Ro s e n , f o r m e r Rus s i an Am bas s ad o r t o t h e
Un i t e d St at e s , al s o p r o t e s t e d o ut s p o ke n l y ag ai n s t t h e
c o n t i n uat i o n o f t h e an t i - Je w i s h p o l i c y o f t h e Go ve r n m e n t
i n as p e e c h be f o r e t h e C o un c i l o f t h e Em p i r e , Aug
.22
( Se p t .4 ) , 19 15 .( Se e Ap p e n d i x , p .117 .)
RESOLUTIONSOP C ONSTITUTIONALDEMOC RATIC
P ARTY
Th e l e ad i n g p o l i t i c al p ar t y o f Rus s i a- t h e C o n s t i t u-
t i o n al De m o c r at i c P ar t y - o f f i c i al l y vo i c e d i t s s e n t i m e n t s
o n t h e Je w i s h que s t i o n at an at i o n al c o n ve n t i o n o f t h e
P ar t y , h e l d at P e t r o g r ad o n Jun e 19 - 21( 0 .S.Jun e
6 - 8) ,
19 15, at w h i c h t h e C e n t r al C o m m i t t e e o f t h e P ar t y
s ubm i t t e d ac o m p r e h e n s i ve r e p o r t w h i c h w as ad o p t e d
un an i m o us l y , an d w h i c h , s um m ar i z e d i n t h e f o r m o f a
r e s o l ut i o n , w as o r d e r e d p ubl i s h e d .Th i s r e s o l ut i o n , af t e r
c i t i n g t h e l o y al t y an d p at r i o t i s m o f t h e Je w s at t h e o ut -
br e ako f t h e w ar , c o n t i n ue s :
P ROTESTSOFLIB ERALRUSSIA

7 5
"Th i s i n t e n s e s p i r i t o f p at r i o t i s m m an i f e s t e d
by t h e Je w s i n t h e h o ur o f Rus s i a's d an g e r s e e m e d
f o r at i m e t o h ave br o ke n d o w n t h e r o o t e d p r e j-
ud i c e s o f t h e Go ve r n m e n t an d t o h ave c l e ar e d
t h e w ay f o r t h e r e c o g n i t i o n i n Rus s i a, o f t h at
c i vi c e qual i t y w h i c h i s ac c o r d e d t h e Je w s t h r o ug h -
o ut t h e c i vi l i z e d w o r l d .B ut t h i s w o ul d h ave d e -
p r i ve d o ur r e ac t i o n ar i e s , t h o s e c h am p i o n s o f an
o ut l i ve d p as t , o f t h e i r o l d an d w e l l - t e s t e d w e ap o n
o f bl ac kd e m ag o g ue r y - an t i - Se m i t i s m .An d s o w e
s e e t h at un d e r t h e d i r e c t i n f l ue n c e o f t h e s e n o t o -
r i o us Je w - bai t e r s m e as ur e s w e r e e ar l y ad o p t e d by
t h e Go ve r n m e n t t o s e t t h e ar m y an d t h e p e o p l e
ag ai n s t t h e Je w s . Eve r y ad van t ag e w as t ake n
o f t h e e x i g e n c i e s o f w ar .Is o l at e d c as e s o f e s -
p i o n ag e , l i ke l y t o o c c ur am o n g t h e bo r d e r p o p ul a-
t i o n s o f al l n at i o n s , w e r e s e i z e d up o n as abas i s f o r
un i ve r s al ac c us at i o n s an d f ur n i s h e d t h e o c c as i o n
f o r t h e i n ve n t i o n o f i n c r e d i bl e m y t h s an d r um o r s
c i r c ul at e d e x c l us i ve l y t o t h e i n jur y o f t h e
Je w s . . . .Th e Je w s h ave be e n h e l d c o l -
l e c t i ve l y r e s p o n s i bl e f o r t h e ac t s o f i n d i vi d ual s
am o n g t h e m - ap o l i c y w h i c h o ut r ag e s t h e m o s t
e l e m e n t ar y s e n s e o f jus t i c e , a'p o l i c y w h i c h i s n o
l o n g e r s an c t i o n e d by t h e l aw s o f an y c i vi l i z e d
l an d , am o n s t r o us s ur vi val o f t h e r e m o t e
p as t . . . . Ne e d l e s s t o m e n t i o n t h e s p r e ad o f
d i s c o r d an d h at r e d , t h e g r o w t h o f m ut ual s us p i c i o n
an d d i s t r us t am o n g t h e r ac e s i n h abi t at i n g Rus s i a
w h i c h m us t o f n e c e s s i t y f o l l o w s uc h ap o l i c y .
"No t o n l y i n t h e n am e
o f br o t h e r h o o d ;
n o t
o n l y i n t h e n am e o f t h at h ar m o n y s o n e c e s s ar y
w h e r e d i f f e r e n t n at i o n al i t i e s ar e f at e d t o l i ve
un d e r t h e s h e l t e r o f ac o m m o n g o ve r n m e n t ; n o t
7 6
THEJEWS, INTHEEASTERNWARZONE
o n l y f o r t h e s ake o f ke e p i n g al i ve am o n g t h e
Je w i s h p e o p l e , n o w be i n g d r i ve n t o d e s p ai r , s o m e
h o p e o f abr i g h t e r f ut ur e , an d s o m e f ai t h i n t h at
p r o g r e s s o f w h i c h t h e y h ave e ve r be e n t h e val i an t
c h am p i o n s , but al s o f o r t h e s ake o f t h e at t ai n m e n t
o f t h at i d e al o f t h e Rus s i an p e o p l e
: t h e e l e vat i o n
o f o ur be l o ve d Fat h e r l an d t o t h e s t at us o f at r ul y
e n l i g h t e n e d e m p i r e - m us t w e o f f e r un i t e d o p p o s i -
t i o n ag ai n s t t h e f o r c e s o f r e ac t i o n . .
Our
ad ve r s ar i e s h o p e t o c o n t i n ue , e ve n af t e r t h e w ar ,
t o us e t h e p o i s o n e d w e ap o n o f p r i m i t i ve r ac e
h at r e d w h i c h t h e y h ave us e d un t i l n o w
.It i s o ur
t as kt o d e m o n s t r at e t o t h e m as s e s o f t h e p e o p l e
t h at t h e y ar e ag ai n be i n g d up e d , t h at t h e i r bas e
p as s i o n s ar e n o w be i n g ar o us e d i n o r d e r t o d i s -
t r ac t t h e i r at t e n t i o n f r o m t h e i r o w n vi t al i n t e r e s t s
.
We m us t c o n t i n ue , as be f o r e , t o p o i n t o ut , f i r m l y
an d p e r s i s t e n t l y , t h at t h e r e i s o n l y o n e p at h t o
abr i g h t e r f ut ur e f o r Rus s i a, t h e s am e p at h al o n g
w h i c h t h e e n t i r e c i vi l i z e d w o r l d h as t r ave l e d ,
an d t h at al o n g t h i s r o ad t h e r e i s o n l y o n e s o l ut i o n
o f t h e Je w i s h que s t i o n - as o l ut i o n d e m an d e d by
t h e m o s t e l e m e n t ar y p r i n c i p l e s o f c i vi l i z e d g o ve r n -
m e n t - an d t h at i s t o g r an t t h e m , as i n d i vi d ual s ,
f ul l c i vi c r i g h t s , an d as ap e o p l e , t h e r i g h t t o f r e e
r ac i al an d c ul t ur al s e l f - d e ve l o p m e n t ."
As t r i ki n g i n c i d e n t o c c ur r e d d ur i n g t h e d e bat e up o n
t h i s r e s o l ut i o n .On e o f t h e l e ad e r s o f t h e p ar t y , Makl ako v,
abr o t h e r o f t h e f o r m e r Mi n i s t e r o f t h e In t e r i o r , ad van c e d
ap l e ai n e x t e n uat i o n o f t h e al l e g e d Je w i s h t r e ac h e r i e s .
"Th e Je w s h ave s uf f e r e d s uc h c r ue l p e r s e c ut i o n s i n
Rus s i a, "h e r e m ar ke d , "t h at t h e y m i g h t w e l l be e x c us e d
e ve n i f t h e s e s p y s t o r i e s w e r e f o un d t o be t r ue
."
P ROTESTSOFLIB ERALRUSSIA 7 7
"We s p ur n t h i s r i g h t t o bas e n e s s , "c r i e d o ut , f o r m e r
d e p ut y Vi n ave r , a Je w ."Our l o y al t y i s n o t f o r s al e .
We ar e n o t n e w c o m e r s h e r e .Our an c e s t o r s h ave l i ve d
h e r e f o r h un d r e d s o f y e ar s .We ar e p at r i o t s be c aus e
w e f e e l o ur s e l ve s bo un d t o Rus s i a.We be l i e ve i n Rus s i a
e ve n m o r e t h an y o u d o ."
P ROTESTSOFP UB LIC OFFIC IALS, C ITIES, ETC
.
Var i o us m un i c i p al i t i e s o ut s i d e t h e P al e h ave p e t i -
t i o n e d t h e g o ve r n m e n t t o g i ve e qual r i g h t s t o t h e Je w s .
Th e Mun i c i p al C o un c i l o f Sm o l e n s k, at i t s s e s s i o n o f
De c e m be r 19 , 19 14 ( Jan uar y 1, 19 15) , p as s e d ar e s o l ut i o n ,
w i t h o n l y t w o d i s s e n t i n g vo t e s , p e t i t i o n i n g t h e g o ve r n -
m e n t "t o abo l i s h al l m e as ur e s w h i c h r e s t r i c t t h e r i g h t s
o f Rus s i an s ubje c t s o f t h e Je w i s h f ai t h , an d , i n p ar t i c ul ar ,
t o abo l i s h t h e P al e o f Se t t l e m e n t ."At t h i s s e s s i o n
C o un c i l l o r P .V .Mi kh ai l o f f s ai d :
"We ar e r e f e r r i n g n o t o n l y t o t h o s e f am i l i e s o f Je w i s h s o l d i e r s
at t h e f r o n t , t o f am i l i e s f l e e i n g f r o m d e vas t at e d P o l an d , but e ve n
t o t h e s o l d i e r s t h e m s e l ve s w h o ar e p l ac e d h o r s d e c o m bat
be c aus e
o f t h e i r w o un d s , af t e r h avi n g val i an t l y s e r ve d i n o ur r an ks .
Th us , f o r e x am p l e , aJe w i s h s o l d i e r w o un d e d i n t h e h an d an d
i n t h e br e as t , h avi n g p ar e n t s i n t h i s c i t y , o bt ai n e d p e r m i s s i o n
o n l y w i t h t h e ut m o s t
d i f f i c ul t y
t o s t ay h e r e t h r e e m o n t h s . At t h e
e n d o f t h i s p e r i o d h e m us t g o bac kt o t h e P al e an d l i ve t h e r e w i t h o ut
m e an s o r m e d i c al at t e n t i o n , al t h o ug h h e i s t h r e at e n e d w i t h t ube r -
c ul o s i s . . . .
Th i s i s m e r e l y o n e c as e i n t h o us an d s w h i c h
p r o ve t o us t h e h o r r o r s o f t h e s i t uat i o n i n w h i c h Je w i s h s o l d i e r s
an d t h e i r f am i l i e s ar e p l ac e d be c aus e o f t h e i r d e p r i vat i o n o f c i vi c
r i g h t s
.Th o s e f am i l i e s w h o s e m e m be r s h ave s h e d t h e i r bl o o d
f o r Rus s i aar e r ui n e d by t h e i n vas i o n o f t h e e n e m y . Th e y ar r i ve
h e r e t o f i n d ar e f ug e f r o m s t ar vat i o n an d d e at h , f r o m r ui n an d
vi o l at i o n . We m us t r e m e m be r t h at n e ar l y ah al f m i l l i o n Je w s
ar e f i g h t i n g s i d e by s i d e w i t h o ur br ave w ar r i o r s ag ai n s t t h e c o m m o n
e n e m y
.As t o t h e c i vi l i an Je w s , t h e y h ave n o l e s s p at r i o t i s m o r
e n t h us i as m t h an t h e o t h e r i n h abi t an t s . . . . Hi s
Maje s t y ,
7 8 THEJEWSINTHEEASTERNWARZONE
t h e Em p e r o r , i n p as s i n g t h r o ug h Lubl i n , Gr o d n o , an d Ti f i i s , h as
d e i g n e d t o e x p r e s s h i s t h an ks t o t h e Je w s f o r t h e i r f ai t h f ul n e s s
t o o ur c o m m o n c o un t r y .Th e c o n c l us i o n f r o m t h i s i s c l e ar : Th e r e
i s n o s e r i o us r e as o n t o m ai n t ai n an y l o n g e r t h o s e m e as ur e s o f
r e s t r i c t i o n s o f ut i l e an d s o p e r n i c i o us an d s o m al e vo l e n t . . . .
B ut t h e Je w i s h que s t i o n i s n o t m e r e l y aque s t i o n o f abs t r ac t
jus t i c e .Th e e c o n o m i c an d m o r al d e ve l o p m e n t o f o ur c i t y l i f e
i s s e r i o us l y r e t ar d e d by t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s p l ac e d up o n o n e p ar t
o f t h e p o p ul at i o n . . ."*
In Aug us t , 19 14 , am e e t i n g o f m un i c i p al i t y , Ze m s t vo ,
St o c kEx c h an g e , an d Un i ve r s i t y o f f i c i al s an d m e r c h an t s ,
at Od e s s a, r e s o l ve d t h at t h e c o un t r y w o ul d be n e f i t by
t h e abo l i t i o n o f al l r e p r e s s i ve l aw s an d t h e o p e n i n g o f
e d uc at i o n al i n s t i t ut i o n s t o al l c i t i z e n s .t
In Aug us t , 19 14 , t h e Mo s c o w C o n f e r e n c e o f May o r s
al s o f o r c i bl y c o n d e m n e d t h e e x p ul s i o n p o l i c y o f s o m e
g o ve r n o r s an d r e s o l ve d t o us e i t s i n f l ue n c e t o am e l i o r at e
t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e Je w s .$
So al s o t h e C o n g r e s s o f De l e g at e s f r o m c i t i e s o f
We s t e r n Si be r i ap e t i t i o n e d f o r t h e abo l i t i o n o f al l Je w i s h
d i s abi l i t i e s .
Wi t h i n t h e p as t f e w m o n t h s t h e m un i c i p al i t i e s o f
Sam ar a, Sar at o v, Ekat e r i n o s l avan d o t h e r i m p o r t an t
c e n t e r s ; t h e Si be r i an , Mun i c i p al C o n f e r e n c e , an d t h e
C o n f e r e n c e o f t w e n t y Ze m s t vo s h e l d at Yar o s l avl , al l
p e t i t i o n e d t h e g o ve r n m e n t an d t h e Dum at o r e m o ve t h e
d i s abi l i t i e s af f e c t i n g t h e Je w s o f Rus s i a .
P ROTESTSOFTRADEANDP ROFESSIONALORGANIZA-
TIONS
Th e Mi l i t ar y - In d us t r i al C o m m i t t e e , o r g an i z e d i n May ,
19 15, t o i n t e g r at e t h e e c o n o m i c r e s o ur c e s o f t h e c o un t r y
o n a w ar b as i s , m e t o n Aug us t 25, 19 15, an d c o n d e m n e d

"No vy Vo e kh o d , "De c .3 0, 19 14 ( Jan .12, 19 15) , p .22- 24 .


t "No vy Vo e kh o d ," Se p t .4 , 19 14 , p
.15
.
j"No vy Vo s kh o d , "Aug .14 - ( 27 ) .19 14 , p .24 - 25 .
"No vy Vo e kh o d , "Ap r i l 24 ( May 7 ) , 19 15, p .3 0 .
P ROTESTSOFLIB ERALRUSSIA

7 9
t h e i n c o m p e t e n c e o f t h e - g o ve r n m e n t o p e n l y
.
In h i s
p r e s i d e n t i al ad d r e s s P
.P .Ri abus h i n s ki d e p l o r e d t h e
t ar d i n e s s o f t h e g o ve r n m e n t i n c al l i n g up o n t h e s o c i al
f o r c e s o f t h e c o un t r y ."Th i s l e ad e r s h i p o f t h e c o un t r y
h as be e n at t e m p t e d by p e r s o n s i n c ap abl e o f l e ad e r s h i p ,
an d i t i s n o w e vi d e n t t o e ve r y bo d y t h at an e w p e r s o n n e l
i s n e e d e d w i t h i n t h e g o ve r n m e n t . . . . We h ave
o bs e r ve d t h e w o r ki n g s o f t h e g o ve r n m e n t d e p ar t m e n t s
f r o m t h e ve r y be g i n n i n g o f t h e w ar , an d h ave c o m e t o
t h e c o n c l us i o n t h at t h e s e d e p ar t m e n t s ar e un abl e t o c o p e
w i t h t h e s i t uat i o n .Th e s up p l y o f w ar m at e r i al i s al -
t o g e t h e r un o r g an i z e d , as t h e ar m y w e l l kn o w s
. . . .
Th e g o ve r n m e n t w i l l f r o m n o w o n t r an s f e r t o us m o r e
an d m o r e o f i t s f un c t i o n s .B ut t h e l o n g e r t h i s
i s d e f e r r e d
t h e l e s s be n e f i t w i l l r e s ul t
. . . . Th i s w o r kc an n o t
be d o n e t h r o ug h ap o o r l y o r g an i z e d g o ve r n m e n t . . . .
Th e St at e i s ah ug e bus i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e , w h o s e p ar t s
m us t w o r kh ar m o n i o us l y . . . . Th e w ar h as n o w
c h an g e d f r o m as t r ug g l e o f w i l l an d s p i r i t i n t o as t r ug g l e
o f m ac h i n e r y .Th e r e f o r e , t h e p e r s o n s e n t r us t e d w i t h
t h e d e f e n s e o f t h e c o un t r y m us t kn o w t h e c o un t r y . . . .
It c an n o t be d e n i e d t h at Rus s i ai s at t h e p r e s e n t m o m e n t
f ac i n g ag r e at d an g e r , an d w e f e ar t h at t h e t i m e m ay
c o m e w h e n o ur c o ur ag e w i l l s i n k
. . . .
( c e n s o r e d ) .
Our ar m y i s s uf f e r i n g h e r o i c al l y . . . . ( c e n s o r e d ) . We
kn o w t h at af t e r aw h i l e , w i t h t h e w ar c o n t i n ui n g i n t h e
s am e p o o r f as h i o n as at p r e s e n t , t h e g o ve r n m e n t w i l l
be r e ad y t o m e e t us h al f - w ay , but w e al s o kn o w by
e x p e r i e n c e t h at i t w i l l t h e n be t o o l at e an d e ve n t h e ve r y
be s t m an c al l e d by t h e g o ve r n m e n t w i l l be un abl e t o
ac c o m p l i s h an y t h i n g ."
Th i s ad d r e s s w as m e t w i t h t h un d e r o us ap p l aus e .
An o t h e r s p e ake r , P r o f .E .L .Zubas h o v, r e f e r r i n g t o t h e
Je w s , d e c l ar e d t h at : "Th e s o n s o f t h e Je w i s h n at i o n
80 'J.'HB J JEWS INTHEEASTERNWARZONE
ar e n o w f i g h t i n g s i d e by s i d e w i t h t h e Rus s i an s f o r t h e i r
c o un t r y .Un f o r t un at e l y t h i s c o un t r y h as un t i l n o w be e n
o n l y a s t e p - m o t h e r t o t h e m .Le t us e x p r e s s t h e h o p e
t h at i t m ay n o w be c o m e am o t h e r t o t h e m ."He t h e r e -
f o r e p r o p o s e d ar e s o l ut i o n f avo r i n g t h e abo l i t i o n o f al l
r e s t r i c t i ve l aw s ag ai n s t t h e Je w s .Hi s p r o p o s al w as m e t
w i t h p r o l o n g e d ap p l aus e an d w as ac c e p t e d by t h e c o n -
ve n t i o n .
At am e e t i n g o f t h e Fr e e Ec o n o m i c So c i e t y - t h e
f o r e m o s t e c o n o m i c o r g an i z at i o n o f Rus s i a- o n Jan uar y
16 , 19 15, t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s o l ut i o n w as ad o p t e d un an -
i m o us l y :
"Th e C o m m i s s i o n . h as t ake n i n t o ac c o un t t h e e x c e p -
t i o n al l y d i f f i c ul t p o s i t i o n i n w h i c h t h e Je w i s h p o p ul at i o n f i n d s
i t s e l f , i n vi e w o f t h e r e s i d e n c e r e s t r i c t i o n s t o w h i c h t h e y ar e s ubje c t .
"Wh i l e t h e y ar e s uf f e r i n g al l t h e t e r r o r s o f w ar t o g e t h e r w i t h
t h e r e s t o f t h e p o p ul at i o n , t h e Je w i s h p o p ul at i o n , be i n g m ai n l y
ur ban , h as s uf f e r e d p ar t i c ul ar l y f r o m t h e g e n e r al d i s o r g an i z at i o n
o f e c o n o m i c r e l at i o n s n o t o n l y w i t h i n t h e i m m e d i at e r e g i o n o f
m i l i t ar y ac t i vi t i e s , but f ar be y o n d
.
"Un d e r t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s i t w o ul d be ag r e at r e l i e f t o t h e s uf f e r i n g
p o p ul at i o n i f m e as ur e s w e r e ad o p t e d w h i c h w o ul d m ake i t e as i e r
f o r t h e m t o m o ve abo ut i n s e ar c h o f w o r k . In vi e w o f t h e s i z e
o f o ur c o un t r y an d t h e un l i m i t e d e c o n o m i c r e s o ur c e s o f i t s r e g i o n s ,
e s p e c i al l y t h o s e o f t h e i n t e r i o r , h ave h ar d l y be e n t o uc h e d by t h e
m i s e r i e s o f w ar . Th e r e ar e r e g i o n s i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f Rus s i aw h e r e
e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s h ave e ve n i m p r o ve d s o m e w h at , s i n c e t h e y
h ave as s um e d m an y o f t h e i n d us t r i e s aban d o n e d i n P o l an d , an d
s i n c e t h e c o m m i s s ar y d e p ar t m e n t p l ac e d l ar g e o r d e r s h e r e
.
"At t h e s am e t i m e t h e Je w i s h p o p ul at i o n i s e ve n at t h i s e x c e p -
t i o n al t i m e ar t i f i c i al l y c o n f i n e d t o t h e c i t i e s o f P o l an d an d t h e
w e s t e r n p r o vi n c e s by f o r c e o f e x i s t i n g l e g al l i m i t at i o n s w h i c h i n -
c r e as e s t h e h ar d s h i p s o f w ar f o r t h e m .
If i n t i m e o f p e ac e t h e s e
r e s t r i c t i o n s , w h i c h ar e e c o n o m i c al l y h ar m f ul an d m o r al l y d e g r ad i n g ,
ar e r e c o g n i z e d as ar e l i c o f bar bar i s m t h at m us t be abo l i s h e d , i t
*"Re t c h , "Jul y 28( Aug .
10) , 19 15 ; "B i r z h e vy i a Vi e d o m o s t i , "- Aug .26
( Se p t . 8) , 19 15 .
P ROTESTSOFLIB ERALRUSSIA

81
i s al l t h e m o r e d i f f i c ul t t o r e c o n c i l e o ur s e l ve s w i t h t h e m at t h e
p r e s e n t t i m e , w h e n h un d r e d s an d t h o us an d s
o f Je w s s e r ve un d e r
t h e Rus s i an ban n e r s o n t h e bat t l e f i e l d
.
In vi e w o f t h e s e f ac t s t h e C o m m i s s i o n h as d e c i d e d t o r e que s t t h e
C o un c i l o f t h e Fr e e Ec o n o m i c So c i e t y t o c o m m un i c at e w i t h t h e
g o ve r n m e n t an d m e m be r s o f t h e s o c i e t y w h o ar e m e m be r s o f t h e
l e g i s l at i ve bo d i e s :
"To i m m e d i at e l y s t o p t h e f un c t i o n i n g o f al l r e s t r i c t i ve l aw s
r e l at i n g t o t h e Se t t l e m e n t r i g h t s o f Je w s , an d
"To abo l i s h t h e m i m m e d i at e l y an d p e r m an e n t l y by l e g i s l at i ve
e n ac t m e n t ."
Num e r o us c o m m e r c i al an d t e c h n i c al as s o c i at i o n s h ave
p as s e d r e s o l ut i o n s d e c l ar i n g t h at t h e m ai n c aus e o f
Rus s i a's e c o n o m i c bac kw ar d n e s s l ay i n t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s
p l ac e d up o n Je w s , an d t h at t h e s o l e m e an s o f c o m bat i n g
Ge r m an p r e d o m i n an c e o ve r Rus s i an i n d us t r y an d t r ad e
i s t h r o ug h t h e abo l i t i o n o f t h e s e r e s t r i c t i o n s .Am o n g
t h e s e o r g an i z at i o n s ar e t h e n at i o n al g r ai n , l um be r , f ur
an d g o l d t r ad e s ; t h e C h am be r s o f C o m m e r c e o f Mo s c o w ,
P e t r o g r ad an d t h e l e ad i n g c i t i e s o f Rus s i aan d Si be r i a,
an d t h e n at i o n al C o n g r e s s o f B o ur s e s ; t h e Rus s o - Am e r i c an
C h am be r o f C o m m e r c e , e t c
. P r ac t i c al l y e ve r y n at i o n al
c o n ve n t i o n o f e ve r y i n d us t r y h as p e t i t i o n e d t h e g o ve r n -
m e n t t o l i be r at e t h e e c o n o m i c t al e n t s o f t h e Je w s by t h e
r e m o val o f al l l e g al r e s t r i c t i o n s .
P ROTESTS OF RUSSIAN WRITERS ANDP UB LIC ISTS
Jus t as t h e c o m m e r c i al an d i n d us t r i al e l e m e n t s o f
Rus s i ad e m an d e qual i t y f o r t h e Je w s o n e c o n o m i c g r o un d s ,
s o t h e i n t e l l e c t ual e l e m e n t s o f Rus s i ad e m an d i t o n br o ad
h um an g r o un d s .
Th e g r e at m an i f e s t o i s s ue d at t h e be g i n n i n g o f t h e
w ar by 225o f t h e l e ad i n g p ubl i c i s t s an d w r i t e r s o f Rus s i a,
d e c l ar e s :
*"Rae vi e t ", Jan
.25( Fe b . 7 ) , 19 15.
82 THEJEWSINl abEASTERNWARZONE
"Rus s i a, i n t h e p r e s e n t g r e at w ar , i s s t r ai n i n g al l h e r p h y s i c al
an d i n t e l l e c t ual f o r c e s t o an e x t r ao r d i n ar y d e g r e e
.Al l t h e p e o p l e s
o f Rus s i aar e t aki n g p ar t i n t h e w ar , s h ar i n g e qual l y i n al l t h e l abo r s .
We be l i e ve t h at t h e bl o o d o f t h e f i g h t e r s i s n o t be i n g s h e d i n vai n ,
We be l i e ve t h at af t e r h avi n g bo r n e t h e h o r r o r s o f t h e w ar , t h e
p o p ul at i o n w i l l r e t ur n w i t h i n c r e as e d e n e r g y t o t h e w o r ko f bui l d i n g
f o r abe t t e r an d br i g h t e r f ut ur e .Th i s w e be l i e ve , an d w e h o p e
t h at t h e r e l at i o n s be t w e e n t h e d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e s t h at i n h abi t Rus s i a
w i l l be bui l t up i n t h e f ut ur e o n t h e e t e r n al f o un d at i o n s o f w i s d o m
an d jus t i c e .
"B ut at t h i s m o m e n t , s o i m p o r t an t i n h i s t o r y , w e s e e w i t h
s o r r o w an d c o n s t e r n at i o n t h at t o t h e s uf f e r i n g s o f o n e o f t h e n at i o n -
al i t i e s i n h abi t i n g Rus s i an e w d i s t r e s s an d n e w ve x at i o n s ar e ad d e d
.
Th e l i m i t at i o n o f t h e r i g h t o f e d uc at i o n i s 'n o w f e l t w i t h p ar t i c ul ar
p ai n by t h e Je w i s h y o ut h .As t h e We s t e r n f r o n t i e r s ar e c l o s e d
t h e us ual e x o d us t o t h e f o r e i g n s c h o o l s i s c h e c ke d , w h i l e i n Rus s i a
i t s e l f t h e p e r c e n t ag e l i m i t at i o n s ag ai n s t t h e Je w s i n t h e s c h o o l s
ar e m ai n t ai n e d i n f o r c e .Th e Je w s o f t h e d e s t r o y e d t o w n s h ave
n o r i g h t t o l e ave t h e P al e o f Se t t l e m e n t , am e as ur e w h i c h o f t e n
l e ad s t o ad i s i n t e g r at i o n an d ad i vi s i o n o f m e m be r s o f f am i l i e s ,
w i ve s an d c h i l d r e n o f w o un d e d s o l d i e r s n o t be i n g al l o w e d t o vi s i t
t h e i r h us ban d s an d f at h e r s , an d be i n g at t h e s am e t i m e e x p o s e d
t o al l s o r t s o f c h i c an e r y .Th e s o r e l y - t r i e d Je w i s h n at i o n w h i c h
h as g i ve n t o t h e w o r l d s uc h p r e c i o us c o n t r i but i o n s i n t h e d o m ai n
o f r e l i g i o n , o f p h i l o s o p h y , o f p o e t r y
; w h i c h h as al w ay s s h ar e d t h e
t r avai l s an d t r i al s o f Rus s i an l i f e ; w h i c h h as be e n h ur t s o o f t e n
by p r e jud i c e an d i n s ul t ; w h i c h m o r e t h an o n c e h as p r o ve n i t s l o ve
f o r Rus s i a, an d i t s d e vo t i o n t o h e r c aus e , i s n o w ag ai n e x p o s e d t o
un jus t ac c us at i o n s an d p e r s e c ut i o n s .
"Th e Rus s i an Je w s , w h o ar e i n d us t r i o us l y w o r ki n g w i t h us
i n al l s p h e r e s o f l abo r an d ac t i vi t y t h at ar e ac c e s s i bl e t o t h e m ,
h ave g i ve n s o m an y c o n vi n c i n g p r o o f s o f t h e i r s i n c e r e d e s i r e t o be
w i t h us , t o r e n d e r s e r vi c e t o o ur c aus e . . .
t h at t h e l i m i t at i o n
- o f t h e i r r i g h t o f c i t i z e n s h i p i s n o t o n l y ac r y i n g i n jus t i c e , but al s o
r e ac t s i n jur i o us l y up o n t h e ve r y i n t e r e s t s o f t h e St at e .Th e Rus s i an
Em p i r e c an , an d m us t , d r aw i t s s t r e n g t h f r o m t h e c o m p l e t e un i o n
o f al l t h e n at i o n al i t i e s i n h abi t i n g Rus s i a, an d o n l y by t h e p l ac i n g
o f al l c i t i z e n s up o n an e qual f o o t i n g w i l l t h e p o w e r o f Rus s i abe c o m e
i n d e s t r uc t i bl e .
"Rus s i an s , l e t us r e m e m be r t h at t h e Rus s i an Je w h as n o o t h e r
c o un t r y t h an Rus s i a, an d t h at n o t h i n g i s d e ar e r t o am an t h an
P ROTESTSOFLIB ERALRUSSIA
83
t h e s o i l o n w h i c h h e i s bo r n .Le t us un d e r s t an d t h at t h e p r o s -
p e r i t y an d p o w e r o f Rus s i aar e i n s e p ar abl e f r o m t h e w e l l - be i n g an d
t h e l i be r t y o f al l t h e n at i o n al i t i e s w h i c h c o n s t i t ut e i t s vas t Em p i r e
.
Le t us un d e r s t an d t h i s t r ut h , ac t ac c o r d i n g t o o ur i n t e l l i g e n c e
an d
o ur c o n s c i e n c e , an d w e m ay be c e r t ai n t h at t h e ul t i m at e d i s ap p e ar -
an c e o f p e r s e c ut i o n s ag ai n s t t h e Je w s an d t h e i r c o m p l e t e e m an c i -
p at i o n w i l l f o r m o n e o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f
at r ul y c o n s t r uc t i ve
i m p e r i al r d g i m e
.
AUSTRIA- HUNGARY
Th e t o t al e s t i m at e d Je w i s h p o p ul at i o n o f Aus t r i a-
Hun g ar y i s abo ut 2, 250, 000, o f w h i c h n e ar l y o n e m i l l i o n
w e r e , at t h e be g i n n i n g o f t h e w ar , i n t h e bo r d e r p r o vi n c e o f
Gal i c i a, i n t h e i m m e d i at e ar e ao f h o s t i l i t i e s .
He r e , as e l s e w h e r e , t h e Je w s m an i f e s t e d t h e i r ke e n
l o y al t y by t r o o p i n g t o t h e c o l o r s e ve n w h e n t h e y w e r e
n o r m al l y e x e m p t , as i n t h e c as e o f t h e s t ud e n t s o f t h e
B ud ap e s t Rabbi n i c al Se m i n ar y , m an y o f w h o m vo l un -
t e e r e d , al t h o ug h n o t r e qui r e d t o d o s o .Th e Go ve r n m e n t
r e c o g n i z e d t h i s l o y al t y i n m an y w ay s , p ar t i c ul ar l y i n
t h e g r an t i n g o f s p e c i al p r i vi l e g e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e
o bs e r van c e s r e qui r e d by t h e Je w i s h r e l i g i o us r i t ual .
Th us t h e Em p e r o r , i n h i s o w n n am e , s e n t 20, 000Tal l i t h i m
( p r ay e r s h aw l s ) f o r t h e s o l d i e r s i n t h e f i e l d d ur i n g t h e
h o l i d ay s .Wh e n , at P as s o ve r , i t w as d i s c o ve r e d t h at
t h e m at z o t h s f o r t h e Je w i s h t r o o p s h ad be e n i m p r o p e r l y
p r e p ar e d , t h e Go ve r n m e n t , at t h e i n s t an c e o f t h e C h i e f
Rabbi o f Vi e n n a, aut h o r i z e d t h e w h o l e s al e d i s t r i but i o n
o f p o t at o e s t o Or t h o d o x Je w s .
Hun d r e d s o f Je w i s h s o l d i e r s h ave be e n d e c o r at e d o n
t h e f i e l d o f bat t l e , an d m an y w e r e g i ve n o f f i c e r s 'c o m -
m i s s i o n s .
GALIC IA
It w as t h e m i l l i o n Je w s o f Gal i c i aw h o w e r e m ad e t o
f e e l t h e f ul l bur d e n o f t h e w ar
.Al t h o ug h t h e i r e c o n o m i c
c o n d i t i o n be f o r e t h e w ar w as g r e at l y i n f e r i o r t o t h at
o f t h e g e n e r al p o p ul at i o n , t h e i r p o l i t i c al c o n d i t i o n w as
o n e o f e qual i t y
.B ut t h e Rus s i an i n vas i o n o f Gal i c i a,
i n Se p t e m be r , 19 14 , c h an g e d t h e i r s t at us o ve r n i g h t .
84
i
Th e Rus s i an Go ve r n o r - Ge n e r al , C o un t B o br i n s ki , a
n o t o r i o us an t i - Se m i t e , f o un d t h e p o l i t i c al s t at us o f t h e
Je w s i n Gal i c i am o s t abh o r r e n t t o h i m .He at o n c e
p r o c e e d e d t o d e g r ad e t h e m t o t h e s t at us o f t h e
Rus s i an Je w s , an d , i f p o s s i bl e , s t i l l l o w e r .He p r o p o s e d
t o h i s h o m e Go ve r n m e n t t h at al l , Je w i s h l an d e d p r o p e r t y
i n Gal i c i abe c o n f i s c at e d an d t h e Je w s be f o r bi d d e n t o o w n ,
l e as e o r r e n t l an d ; an d t h i s , h e ad d e d , w as an i m m e -
d i at e l y i m p e r at i ve s t e p , t o be c ar r i e d o ut e ve n be f o r e
t h e f o r m al an n e x at i o n o f Gal i c i aw as an n o un c e d !
On Fe br uar y 13 , 19 15, t h e Gr an d Duke Ni c h o l as
i s s ue d an o r d e r d e c l ar i n g t h at "i n vi e w o f t h e i n c r e as e
o f s p y i n g o n t h e p ar t o f t h e Je w s , i t i s d e c r e e d t h at
:
1.
No p e r s o n o f Je w i s h n at i o n al i t y m ay e n t e r Gal i c i a .
2
.No p e r s o n s o f Je w i s h n at i o n al i t y m ay p as s f r o m o n e d i s t r i c t
o f Gal i c i ai n t o an o t h e r .
3 .In f r ac t i o n s o f t h i s d e c r e e w i l l be p un i s h e d by af i n e o f t h r e e
t h o us an d r o ubl e s ( $ 1, 500) o r by t h r e e m o n t h s 'i m p r i s o n -
m e n t
.*
Th e s p i r i t o f t h e s e d o c um e n t s , c o m m un i c at e d t o t h e
t r o o p s , p r o d uc e d a
s e r i e s o f o ut r ag e s ag ai n s t t h e Je w i s h
p o p ul at i o n m o r e h o r r i bl e e ve n t h an an y p e r p e t r at e d
i n Rus s i a.As e ac h t o w n w as i n vad e d by t h e Rus s i an s
t h e t r o o p s f i r s t s o ug h t t h e Je w i s h quar t e r s , an d h e r e
t h e y l e t t h e m s e l ve s l o o s e i n an o r g y o f p i l l ag e , s ac kan d
r ap i n e .
In t h e t o w n o f B o h o r o d c z an y t h e r e ap p e ar e d , i n Jan -
uar y , 19 15, ad e t ac h m e n t o f Aus t r o - P o l i s h t r o o p s .Th e y
d e m an d e d f o o d an d quar t e r s an d w e r e , o f c o ur s e , s up -
p l i e d
.Af t e r abr i e f s t ay t h e y d e p ar t e d .B ut t h e ac t
o f t h e Je w s w as r e p o r t e d t o t h e Rus s i an c o m m an d e r i n
St an i s l au
.He i m m e d i at e l y s e n t a"p un i t i ve "e x p e d i t i o n
o f f o ur h un d r e d C o s s ac ks t o t h e t o w n
.Th e y s e t t h e
* "P r i kar p at e l d aRue d " .
GALIC IA 85
86 THEJEWSIN'THEEASTERN WARZONE
t o w n o n f i r e , r o ut e d o ut t h e Je w i s h w o m e n an d g i r l s
f r o m t h e i r p l ac e s o f c o n c e al m e n t , as s e m bl e d t h e m i n
t h e s quar e an d t h e r e h e l d an o r g y un d e r t h e o p e n s ky .
Af t e r t h e i r l us t s w e r e s at i s f i e d t h e y d r o ve t h e vi c t i m s
un d e r t h e c r ac ko f t h e w h i p , h al f n ake d an d s t ar vi n g ,
al o n g t h e r o ad s t o St an i s l au
.On e w o m an , w h o h ad
r i s e n f r o m c h i l d bi r t h o n l y af e w d ay s be f o r e , d i e d o n
t h e w ay
.On e o f t h e p h y s i c i an s o f St an i s l au, Dr .B .,
t e s t i f i e s t h at h e al o n e t r e at e d t e n c as e s o f w o m e n an d
g i r l s w h o h ad be e n vi o l at e d .*
In Sz c z e r z e c , Gal i c i a, t h e Rus s i an s o l d i e r s c aug h t
o n e Jac o bMi s c h e l , at o w n c o un c i l l o r , p o ur e d o i l o ve r
h i m an d bur n e d h i m al i ve
.
In De m bi c a, C o s s ac ks r ai d e d as y n ag o g ue t o w h i c h
t h e Je w s h ad f l e d f o r r e f ug e an d p r ay e r , r o bbe d an d
i m p r i s o n e d t h e m e n , an d o ut r ag e d t h e w o m e n
.Th o s e
w h o e s c ap e d t h r o ug h t h e w i n d o w s w e r e c aug h t
by t h e
g uar d s be l o w an d m e n an d w o m e n w e r e kn o ut e d t o d e at h
.
Th e n t h e t r o o p s s e t f i r e t o t h e s y n ag o g ue
.t
Th e s e ar e t y p i c al c as e s o f o ut r ag e s p e r p e t r at e d ag ai n s t
t h e Je w i s h p o p ul at i o n o f Gal i c i a
.Sc ar c e l y at o w n i n
t h e l i n e o f i n vas i o n e s c ap e d .Th e Je w i s h p o p ul at i o n f l e d
be f o r e t h e i n vad e r s i n vas t n um be r s .
Th e r e ar e abo ut 17 5, 000Je w i s h r e f ug e e s i n Vi e n n a ;
7 0, 000o f t h e s e ar e d e s t i t ut e
.Th e r e ar e abo ut 7 0, 000
l i vi n g i n bar r ac ks i n B o h e m i a
; 8, 000o f t h e s e ar e i n P r ag ue .
Th e r e w e r e abo ut 52, 000i n B ud ap e s t .Al l f ug i t i ve s w h o
h ave s e t t l e d i n Hun g ar y , h o w e ve r , h ave be e n r e m o ve d
t o Aus t r i ap r o p e r .Dr .J.B l o c h o f Vi e n n a, e s t i m at e s
t h at t h e t o t al n um be r o f Je w i s h r e f ug e e s f r o m Gal i c i a
i s abo ut h al f am i l l i o n .Th e s i t uat i o n o f t h e s e r e f ug e e s
+ "Jud i s c h e s Ar c h i v, " p
.5.
f "Jud i s o h e s Ar c h i v, "p .6 .
j"Jud i s c h e s Ar c h i v, "p .10.
GALIC IA

87
i s s o m e w h at be t t e r t h an t h at o f t h e Je w i s h r e f ug e e s i n
Rus s i a, i n as m uc h as t h e Go ve r n m e n t h as p l ac e d t h e m
i n c o n c e n t r at i o n c am p s , at t e n d s t o t h e i r m i n i m um w an t s
an d g i ve s e ac h o n e an al l o w an c e o f 7 0h e l l e r ( 14 c e n t s )
d ai l y .Wi t h t h e r i s e i n t h e p r i c e s o f f o o d , t h e d ai l y
al l o w an c e h as r i s e n t o abo ut 9 0h e l l e r ( 18c e n t s ) p e r
c ap i t a.Th e y ar e t r e at e d w e l l by t h e _p o p ul at i o n , an d
i n m an y c as e s ar e p r o vi d e d w i t h s o m e w o r k .
I
I
ROUMANIA
Th e f ut ur e o f Ro um an i ai s o f i n t e r e s t t o t h e Je w s
f o r t w o e s p e c i al r e as o n s : f i r s t , be c aus e t h e Je w s o f
Ro um an i a
ar e d e p r i ve d o f t h e i r r i g h t s as c i t i z e n s i n
c o n t r ave n t i o n o f as o l e m n p r o m i s e m ad e by Ro um an i a
t o t h e Gr e at P o w e r s at t h e B e r l i n C o n g r e s s i n 187 8 ;
s e c o n d l y , be c aus e i t w i l l n o d o ubt be Ro um an i a's ai m
t o w i n bac kf r o m Aus t r i a- Hun g ar y c e r t ai n l ar g e t e r r i -
t o r i e s , i n c l ud i n g Tr an s y l van i aan d B uko w i n a, i n w h i c h
t h e bul ko f t h e p o p ul at i o n i s o f Ro um an i an d e s c e n t ,
t h us , i f s uc c e s s f ul , i n c i d e n t al l y , i n c r e as i n g t h e n um be r
o f Je w s un d e r Ro um an i an r ul e f r o m abo ut 250, 000t o
m o r e t h an o n e m i l l i o n .
Dur i n g t h e p r e s e n t w ar Ro um an i ah as g i ve n e vi d e n c e
o f i t s h o s t i l e at t i t ud e t o w ar d s t h e Je w s .Th o us an d s o f
Je w i s h r e f ug e e s w h o f l e d be f o r e t h e s avag e r y o f t h e
Rus s i an ar m y w h i c h i n vad e d B uko w i n a, s o ug h t r e f ug e
i n Ro um an i a .Th e s e w e r e t r e at e d w i t h g r e at br ut al i t y
by Ro um an i an o f f i c i al s i n t h e bo r d e r t o w n s .At t h e be g i n -
n i n g o f Jul y , 19 15, t h e Go ve r n m e n t i s s ue d an o r d e r t o
t h e ad m i n i s t r at i ve aut h o r i t i e s o f al l t h e d i s t r i c t s bo r d e r i n g
o n Aus t r i a- Hun g ar y t o e x p e l al l t h e Je w s f r o m t h e l o c al i -
t i e s n e ar t h e f r o n t i e r , an d t o s e n d t h e m t o t h e i n t e r i o r
o f t h e c o un t r y .Th e o f f i c i al s t o o kad van t ag e o f t h i s e d i c t
t o e x p e l n o t o n l y t h e r e f ug e e s , but al s o h un d r e d s o f
Je w i s h c i t i z e n s o f Ro um an i aw h o h ad be e n l i vi n g i n t h e
bo r d e r t o w n s f o r g e n e r at i o n s .Th e o r d e r o f e x p ul s i o n
w as e x e c ut e d s um m ar i l y , an d t h e Je w s w e r e f o r c e d t o
l e ave w i t h i n f o r t y - e i g h t an d i n s o m e c as e s w i t h al l t h e i r
g o o d s i n t w e n t y - f o ur h o ur s .As a r ul e , t h e y w e r e n o t
p e r m i t t e d t o t ake t h e i r be l o n g i n g s w i t h t h e m , an d e ve n
89
9 0 THEJEWSINTHEEASTERNWARZONE
un d e r t h e m o s t f avo r abl e c i r c um s t an c e s t h e y h ad p e r f o r c e
t o , l e ave t h e m be h i n d be c aus e t h e y kn e w n e i t h e r t h e i r
d e s t i n at i o n n o r t h e i r f at e .
Th i s ac t i o n o f t h e Go ve r n m e n t c aus e d ag r e at d e al o f
ad ve r s e c o m m e n t i n t h e p r e s s
."Vi t o r ul "t h e o f f i c i al
o r g an o f t h e Li be r al P ar t y , n o w i n p o w e r , m e t t h e s e
at t ac ks , i n i t s i s s ue o f Jul y 12, 19 15, as f o l l o w s :
"So m e o f t h e n e w s p ap e r s p r e t e n d t h at t h e Mi n i s t r y o f In t e r n al
Af f ai r s h as g i ve n o r d e r s t h at t h e n at i ve - bo r n Je w s e s t abl i s h e d i n
t h e t o w n s bo r d e r i n g up o n t h e n o r t h e r n f r o n t i e r o f Mo l d avi a be
s e n t i n t o t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e c o un t r y . Th i s n e w s i s i n e x ac t . Th e
Mi n i s t e r o f In t e r n al Af f ai r s w as n o t ai m i n g at t h e Je w s e s t abl i s h e d
i n t h e t o w n s n e ar t h e f r o n t i e r o r i n an y o t h e r p l ac e w h e n h e i s s ue d
h i s o r d e r o f e x p ul s i o n . Th e o r d e r g i ve n by t h e Mi n i s t e r o f In t e r n al
Af f ai r s c o n c e r n s o n l y t h e al i e n s ubje c t s o f af o r e i g n c o un t r y , an d t h e
n at i ve - bo r n Je w s w h o , t h o ug h n o t l i vi n g i n f r o n t i e r t o w n s g o t h e r e
o n bus i n e s s , ac t i n g as c e r e al br o ke r s
. An d t h e p ur p o s e o f t h e o r d e r
i s t o p r e ve n t s uc h p e o p l e f r o m c o m m i t t i n g ac t s d an g e r o us t o t h e
i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p o p ul at i o n o f t h e s t at e .Th e p e ac e f ul Je w i s h
p o p ul at i o n l i vi n g n e ar t h e f r o n t i e r i s n o t t h e o bje c t o f an y h o un d i n g ,
as t h e i r r e s p o n s i bl e n e w s p ap e r s w o ul d h ave i t ."
Th e B uc h ar e s t "Ad e ve r uP "( Tr ut h ) , an i n d e p e n d e n t
o r g an , an d o n e o f t h e t w o n e w s p ap e r s i n B uc h ar e s t w h i c h
s y m p at h i z e w i t h t h e Je w s , r e p l i e d :
"In an s w e r t o t h e at t ac ks o f t h e Go ve r n m e n t o r g an up o n
t h e `i r r e s p o n s i bl e 'n e w s p ap e r s , w e ar e i n ap o s i t i o n t o p ubl i s h a
l i s t o f t h e `p e ac e f ul Je w i s h p o p ul at i o n 'w h i c h h as be e n t h e s ubje c t ,
o f t h e m o s t t e r r i bl e p e r s e c ut i o n s by t h e aut h o r i t i e s . We c an g i ve
t h e n am e s o f t h e r e s e r ve s , m o bi l i z e d at t h e ve r y m o m e n t , w h o s e
c h i l d r e n h ave be e n d r i ve n f r o m t h e i r h o m e s . It i s p o s s i bl e t h at
t h e Mi n i s t e r o f In t e r n al Af f ai r s d i d n o t m e an t o `ai m , 'as t h e o f f i c i al
o r g an s ay s , at t h e Je w s . If t h e Mi n i s t e r i s i n n o c e n t o f t h e c h ar g e ,
w e w o ul d l i ke t o kn o w w h at p un i s h m e n t t o i n f l i c t up o n h i s s ub-
o r d i n at e s w h o w i l f ul l y m i s r e p r e s e n t e d h i s o r d e r
.
"B ut i t i s n o t w e w h o ar e i r r e s p o n s i bl e
. It i s t h e Go ve r n m e n t
t h at t r i e s t o m i s l e ad
t h e p ubl i c w i t h am bi g uo us s t at e m e n t s . It s ay s
t h at t h e o r d e r r e f e r r e d o n l y t o t h e br o ke r s , w h o m ay c o m m i t d an -
ROUMANIA

9 1
g e r o us ac t s .We kn o w t h at t h e l aw p un i s h e s c r i m e s an d d e l i n -
que n c i e s w h i c h h ave be e n c o m m i t t e d , but d o e s n o t an t i c i p at e c r i m e s
t h at m ay be c o m m i t t e d .Th e n ag ai n , t h e l aw p r o vi d e s s t r i c t
p un i s h m e n t f o r e ac h d e l i n que n c y an d n o t ag e n e r al an d p r e ve n t i ve
p un i s h m e n t , s uc h as d e p o r t at i o n .Wh y i s i t t h at t h o s e w h o h ave
c o m m i t t e d t h e i n f r ac t i o n h ave n o t be e n ar r e s t e d an d p e ac e f ul
p e o p l e ar e be i n g p un i s h e d i n s t e ad ?
"Eve n t h e Go ve r n m e n t r e c o g n i z e s t h at t h i s p r e ve n t i ve p un i s h -
m e n t i s ap p l i e d t o t h e al i e n an d s uc h Je w s as ar e o n l y d o i n g bus i n e s s
t h o ug h n o t l i vi n g i n t h o s e p l ac e s .It m e an s t h at t h e s us p i c i o n
r e s t s e qual l y up o n t h e al i e n an d t h e Ro um an i an Je w , be c aus e t h e
Je w , al t h o ug h n o t an al i e n , i s o f an o t h e r r e l i g i o n .Th e s us p i c i o n
t h e n f al l s up o n al l t h e n at i ve - bo r n Je w s .'Th us w e s e e , t h at e ve n
i f t h e o f f i c i al o r g an 's p ubl i c i n t e r p r e t at i o n o f t h e l aw be c o r r e c t ,
i t i s s t i l l t h e Je w s w h o w i l l s uf f e r .B ut w e c an n o t ac c e p t t h e
e x p l an at i o n .It i s f al s e .
"It i s an abs o l ut e f ac t t h at n o t t r an s i e n t t r ad e r s but p e o p l e
w h o ar e i n n o c e n t , w h o ar e p ay i n g t ax e s i n t h o s e l o c al i t i e s h ave
be e n e x p e l l e d ."
J
It i s i d l e t o s p e c ul at e as t o w h at Ro um an i am ay d o i f
s h e be c o m e s i n vo l ve d i n t h e w ar .B ut i t i s w e l l t o c o n s i d e r
w h e t h e r , i f s h e d o e s n o t be c o m e i n vo l ve d , i t w i l l be p o s s i bl e
t o br i n g t o t h e at t e n t i o n o f t h e be l l i g e r e n t p o w e r s at a
f ut ur e p e ac e c o n f e r e n c e t h e que s t i o n o f t h e s t at us o f t h e
Je w s o f Ro um an i a .Th e s e ar e i n t h e an am o l o us p o s i t i o n
o f p e o p l e vi r t ual l y w i t h o ut a c o un t r y .Th e y ar e s ubje c t s
o f Ro um an i a, p ay t ax e s an d s up p o r t t h e Go ve r n m e n t .
B ut e ve n t h e n at i ve - bo r n an d t h o s e w h o s e p ar e n t s an d
g r an d p ar e n t s w e r e n at i ve - bo r n s ubje c t s o f Ro um an i a,
c an n o t be c o m e c i t i z e n s , an d ar e al s o d i s c r i m i n at e d ag ai n s t
by t h e Go ve r n m e n t .In t h i s r e s p e c t , Ro um an i am ay be
c al l e d "Li t t l e Rus s i a ."
Th e s i t uat i o n o f Ro um an i aas an at i o n i s e x c e p t i o n al .
Sh e w as m ad e an i n d e p e n d e n t c o un t r y by t h e Eur o p e an
P o w e r s , m e e t i n g at t h e C o n g r e s s o f B e r l i n , af t e r t h e
Rus s o - Tur ki s h War o f 187 7 - 8
.In at r e at y w h i c h w as
9 2
THEJEWSINTHEEASTERNWARZONE
t h e n s i g n e d by al l t h e g r e at P o w e r s o f Eur o p e , t h e
f o l l o w i n g ar t i c l e s w e r e i n s e r t e d :
XLIII .Th e Hi g h c o n t r ac t i n g p ar t i e s r e c o g n i z e t h e i n d e -
p e n d e n c e o f Ro um an i a, s ubje c t t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s s e t f o r t h i n t h e
t w o f o l l o w i n g ar t i c l e s .
XLIV .In Ro um an i at h e d i f f e r e n c e o f r e l i g i o us c r e e d s an d
c o n f e s s i o n s s h al l n o t be al l e g e d ag ai n s t an y p e r s o n as ag r o un d
f o r e x c l us i o n o r i n c ap ac i t y i n m at t e r s r e l at i n g t o t h e e n jo y m e n t
o f c i vi l an d p o l i t i c al r i g h t s , ad m i s s i o n t o p ubl i c e m p l o y m e n t s ,
f un c t i o n s an d h o n o r s , o r t h e e x e r c i s e o f t h e var i o us p r o f e s s i o n s
an d i n d us t r i e s i n an y l o c al i t y w h at s o e ve r .
. "Th e f r e e d o m an d o ut w ar d e x e r c i s e o f al l f o r m s o f w o r s h i p
s h al l be as s ur e d t o al l p e r s o n s be l o n g i n g t o t h e Ro um an i an St at e ,
as w e l l as t o f o r e i g n e r s , an d n o h i n d r an c e
s h al l
be o f f e r e d e i t h e r
t o t h e h i e r ar c h i c al o r g an i z at i o n s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t c o m m un i o n s , o r
t o t h e i r r e l at i o n s w i t h t h e i r s p i r i t ual c h i e f s .Th e s ubje c t s an d
c i t i z e n s o f al l t h e P o w e r s , t r ad e r s o r o t h e r s , s h al l be t r e at e d i n
Ro um an i a, w i t h o ut d i s t i n c t i o n o f c r e e d , o n af o o t i n g o f p e r f e c t
e qual i t y ."
Ro um an i ah avi n g be c o m e an i n d e p e n d e n t n at i o n
up o n i t s r e c o g n i t i o n by t h e s e P o w e r s , an d up o n t h e
c o n d i t i o n s s e t f o x t h i n t h e t r e at y o f B e r l i n , i t m ay be
p o s s i bl e at t h e c o n c l us i o n o f t h e w ar t h at t h e vi o l a-
t i o n s o f t h i s t r e at y o n t h e p ar t o f t h e Ro um an i an Go ve r n -
m e n t m ay be c o n s i d e r e d by t h e P o w e r s w h o s e h o n o r i s
t h us f l aun t e d by an o p e n vi o l at i o n o f at r e at y t o w h i c h
t h e y s o l e m n l y be c am e p ar t i e s
.
P ALESTINE
Th e Je w s o f P al e s t i n e w e r e am o n g t h e e ar l i e s t vi c t i m s
o f t h e w ar
.Th e g r e at e r p ar t o f t h e m ar e d e p e n d e n t ,
w h o l l y o r i n
p ar t , up o n t h e i r c o - r e l i g i o n i s t s i n Eur o p e
an d Am e r i c a.
Wi t h t h e o ut br e ako f t h e w ar al l t h e
n o r m al c h an n e l s o f c o m m un i c at i o n w e r e t e m p o r ar i l y
i n t e r r up t e d
.Eve n h ad t h i s n o t o c c ur r e d t h e c o m p l e t e
s t ag n at i o n o f - t r ad e i n Eur o p e w o ul d h ave m ad e i t i m p o s -
s i bl e f o r
t h e Je w s , w h o w e r e t h e m s e l ve s i n d i f f i c ul t i e s , t o
c o n t i n ue t o af f o r d m at e r i al as s i s t an c e .
Th e d i f f i c ul t i e s o f t h e s i t uat i o n be f o r e Tur ke y be c am e
abe l l i g e r e n t ar e br i e f l y s e t f o r t h i n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x t r ac t s
f r o m ar e p o r t , d at e d Oc t o be r 21, 19 14 , m ad e by Mr .
Maur i c e We r t h e i m , w h o w as e n t r us t e d by Am bas s ad o r
Mo r g e n t h auw i t h t h e d i s t r i but i o n o f af un d o f $ 50, 000
c o n t r i but e d by Am e r i c an Je w s .
Th e c o l o n i s t s t h e m s e l ve s d i d n o t s t an d i n ac t ual n e e d o f as s i s t -
an c e , as t h e y ar e l ar g e l y m e n o f c e r t ai n m e an s an d c an h e l p t h e m -
s e l ve s .Fur t h e r m o r e , t h e y ar e abl e t o o bt ai n t h e i r ban kd e p o s i t s
i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m an n e r : t h e An g l o - P al e s t i n e B an k, w i t h w h i c h
m o s t o f t h e Je w s i n P al e s t i n e d o bus i n e s s t h r o ug h t h e i r var i o us
br an c h e s i n Jaf f a, Je r us al e m , Hai f a, Saf e d , an d Ti be r i as , e t c ., ar e
r e g i s t e r i n g o r c e r t i f y i n g f o r t h e i r d e p o s i t o r s c h e c ks
d o w n t o t h e
s m al l e s t d e n o m i n at i o n s . Th e s e c h e c ks ar e m ad e p ay abl e t o t h e
d r aw e r , e n d o r s e d by h i m , an d t h e r e g i s t r at i o n s t am p o f t h e ban k
i s e qui val e n t t o an o t i c e t h at t h e c h e c kw i l l be c as h e d by t h e ban k
af t e r t h e m o r at o r i um
.Wi t h t h e s e c h e c ks t h e c o l o n i s t s ar e abl e
t o s up p l y t h e i r i m m e d i at e n e e d s an d h ar ve s t t h e i r c r o p s .
Th e o n l y p r e s s i n g r e qui r e m e n t o f t h e c o l o n i s t s w as t o e x c h an g e
s o m e o f t h e s e c h e c ks f o r g o l d i n o r d e r t o p ay Go ve r n m e n t t ax e s
an d m i l i t ar y e x o n e r at i o n f e e s , an d t h i s w as ar r an g e d .
Fur t h e r t h an t h i s , t h e t w o g r e at n e e d s o f t h e Je w i s h c o l o n i e s ,
g e n e r al l y s p e aki n g , w e r e
: ( a) t o t ake c ar e o f Je w i s h l abo r e r s
t h r o w n o ut o f e m p l o y m e n t by
e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , an d ( b) t o s e c ur e
9 3
4
9 4
THEJEWSINTHEEASTERNWARZONE
n e w m ar ke t s f o r t h e i r p r o d uc t s t o t ake t h e p l ac e o f t h o s e t h at h ad
be e n af f e c t e d by t h e w ar .
Th e r e ar e abo ut 2, 500Je w i s h l abo r e r s i n t h e c o l o n i e s . It i s
i m p o s s i bl e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x ac t p e r c e n t ag e o f un e m p l o y e d am o n g s t
t h e m , but e ve n i f w e as s um e t h at o n l y h al f o f t h e m ar e o ut o f e m p l o y -
m e n t , i t i s e as i l y s e e n t h at t h e am o un t o f m o n e y w e w e r e abl e t o
d i ve r t t o t h i s p ur p o s e w i l l n o t g o ve r y f ar . Im i g h t s ay h e r e t h at
i n d i vi d i n g t h e f un d am o n g s t t h e var i o us d i s t r i c t s i n P al e s t i n e ,
w e al l o t t e d t o t h e c o l o n i e s a s o m e w h at l ar g e r p r o p o r t i o n t h an t h e i r
p o p ul at i o n jus t i f i e d
.
Th e o p e n i n g up o f n e w m ar ke t s f o r P al e s t i n i an ag r i c ul t ur al
p r o d uc t s ( o r an g e s , w i n e an d al m o n d s , ar e t h e c h i e f ar t i c l e s o f e x p o r t ) ,
i s p r o babl y t h e m o s t p r e s s i n g n e e d o f t h e c o l o n i s t m o ve m e n t i n
P al e s t i n e .C o l o n i s t s f e e l t h at t h e c h i e f m ar ke t f o r t h e o r an g e s
w h i c h i n t h e p as t h as be e n En g l an d , w i l l be g r e at l y i n t e r f e r e d w i t h ,
an d i f t h e y ar e n o t abl e t o d i s p o s e s uc c e s s f ul l y o f t h e i r p r o d uc t s ,
t h e i r e n t i r e f ut ur e an d ve r y e x i s t e n c e w i l l be t h r e at e n e d
.
Th e s i t uat i o n i n t h e l ar g e r c e n t e r s o f p o p ul at i o n i s ve r y bad .
Al m o s t n o c ur r e n c y e n t e r s t h e c o un t r y an d f o r e i g n c h e c ks t h at d o
f i n d t h e i r w ay t h e r e ar e n o t r e al i z abl e .Th i s n at ur al l y p l ac e s
i n g r e at w an t t h o s e w h o d e p e n d o n t h e "C h al uka"c o n t r i but i o n s
an d al s o t h e l ar g e c l as s w h o d e p e n d o n m o n e y s e n t by r e l at i ve s .
Fur t h e r m o r e , t h e i n d us t r i e s o f m an uf ac t ur e o f an t i que s an d s o uv-
e n i r s ar e c o m p l e t e l y s t o p p e d , o w i n g t o w an t o f c us t o m e r s , an d
t h e r e i s n o m o n e y t o c o n d uc t i n d us t r i e s s uc h as bui l d i n g , c ar p e n t e r -
i n g , t ai l o r i n g an d s h o e m aki n g , i n w h i c h l ar g e n um be r s
o f Je w s
ar e e m p l o y e d . If o un d t h at t h e be t t e r c l as s o f Je w s h ad t h e m s e l ve s
o r g an i z e d t e m p o r ar y r e l i e f , but t h e i r p o s s i bi l i t i e s o f as s i s t an c e
ar e r ap i d l y d r aw i n g t o ac l o s e .P e o p l e w h o h ad , af e w w e e ks be f o r e
m y vi s i t , c o n t r i but e d t o t h e m ai n t e n an c e o f s o up ki t c h e n s , s t o o d
i n n e e d t h e m s e l ve s up o n m y ar r i val . On e Je w i s h h o s p i t al h ad
al r e ad y c l o s e d .
Th e f o o d s i t uat i o n i n P al e s t i n e w as p r e c ar i o us , f o r w h i l e p r i c e s
h ad n o t r i s e n t o an y l ar g e e x t e n t , y e t t h e s o ur c e o f s up p l y w as
l i m i t e d .Th e i n t r o d uc t i o n o f w h e at f r o m t h e Eas t o f t h e Jo r d an
h ad be e n p r o h i bi t e d by t h e Go ve r n m e n t ( w h i c h r e s t r i c t i o n t h r o ug h
t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e Am bas s ad o r w e h ave e n d e avo r e d t o h ave l i f t e d )
.
In o r d e r t o g uar d ag ai n s t p o s s i bl e s h o r t ag e o f f o o d an d al s o
t o
o f f e r f o o d at t h e c h e ap e s t p o s s i bl e p r i c e , o ur C o m m i t t e e w i l l p ur -
c h as e f r o m t i m e t o t i m e as l ar g e quan t i t i e s o f f o o d as i t c an , h ave
br e ad bake d i t s e l f , an d w i l l s e l l s am e at c o s t , o r p o s s i bl y al i t t l e l e s s .
P ALESTINE

9 5
Wh e n Tur ke y e n t e r e d t h e w ar as an al l y o f Ge r m an y
an d Aus t r i a- Hun g ar y t h e s i t uat i o n o f t h e 50, 000Rus s i an
Je w s , w h o c o n s t i t ut e d h al f o f t h e Je w i s h p o p ul at i o n
o f P al e s t i n e , be c am e p r e c ar i o us .As n at i o n al s o f
an
e n e m y c o un t r y , t h e y be c am e l i abl e t o an y r e s t r i c t i o n s
o r d e p r i vat i o n o f r i g h t s 'w h i c h m i l i t ar y n e c e s s i t y o r
i n t e r n at i o n al an i m o s i t y m i g h t d i c t at e .Th us t h e s e
t h o us an d s o f Je w s w e r e t o s uf f e r be c aus e t h e y t e c h n i c al l y
bo r e t h e n at i o n al i t y o f ac o un t r y w h i c h h ad vi r t ual l y
e x i l e d t h e m .
Up o n t h e i n t e r ve n t i o n o f t h e Ge r m an an d Am e r i c an
Em bas s i e s , h o w e ve r , t h e Ot t o m an Go ve r n m e n t m ad e
s p e c i al c o n c e s s i o n s t o t h e s e Je w s .Se ve r al w e e ks 't i m e
w as al l o w e d f o r t h o s e w h o s o d e s i r e d t o be c o m e Tur ki s h
s ubje c t s by n at ur al i z at i o n .Up o n t h e e x p i r at i o n o f t h i s
p e r i o d , t h o s e w h o h ad n o t avai l e d t h e m s e l ve s o f t h i s o f f e r
w e r e o r d e r e d t o l e ave .Abo ut 6 00w e r e f o r c i bl y e x p e l l e d
an d abo ut 7 , 000o t h e r s l e f t vo l un t ar i l y .Mo s t o f t h e
f ug i t i ve s t o o kr e f ug e i n Eg y p t , w h e n c e an um be r e m i g r at e d
t o t h e Un i t e d St at e s .In t h e s p r i n g o f 19 15, h o w e ve r ,
t h e C o un c i l o f Mi n i s t e r s d e c i d e d t h at t h e d e p o r t at i o n s
be d i s c o n t i n ue d .
Th e d i f f i c ul t i e s o f t h e e c o n o m i c s i t uat i o n o f t h e Je w i s h
p o p ul at i o n w e r e f ur t h e r i n c r e as e d by Tur ke y 's e n t r an c e
i n t h e w ar .Th e Go ve r n m e n t c o n f i s c at e d m o s t o f t h e
c r o p s , an d ag r e at m an y o f t h e s e t t l e r s w e r e e i t h e r d r af t e d
i n t o t h e ar m y o r c o m p e l l e d t o buy i m m un i t y .
In Mar c h , 19 15, t h e Am e r i c an Je w i s h Re l i e f C o m -
m i t t e e an d t h e P r o vi s i o n al Zi o n i s t C o m m i t t e e w e r e
e n abl e d , t h r o ug h t h e c o ur t e s y o f t h e Un i t e d St at e s
Go ve r n m e n t , t o s e n d af o o d s h i p t o P al e s t i n e
.Al t h o ug h
c o n s i d e r abl e p o r t i o n s o f t h e s e s up p l i e s w e r e d i ve r t e d by
t h e Tur ki s h Go ve r n m e n t i n t o n o n - Je w i s h c h an n e l s , t h e
f o o d que s t i o n w as t o ag r e at e x t e n t s o l ve d , an d c o n d i t i o n s
Il i k; JEWSINTHEEASTERNWARZONE
h ave be e n s t e ad i l y i m p r o vi n g .Th e p r e s e n t s i t uat i o n
i s br i e f l y d e s c r i be d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x t r ac t s f r o m a
r e p o r t o f t h e P r o vi s i o n al Ex e c ut i ve C o m m i t t e e f o r
Ge n e r al Zi o n i s t Af f ai r s , d at e d Aug us t 10, 19 15 :
Th e e c o n o m i c s i t uat i o n h as al s o s h o w n s o m e i m p r o ve m e n t .
Th e ar r i val o f t h e r e l i e f f o o d s h i p "Vul c an "h as be e n p ar t l y r e s p o n s i -
bl e f o r t h i s r e s ul t .Af t e r c o n s i d e r abl e d i s c us s i o n w i t h t h e g o ve r n -
m e n t aut h o r i t i e s , t h e f o l l o w i n g r at i o o f d i s t r i but i o n h as be e n ag r e e d
up o n ; 55p e r c e n t .f o r t h e Je w s , 26 p e r c e n t .f o r t h e Mo h am m e d an s ,
an d 19 p e r c e n t .f o r t h e C h r i s t i an s .
Th e s e n d i n g o f t h e r e l i e f
s h i p h as h ad t h e i m p o r t an t e f f e c t
o f l o w e r i n g c o n s i d e r abl y t h e p r i c e s o f f o o d .Th e g at h e r i n g o f t h e
h ar ve s t i s n o w i n f ul l s w i n g .,
Th e c r o p s ar e s at i s f ac t o r y , e s p e c i al l y
i n Gal i l e e , w h i c h i s p r i n c i p al l y ac o r n g r o w i n g c o un t r y . Our
f ar m s , i n p ar t i c ul ar , h ave p r o ve d an i m p o r t an t f ac t o r i n t h e p r e s e n t
c r i s i s by s up p l y i n g t h e c o l o n i e s an d c i t i e s w i t h g r ai n at r e as o n abl e
p r i c e s
.Th e r e i s r e as o n t o be l i e ve t h at P al e s t i n e w i l l n o w be abl e
t o h o l d i t s o w n i n t h e m at t e r o f f o o d , w i t h o ut d e p e n d i n g o n f ur t h e r
s h i p m e n t s f r o m Am e r i c a.Th e r e i s s t i l l s o m e s h o r t ag e f e l t i n s ug ar
an d i n s o m e l e s s i m p o r t an t g r o c e r i e s , o f w h i c h s m al l quan t i t i e s
m ay s t i l l be p r o c ur e d f r o m Eg y p t .
Th e e c o n o m i c p r o s p e c t s w o ul d be c o n s i d e r abl y br i g h t e r w e r e
i t n o t f o r t h e l o c us t w h i c h h as s w e p t o ve r P al e s t i n e i n l ar g e n um be r s .
In c o r n - g r o w i n g Gal i l e e t h e d an g e r i s l e s s p al p abl e t h an e l s e w h e r e
w h o r e p l an t at i o n s ar e t h e p r i n c i p al f e at ur e o f ag r i c ul t ur e
.Th e
f i g h t ag ai n s t t h e p l ag ue h as be e n t ake n up e n e r g e t i c al l y an d s y s t e m -
at i c al l y .
Th e d an g e r o f as h o r t ag e i n g r ai n w as an o t h e r p r o bl e m t h at
n e e d e d c ar e f ul c o n s i d e r at i o n
.Wh i l e i n n o r m al t i m e s P al e s t i n e i s
i n ap o s i t i o n t o e x p o r t g r ai n abr o ad , t h e o ut br e ako f t h e w ar , o w i n g
t o t h e h e avy r e qui s i t i o n s o f t h e Go ve r n m e n t an d t h e d i f f i c ul t c o m -
m un i c at i o n s w i t h t h e No r t h o f P al e s t i n e an d t h e Haur an , t h e
g r an ar i e s o f t h e c o un t r y , br o ug h t an al ar m i n g s i t uat i o n .To d e al
w i t h i t , as p e c i al c o m m i t t e e w as o r g an i z e d .An um be r o f w e l l -
t o - d o Je w s bo ug h t up quan t i t i e s o f g r ai n an d h ad t h e m m i l l e d
;
o f f e r i n g t h e f l o ur t o t h e p ubl i c at c h e ap p r i c e s
.In t h i s w ay t h e
d an g e r t h r e at e n i n g t h e p o p ul at i o n f r o m un s c r up ul o us s p e c ul at o r s
w as ave r t e d an d t h e p r i c e s w e r e ke p t d o w n .Th us , w h e n , s h o r t l y be -
f o r e P as s o ve r , t h e p r i c e o f f l o ur h ad s o ar e d up as h i g h as 6 5f r an c s ,
P ALESTINE
t h e ac t i o n o f t h e c o m m i t t e e h ad t h e e f f e c t o f r e d uc i n g i t t o 4 8
. Th e
c o m m i t t e e al s o s up p l i e d p ubl i c i n s t i t ut i o n s w i t h c h e ap f l o ur
.
As an o t h e r m e an s o f r e l i e f , p ubl i c s t o r e s w e r e o p e n e d by t h e
c o m m i t t e e f o r t h e s al e o f p r o vi s i o n s
. In s p i t e o f t h e f ac t t h at s o m e
o f t h e g o o d s w e r e r e qui s i t i o n e d by t h e g o ve r n m e n t , t h e s t o r e s s e r ve d
ag o o d p ur p o s e , h e l p i n g , am o n g o t h e r t h i n g s , t o c i r c ul at e t h e c h e c ks
o f t h e An g l o - P al e s t i n e C o m p an y .
Fr o m t h e ve r y be g i n n i n g o f t h e c r i s i s , t h e P al e s t i n aAm t m ad e
i t ar ul e t h at n o w o r ki n g m e n w e r e t o be d i s m i s s e d , as s uc h ac t i o n
m i g h t s ubje c t t h e m t o t h e d an g e r o f s t ar vat i o n .To s up p l y al l
t h e w o r ki n g m e n w i t h e m p l o y m e n t , p ubl i c w o r ks w e r e un d e r t ake n ,
s uc h as r o ad bui l d i n g , c an al i z at i o n an d w at e r s up p l y . Se ve r al
bui l d e r s w h o h ad be e n f o r c e d t o d i s c o n t i n ue t h e i r bui l d i n g o p e r at i o n s
w e r e as s i s t e d w i t h l o an s t o r e s um e t h e m .
Fi n al l y , aP ubl i c Lo an As s o c i at i o n w as o r g an i z e d t o m e e t t h e
n e e d s o f t h o s e w h o h ad f o r m e r l y r e c e i ve d r e m i t t an c e s f r o m abr o ad ,
an d , o w i n g t o t h e d i s c o n t i n uat i o n o f t h e s e r e m i t t an c e s c o n s e que n t
up o n t h e o ut br e ako f t h e w ar , f o un d t h e m s e l ve s i n p i t i abl e c i r c um -
s t an c e s .So m e 9 00p e r s o n s t o o kad van t ag e o f t h e f ac i l i t i e s o f f e r e d
by t h e As s o c i at i o n .
Ac c o r d i n g t o t h e s t at i s t i c s c o m p i l e d by t h e P al e s t i n aAm t an d
e m bo d i e d i n as e p ar at e r e p o r t , s o m e 8, 000Je w s l e f t t h e c o un t r y
d ur i n g t h e c r i s i s .Of t h e s e , 4 , 000w e r e f r o m Jaf f a, 2, 000f r o m Je r u-
s al e m , 1, 500f r o m t h e Jud e an c o l o n i e s an d 500f r o m t h e c o l o n i e s
i n Gal i l e e . Th e e s t i m at e d n um be r o f Je w s at p r e s e n t i n P al e s t i n e
i s 88, 100, o f w h o m 13 , 500ar e t o be f o un d i n t h e c o l o n i e s .
Th e r e qui s i t i o n s an d t h e w ar c o n t r i but i o n s l e vi e d up o n t h e
Je w s d ur i n g t h e w ar ,
am o un t t o 152, 805f r an c s .
t
L
REP ORTOFTHERUSSIAN- JEWISHRELIEF
C OMMITTEE

'
NOTE.- Th e f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t w as i s s ue d by t h e ( Rus s i an )
Je w i s h C o m m i t t e e f o r t h e Re l i e f o f Suf f e r e r s f r o m t h e War ,
t o i t s m e m be r s i n Rus s i a, i n May , 19 15, s i n c e w h e n c o n -
d i t i o n s i n Rus s i aan d P o l an d h ave s t e ad i l y g r o w n w o r s e .
Th e aut h o r i t at i ve n e s s o f t h e r e p o r t i s g uar an t e e d by t h e p e r -
s o n n e l o f t h e c o m m i t t e e , n um be r i n g am o n g i t s m e m be r s h '
t h e f o r e m o s t Je w s o f Rus s i a, am o n g w h o m m ay be n a
B ar o n A .d e Gun z be r g , H. Sl i o s be r g , M .Gi n s bur g an d B .
K am e n ka, c h ai r m an o f t h e Ex e c ut i ve C o m m i t t e e ; M.A .
War s c h avs ky , c h ai r m an o f t h e Or g an i z i n g C o m m i t t e e ; an d
D.Fe i n be r g , L .B r am s o n an d M .K r e i n i n , Se c r e t ar i e s .
Te r r i bl e d i s as t e r h as be f al l e n t h e Je w i s h p o p ul at i o n
o f t h e P al e o f Se t t l e m e n t an d o f P o l an d .Hun g e r an d
t h i r s t an d d i s e as e an d d e at h , an d m o r al s uf f e r i n g s be y o n d
t h e p o w e r o f h um an p e n t o d e s c r i be ar e t h e l o t o f h un d r e d
t h o us an d s o f Je w i s h m e n , w o m e n an d c h i l d r e n w h o m t h e
w ar h as d r i ve n f r o m t h e i r h o m e s , w h o s e h o us e s an d
h e ar t h s h ave be e n p l un d e r e d an d d e s t r o y e d
.Hun d r e d s
o f t h o us an d s o f o ur un f o r t un at e br e t h r e n ar e s t ar i n g
i n h o p e l e s s d e s p ai r i n t o af ut ur e t h at s e e m s t o s p e l l
n o t h i n g but n e w t e ar s an d s uf f e r i n g s . . .
Ac c o r d i n g t o t h e d at ac o l l e c t e d by t h e Ge n e r al P o l i s h
Re l i e f C o m m i t t e e , i n P o l an d , al o n e t h e r e ar e at l e as t 200
t o w n s an d abo ut 9 , 000t o w n l e t s an d vi l l ag e s t h at h ave
s uf f e r e d f r o m t h e w ar , t h e m at e r i al d am ag e am o un t i n g
t o t h e g i g an t i c f i g ur e o f o ve r am i l l i ar d r o ubl e s ( $ 500, 000, -
000) .
B e s i d e s t h e t e r r i bl e bas s e s s us t ai n e d by t h e r ur al
p o p ul at i o n , t h e w h o l e i n d us t r i al p r o d uc t i o n , am o un t i n g
9 8
RUSSIANJi WISHRELIEFC OMMITTEE

9 9
t o n e ar l y 800m i l l i o n r o ubl e s ay e ar , h as be e n r ui n e d .
Abo ut t h r e e m i l l i o n t o w n s p e o p l e ar e d e s t i t ut e , an d o f
t h e s e t h r e e m i l l i o n at l e as t h al f , i
.e ., 1, 500, 000, ar e Je w s .
To t h i s n um be r o f un f o r t un at e vi c t i m s w e h ave t o ad d
t h e p o p ul at i o n o f t h e p r o vi n c e s o f K o vn o an d Gr o d n o i n
t h e n o r t h w e s t e r n r e g i o n o f t h e P al e , t h e p r o vi n c e s o f B e s -
s ar abi a, P o d o l i a
.an d Vo l y n i ai n t h e s o ut h e r n an d s o ut h -
w e s t e r n r e g i o n s
.Th e s e p r o vi n c e s , bo r d e r i n g up o n Ge r -
m an y an d Aus t r i a, h ave aJe w i s h p o p ul at i o n o f at l e as t
500, 000p e o p l e
.Th us t h e t o t al n um be r
o f Je w s t h at
h ave , i n o n e w ay o r an o t h e r , s uf f e r e d i m m e d i at e l y f r o m t h e
c o n d i t i o n s o f w ar f ar e e qual s o ve r t w o m i l l i o n p e o p l e ,
r e p r e s e n t i n g o n e - t h i r d o f t h e t o t al Je w i s h p o p ul at i o n o f
Rus s i a.
B e s i d e s , t h e r e ar e h un d r e d t h o us an d s o f d e s t i t ut e
Je w s i n Gal i c i a( w i t h i n Rus s i an o c c up at i o n ) l o o ki n g
f o r w ar d t o r e l i e f f r o m t h i s c o un t r y .
To t h e ut t e r r ui n o f t h e i r m at e r i al w e l f ar e t h e r e ar e
ad d e d t h e un s p e akabl e s uf f e r i n g s t h at t h e p o p ul at i o n
o f t h e w ar ar e ah as t o e n d ur e .In t h e m o s t f avo r abl e
o f c as e s t h e i n h abi t an t s o f t h e bo r d e r p l ac e s e s c ap e f r o m
t h e z o n e o f f i r e , t aki n g r e f ug e i n t h e i n n e r p ar t s o f t h e
c o un t r y ; w h i l e al ar g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h o s e un f o r t un at e
Je w i s h f am i l i e s h ave r e m ai n e d i n t h e r ui n e d p l ac e s ,
f ac i n g t h e p h an t o m s o f s t ar vat i o n an d d i s e as e t h at
g at h e r
,
ar i c h h ar ve s t am o n g .t h e m .
Suc h i s t h e d e vo t i o n an d l o ve o f t h e Je w s t o t h e i r
n at i ve p l ac e s , t o t h e i r o w n c o r n e r , t h at t h e y p r e f e r t o
s t ay i n t h e d e vas t at e d t o w n s an d t o w n l e t s an d vi l l ag e s ,
i f o n l y p e r m i t t e d t o d o s o .An d t h o s e w h o h ave f l e d
f r o m t h e i r h o m e s t ake t h e f i r s t o p p o r t un i t y o f r e t ur n -
i n g ,
h e e d l e s s o f t h e t e r r i bl e d i s as t e r s
l y i n g
i n s t o r e f o r
t h e m
.Avi vi d e x am p l e , t y p i c al o f m an y o t h e r i n s t an c e s ,
i s g i ve n by t h e Je w s i n t h e vi l l ag e s o f Vi s s i l t s y , Di s t r i c t
100 1n .i JEWSINIl i Ji EASTERNWARZONE
B us ak, p r o vi n c e K i e l c e
.Our d e l e g at e f o un d t h e p l ac e
r az e d by h o s t i l e s h e l l s
.Th e p o p ul at i o n - m o s t l y Je w s -
f o r o ve r t h r e e m o n t h s h ad be e n h ud d l i n g t o g e t h e r i n
c e l l ar s , w h e r e t h e y h ad t ake n r e f ug e . .Th e y w e r e n o t
t o l e ave t h e i r s h e l t e r by d ay ; n o f o o d w as t o be
c o o ke d , n o f i r e l i g h t e d at n i g h t - s uc h w e r e t h e s t r i n g e n t
o r d e r s f r o m m i l i t ar y quar t e r s .Ah um an e m i l i t ar y c h i e f
p e r m i t t e d t h e m t o c r aw l o ut o f t h e i r d i n g y h o l e s by n i g h t
an d f e e d o ut o f t h e s o l d i e r s 'c aul d r o n .B ut s o o n an o t h e r
c h i e f t o o kh i s p l ac e an d t h e un f o r t un at e Je w s w e r e l e f t
t o s t ar ve i n t h e i r c e l l ar s .Th o s e t h at s uc c um be d w e r e
bur i e d i n h o l e s t h at t h e s ur vi vo r s d ug f o r t h e m
i n
t h e
ve r y s am e c e l l ar s .

.
In f i n i t e l y t r ag i c t o o i s t h e f at e o f t h o s e Je w s w h o ,
by r i g o r o us o r d e r s o f t h e m i l i t ar y aut h o r i t i e s at an o t i c e
o f f r o m t h r e e t o t w e n t y - f o ur h o ur s ar e e x p e l l e d f r o m
w h o l e p r o vi n c e s o f P o l an d , t h e i r p r e s e n c e n e ar t h e ar e a
o f h o s t i l i t i e s be i n g c o n s i d e r e d "ad an g e r t o t h e s af e t y
o f t h e Rus s i an ar m s ."Le avi n g t h e i r h o m e s an d be l o n g -
i n g s , t h e f r ui t o f y e ar s o f h ar d t o i l , an o p e n p r e y , t h e
un f o r t un at e e x i l e s by t h e t h o us an d s w e n d t h e i r w e ar y
w ay t o t o w n s an d vi l l ag e s , t h i r t y o r m o r e m i l e s d i s t an t ,
t h at h ave n o t y e t c o m e w i t h i n t h e d e c r e e s o f t h e m i l i t ar y
aut h o r i t i e s . Ol d m e n , s i c kw o m e n , c l as p i n g l i t t l e c h i l d r e n
i n t h e i r ar m s , c ar r y i n g bun d l e s w i t h s o m e s c an t y be l o n g -
i n g s t h at t h e y h ad s n at c h e d up i n h as t e , f i l l t h e s i l e n t
r o ad s w i t h t h e s o un d o f t h e i r m o an s an d s o bs .He r e
an o l d m an br e aks d o w n , br e at h i n g h i s l as t s i g h i n t h e
m i d d l e o f t h e r o ad . Th e r e aw o m an kn e e l s by t h e r o ad -
s i d e s t ar i n g i n d e s p ai r t o o d e e p f o r t e ar s , at t h e c h i l d
t h at l i e s d e ad i n h e r ar m s . . . Man y ar e t h o s e
w h o s uc c um bo n t h e i r w ay ; i n d e s c r i babl e ar e t h e s uf f e r -
i n g s o f t h o s e w h o s ur vi ve .Sc ar c e l y h ave t h e y f o un d
s h e l t e r i n ah o s p i t abl e t o w n o r t o w n l e t w h e n - al as l
RUSSIANJEWISHRELIEFC OMMITTEE

101
t o o f r e que n t l y - t h e p r o h i bi t i o n o f t h e aut h o r i t i e s i s
af e w d ay s l at e r e x t e n d e d al s o t o t h e s e p l ac e s , an d ag ai n
t h e Je w i s h p o p ul at i o n m us t s t ar t up o n i t s w e ar y p i l -
g r i m ag e . . . .
Th e t o t al n um be r o f r e f ug e e s f r o m t h e w ar z o n e an d
o f e x i l e s c an s c ar c e l y be c al c ul at e d w i t h p r e c i s i o n be c aus e
l ar g e n um be r s h ave m ad e t h e i r w ay t o n um e r o us s m al l
t o w n l e t s t h r o ug h o ut t h e P al e , t h us f r us t r at i n g s y s t e m at i c
r e g i s t r at i o n , w h i l e , at t h e s am e t i m e , t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e
w ar t e n d s t o s w e l l t h e h o s t o f r e f ug e e s d ai l y
.
So m e i d e ao f t h e i r n um be r i s g i ve n by t h e f o l l o w i n g
ap p r o x i m at e f i g ur e s :
War s aw
7 5, 000p e o p l e Rad o m 2, 000p e o p l e
Vi l n a
12, 000p e o p l e

Gus s i at i n 1, 000p e o p l e
K i e l c e
3 , 000p e o p l e

Sh akvi ( Suval ki ) .1, 500*p e o p l e


K o n s k
4 , 000p e o p l e

Lo m z h a5, 000p e o p l e
Mi n k
2, 000p e o p l e K h m e l n i k
P r as s n y s h
1, 500p e o p l e

( P r o v .K i e l c e ) .1, 500p e o p l e
An d y e t t h e s e f i g ur e s o n l y s h o w t h e n um be r o f r e f ug e e s
w h o h ave ap p l i e d f o r as s i s t an c e ; h un d r e d s
o f
t h o us an d s
o f o t h e r s ar e m e an w h i l e l i vi n g .up o n t h e i r s avi n g s an d
d o n o t c o m e un d e r t h e r e g i s t r at i o n
.B ut t h e y al s o w i l l
be at t h e e n d o f t h e i r s c an t r e s o ur c e s o n e o f t h e s e d ay s
an d 'w i l l jo i n t h e r an ks o f t h e d e s t i t ut e . . . . Th us ,
f o r t h e abo ve - n am e d p l ac e s an d f o r m an y o t h e r d o z e n s
o f t o w n s
an d t o w n l e t s t h e n um be r o f r e f ug e e s w i t h i n
t h e i r w al l s m ay be d o ubl e d w i t h o ut f e ar o f e x ag g e r at i o n
.
Wh i l e n um e r o us t o w n s an d t o w n l e t s h ave , i n g e n e r o us
h o s p i t al i t y , o p e n e d t h e i r g at e s t o t h e un f o r t un at e r e f ug e e s
an d e x i l e s f r o m t h e w ar ar e a, t h e n at i ve Je w i s h p o p ul at i o n
o f t h e s e p l ac e s i s i t s e l f s uf f e r i n g as e ve r e e c o n o m i c c r i s i s ,
an ac ut e at t ac ko f un e m p l o y m e n t , w h i c h as am at t e r
*At m o m e n t o f i n ve s t i g at i o n .
102 i t s.JEWSINTHEEASTERNWARZONE
o f f ac t , i s f ur t h e r i n t e n s i f i e d by t h e i n f l ux o f r e f ug e e s
e ag e r t o o f f e r t h e i r s e r vi c e s , f o r t h e s m al l e s t r e m un e r at i o n
.
Th us p o ve r t y an d m i s e r y ar e g r o w i n g i n t h e s e p l ac e s
t o o , t h e bur d e n o f r e l i e f be c o m i n g t o o h e avy f o r t h e
l o c al c o m m un i t y t o be ar .
We h ave al r e ad y s t at e d t h at t h e i n d us t r i al l i f e o f
P o l an d an d i n al ar g e p ar t o f t h e P al e h as be e n l ai d
w as t e as ac o n s e que n c e o f t h e w ar .Hun d r e d s o f f ac -
t o r i e s h ave be e n d e s t r o y e d , h un d r e d s o t h e r s h ave h ad t o
s t o p w o r kf o r w an t o f c ap i t al , r aw m at e r i al , f ue l an d - - -
f i r s t an d f o r e m o s t - f o r w an t o f am ar ke t f o r t h e i r ar t i c l e s
o f p r o d uc t i o n .Man y t h o us an d s o f w o r km e n w h o w e r e
f o r m e r l y e m p l o y e d by t h e s e f ac t o r i e s h ave r e m ai n e d w i t h -
o ut br e ad .
Wh o l e br an c h e s o f t r ad e h ave be e n s h at t e r e d , bur y i n g
t h e w e l f ar e o f t h e ar t i s an s un d e r t h e i r r ui n s
.Th e
t ai l o r s , w e ave r s , bo o t m ake r s , bui l d e r s , t r ad e s , n o r m al l y
s us t ai n i n g al ar g e p e r c e n t ag e o f Je w s i n P o l an d an d i n
t h e P al e , ar e d e ad
; t h e ar t i s an s ar e l e f t t o s t ar ve , un l e s s
s o m e t h i n g c an be d o n e t o s ave t h e m .
C o m m e r c i al l i f e al s o h as be e n l ai d w as t e .Th e m e r -
c h an t s - g r e at an d s m al l - ar e r ui n e d ; h un d r e d s o f m e r -
c h an t 's c l e r ks ar e t h r o w n o ut
.o f w o r kan d h ave t o ap p l y
t o p ubl i c c h ar i t y .
Th e r e i s y e t an o t h e r c l as s o f s uf f e r e r s w h o s e w an t s
an d n e e d s h ave t o be at t e n d e d t o
.Abo ut 3 00, 000Je w s
ar e f i g h t i n g i n t h e r an ks o f t h e Rus s i an ar m y
.Th e i r
m o t h e r s , w i ve s an d c h i l d r e n ar e r e c e i vi n g but s c an t y
s up p o r t ( abo ut 2r o ubl e s ah e ad ) 'f r o m t h e Go ve r n m e n t .
Abo ut h al f o f t h e m , h o w e ve r , ar e n o t g e t t i n g an y Go ve r n -
m e n t ai d at al l , t h e i r m ar r i ag e s , al t h o ug h l e g al l y s o l e m n -
i z e d , n o t h avi n g be e n e n t e r e d i n t h e o f f i c i al m ar r i ag e
r e g i s t e r s .
( It i s aw e l l kn o w n f ac t t h at t h e un e d uc at e d
Je w s o f P o l an d an d i n t h e P al e f r e que n t l y o m i t t o h ave
RUSSIANJEWISHRELIEFC OMMITTEE

103
t h e i r m ar r i ag e s r e g i s t e r e d , f ai l i n g t o r e al i z e t h e f ul l i m -
p o r t an c e o f t h i s f o r m al i t y .) Re n t an d f o o d h avi n g
be c o m e c o n s i d e r abl y d e ar e r w i t h t h e o ut br e ako f t h e w ar ,
t h e s o l d i e r s 'f am i l i e s o f t e n s uf f e r ac ut e w an t , w h i c h
n e c e s s i t at e s i m m e d i at e h e l p l e s t t h e s e p e o p l e be c o m e
c h ar g e s o n t h e i r c o m m un i t y .Man y o f t h e s o l d i e r s w i l l
n e ve r r e t ur n f r o m t h e bat t l e f i e l d s ; o t h e r s w i l l c o m e
bac kas c r i p p l e s , un f i t t o s up p o r t t h e m s e l ve s o r t h e i r
f am i l i e s .Th e y w i l l al l w an t s up p o r t o f s o m e ki n d o r
an o t h e r
. . . .
It i s abo un d l e s s s e ao f t r o ubl e s t h at h as t o be c o p e d
w i t h an d t h e f ul l w e i g h t o f t h e t as ki s f al l i n g up o n Je w i s h
s h o ul d e r s . Th e g ul f d i vi d i n g t h e bul ko f Rus s i an s o c i e t y
f r o m Je w i s h l i f e an d n e e d s an d s o r r o w s h as n o t be e n
br i d g e d o ve r by t h e h o r r o r s o f w ar .Th o ug h n o w an d
ag ai n avo i c e o f s y m p at h y i s h e ar d f r o m Rus s i an quar t e r s ,
h e r e an d t h e r e aRus s i an h an d i s e x t e n d e d t o f e e d a
s t ar vi n g Je w i s h c h i l d , bo t h m o r al an d m at e r i al as s i s t an c e
o f f e r e d by n o n - Je w s t o o ur s t r i c ke n p e o p l e i s but i n -
f i n i t e s i m al as c o m p ar e d w i t h t h e m ag n i t ud e o f t h e d i s t r e s s
.
No r d o
w e n o w w i s h t o d w e l l s p e c i f i c al l y o n P o l i s h -
Je w i s h r e l at i o n s , i t be i n g t o o w e l l kn o w n t o w h at e x t e n t
t h e y h ave be c o m e p o i n t e d d ur i n g t h e r e c e n t m o n t h s ,
be ar i n g i n t h e i r t r ai n i n f i n i t e , y e a, un be ar abl e s uf f e r i n g s
f o r o ur Je w i s h br e t h r e n .
In o r d e r t o un i t e t h e e f f o r t s o f Je w i s h s o c i e t y t o w ar d s
t h e r e l i e f o f t h e Je w i s h s uf f e r e r s f r o m t h e w ar , at t h e
ve r y , o ut br e ako f t h e Eur o p e an c o n f l ag r at i o n t h e r e w as
f o r m e d at P e t r o g r ad aGe n e r al Je w i s h Re l i e f C o m m i t t e e ,
w i t h t h e s an c t i o n o f t h e Rus s i an aut h o r i t i e s , t o ac t as
ac e n t e r f o r t h e c o l l e c t i o n an d d i s t r i but i o n o f f un d s
t o t h e d e s t i t ut e an d n e e d y Je w s .At t h e ve r y be g i n n i n g
o f i t s ac t i vi t y t h e Ge n e r al C o m m i t t e e i s s ue d an ap p e al
t o t h e Je w i s h p ubl i c c al l i n g i t t o i t s d ut y t o t h e
104 r i c h JEWSINTHE EASTERN WARZONE
un f o r t un at e s uf f e r e r s , jus t as
t h e Je w i s h s o l d i e r s f i g h t i n g
an d d i s t i n g ui s h i n g t h e m s e l ve s i n t h e r an ks o f t h e Rus s i an
ar m y ar e d o i n g t h e i r d ut y by t h e i r m o t h e r c o un t r y .
Je w i s h s o c i e t y at .l ar g e h as s h o w n i t s us ual r e s p o n s i ve -
n e s s an d m at e r i al s up p o r t - h as be e n f o r t h c o m i n g i n as
l ar g e am e as ur e as i n d i vi d ual m e an s an d c i r c um s t an c e s
w o ul d p e r m i t .
C o m m i t t e e s , s i m i l ar t o t h e Ge n e r al C o m m i t t e e , w o r k
i n g o n t h e s am e l i n e s an d i n c l o s e un i t y w i t h i t h ave s i n c e
be e n o r g an i z e d i n p r o m i n e n t c e n t e r s o f t h e s t r i c ke n ar e a
an d o ut s i d e o f i t - e .g ., i n War s aw , Mo s c o w , K i e v,
Od e s s a, K h ar ko v, an d i n ad d i t i o n t h e e x i s t i n g Je w i s h
o r g an i z at i o n s , s uc h as t h e C e n t r al C o m m i t t e e o f t h e
Je w i s h C o l o n i z at i o n As s o c i at i o n , t h e So c i e t y f o r t h e
P r o m o t i o n o f Ed uc at i o n i n Rus s i a, t h e Je w i s h He al t h
So c i e t y , t h e So c i e t y f o r t h e P r o m o t i o n o f Tr ad e an d
In d us t r y am o n g Rus s i an Je w s , e t c ., e t c ., ar e t aki n g ac t i ve
p ar t i n t h e r e l i e f w o r k .Re p r e s e n t at i ve s o f t h e var i o us
c o m m i t t e e s an d s o c i e t i e s w o r ki n g i n t h e w ar z o n e an d o ut -
s i d e i t m e e t p e r i o d i c al l y i n o r d e r t o d i s c us s n e w m e as ur e s
an d s c h e m e s f o r t h e al l e vi at i o n o f t h e t e r r i bl e d i s t r e s s .
Th e c o n d i t i o n s an d e x t e n t o f d i s t r e s s i n t o w n s ,
, t o w n -
l e t s an d vi l l ag e s o f P o l an d an d o f t h e P al e ar e be i n g
as c e r t ai n e d t h r o ug h d e l e g at e s o f t h e Ge n e r al Re l i e f
C o m m i t t e e w o r ki n g ac t i ve l y an d e n e r g e t i c al l y t o w ar d s
t h e o r g an i z at i o n o f var i o us f o r m s o f r e l i e f i n t h e s e ve r al
d i s t r i c t s .In an um be r o f p l ac e s t h e l o c al Je w i s h c o m -
m un i t y h as r e ad i l y jo i n e d - i n 't h e r e l i e f w o r k, d o i n g i t s
ut m o s t t o m e e t t h e d e m an d f o r f o o d , s h e l t e r , c l o t h i n g ;
t h e l o c al p h i l an t h r o p i c an d c o m m un al Je w i s h i n s t i t ut i o n s
t h us be c o m i n g val uabl e ag e n c i e s o f t h e Ge n e r al Re l i e f
C o m m i t t e e .On t h e w h o l e , h o w e ve r - p ar t i c ul ar l y as f ar
as P o l an d i s c o n c e r n e d - t h e o r g an i z at i o n o f as s i s t an c e
t o t h e w ar s uf f e r e r s i s m e e t i n g w i t h e n d l e s s d i f f i c ul t i e s ,
RUSSIANJEWISHRELIEFC OMMITTEE

105
d ue
l ar g e l y t o t h e f ac t t h at t h e s uf f e r i n g p o p ul at i o n i s
i n s uc h
a s t at e o f f r an t i c t e r r o r , t h at m an y Je w s d o n o t
e ve n d r e am o f ap p l y i n g t o an y o n e f o r as s i s t an c e .In
m an y i n s t an c e s t h e f i r s t t e r r o r h as g i ve n w ay t o c o m -
p l e t e ap at h y .
Of t e n o ur r e p r e s e n t at i ve s h ave t o s e e kt h e s e p e o p l e
o ut i n t h e i r h i d i n g p l ac e s , t o r o us e t h e m f r o m t h e i r
, l e t h ar g y , t o e x e r c i s e m o r al p r e s s ur e o n t h e m o r e p r o m i -
n e n t m e m be r s o f t h e c o m m un i t y , be f o r e an y t h i n g c an
be d o n e - f o r t h e s uf f e r e r s .Th i s at t i t ud e o f t h e p e o p l e
be c o m e s i n t e l l i g i bl e w h e n w e c o n s i d e r t h e c o n d i t i o n s
t h at t h e y l i ve i n un d e r o r d i n ar y c i r c um s t an c e s - t h e i r
p o ve r t y , t h e i r l ac ko f e d uc at i o n , t h e c o n t e m p t t h e y ar e
ac c us t o m e d t o m e e t w i t h o n t h e p ar t o f t h e n o n - Je w i s h
p o p ul at i o n .
Si m i l ar c o n d i t i o n s p r e vai l i n , t h e Gal i c i an P r o vi n c e s
w i t h i n Rus s i an o c c up at i o n :
"If o un d t h e m h ud d l i n g t o g e t h e r i n d am p an d d ar k
c e l l ar s , h al f - n ake d , s i c k an d s t ar vi n g "- t h e s e ar e t h e
w o r d s o f o n e o f o ur r e p r e s e n t at i ve s w h o vi s i t e d s o m e o f
t h e p l ac e s t h at h ad w i t n e s s e d al l t h e h o r r o r s o f t h e w ar .
"Th e y s h o w e d c o m p l e t e ap at h y , ap p e ar e d t o be i n at r an c e
o f t e r r o r
. On l y am ad m an - h e h ad be c o m e i n s an e
be c aus e o f s up e r h um an s uf f e r i n g - - f o l l o w e d m e i n t o
t h e s t r e e t , s h r i e ki n g f o r br e ad .Ih an d e d h i m a c o i n ,
- but h e t h r e w i t d o w n an d c l am o r e d f o r br e ad . . . ."
Th e e ve r c h an g i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f w ar , t h at o p e n
up n e w r e g i o n s
f o r r e l i e f w o r kt o d ay , an d c l o s e o t h e r
d i s t r i c t s t o m o r r o w , t h at t h r o w e ve r n e w c r o w d s o f
s uf f e r e r s up o n p ubl i c c h ar i t y - t h e s e , t o a- l ar g e e x t e n t
baf f l e al l o ur e f f o r t s t o w ar d s r e l i e f , d e s t r o y i n g t o d ay
w h at w as o r g an i z e d y e s t e r d ay .Ad d t o t h i s t h e p e c ul i ar
c i r c um s t an c e s o f Je w i s h l i f e i n Rus s i a, t h e un f avo r abl e
at t i t ud e o f t h e aut h o r i t i e s t o w ar d s t h e Je w i s h p o p ul at i o n
106 THEJaWSINTHEEASTERNWARZONE
i n t h e w ar ar e a- an d t h e d i f f i c ul t i e s t h at t h e o r g an i z at i o n
o f r e l i e f h as t o c o p e w i t h w i l l s t an d o ut i n t h e i r f ul l
s i g n i f i c an c e .
Ow i n g t o t h e s e an d o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s t h e Ge n e r al
Re l i e f C o m m i t t e e up t i l l n o w h as h ad t o c o n c e n t r at e
l ar g e l y o n e x t e n d i n g "f i r s t ai d , "t h i s t e r m be i n g h e r e
us e d t o c o m p r i s e f e e d i n g an d s h e l t e r i n g o f t h e s uf f e r e r s .
Di s t r i but i o n o f f o o d ( at l o w r at e s o r f r e e o f c h ar g e ) ,
o f f ue l , c l o t h e s , f o o t - w e ar ; o r g an i z at i o n o f f e e d i n g c e n t r e s ,
am e l i o r at i o n o f s h e l t e r i n g an d h o us i n g c o n d i t i o n s , o f
s an i t at i o n an d h y g i e n e am o n g t h e w ar s uf f e r e r s - ar e
t h e c h i e f f o r m s r e l i e f h as t ake n s o f ar .
At t h e p r e s e n t m o m e n t t h e r e ar e be i n g e qui p p e d
by t h e Ge n e r al Re l i e f C o m m i t t e e t w o s o - c al l e d "s an i t ar y
an d f e e d i n g e x p e d i t i o n s w h o s e o bje c t i t w i l l be t o o f f e r
m e d i c al as s i s t an c e an d p r o vi d e f r e e f o o d t o t h e s uf f e r e r s
i n t h e w ar ar e ao f P o l an d , i r r e s p e c t i ve o f r e l i g i o us d e -
n o m i n at i o n
.( Th e m o n e y f o r t h i s p ur p o s e h as be e n
r e c e i ve d f r o m Lo n d o n w i t h t h e e x p r e s s c o n d i t i o n t h at n o
d i s t i n c t i o n be m ad e be t w e e n Je w s an d n o n - Je w s ) .
Mo r e o ve r , i n s o f ar as t h i s h as be e n p o s s i bl e , e f f o r t s
h ave be e n m ad e t o s e c ur e w o r kf o r t h e r e f ug e e s an d
f o r t h o s e w h o h ave l o s t t h e i r e m p l o y m e n t as ar e s ul t
o f t h e w ar .Th us i n War s aw t h e r e h as be e n o p e n e d a
w o r ks h o p w h e r e r e f ug e e s ar e e m p l o y e d i n m an uf ac t ur i n g
var i o us ar t i c l e s o f un d e r c l o t h i n g f o r d i s t r i but i o n am o n g
t h e w ar s uf f e r e r s
. In Vi l n at h e r e h as be e n e s t abl i s h e d
aw o r ks h o p f o r bo o t m ake r s w h o ar e f i l l i n g Go ve r n -
m e n t o r d e r s f o r ar m y bo o t s .Si m i l ar w o r ks h o p s h ave
be e n o r g an i z e d at Dvi n s k, Fas t o v, e t c .Fur t h e r , t h e r e
h as be e n o p e n e d at War s aw al abo r - bur e auw h i c h i s
o bt ai n i n g w o r kf o r ac o n s i d e r abl e n um be r o f ar t i s an s
.
Al ar g e n um be r o f s m al l m e r c h an t s an d ar t i s an s be i n g
i n ur g e n t n e e d o f c r e d i t t o e n abl e t h e m t o r e - e s t abl i s h an d
RUSSIANJEWISHRELIEFC OMMITTEE

107
o p e r at e t h e i r bus i n e s s an d t o p r e ve n t t h e m f r o m l ap s i n g
i n t o ut t e r d e s t i t ut i o n , c r e d i t i s be i n g af f o r d e d t h e m
t h r o ug h t h e m e d i um o f t h e Je w i s h c o o p e r at i ve c r e d i t
s o c i e t i e s t h at ar e w o r ki n g t h r o ug h o ut t h e P al e o f Se t t l e -
m e n t an d P o l an d .So f ar , by w ay o f e x p e r i m e n t , abo ut
23 , 000r o ubl e s h ave be e n i n ve s t e d i n t h i s o p e r at i o n ;
h o w e ve r , s h o ul d t h i s us e f ul f o r m o f as s i s t an c e be e n -
l ar g e d , c o n s i d e r abl e m e an s w i l l be r e qui r e d f o r t h e
p ur p o s e .
At t h e p r e s e n t m o m e n t t h e Ge n e r al Re l i e f C o m -
m i t t e e , w o r ki n g i n c l o s e c o o p e r at i o n w i t h t h e c o m -
m i t t e e s i n Mo s c o w , K i e van d Od e s s a, i s e x t e n d i n g r e l i e f
t o o ve r 3 00c e n t r e s o f p o p ul at i o n s i t uat e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g
p r o vi n c e s
Ap p r o x i m at e Num be r
P o l an d -

o f P o p ul at e d C e n t e r s
P r o vi n c e War s aw ( i n c l ud i n g c i t y o f
War s aw w h e r e al ar g e n um be r o f
r e f ug e e s - ar e c o n c e n t r at e d )
4 6
P r o vi n c e Vi l n a

18
P r o vi n c e K o vn o 4 0
P r o vi n c e Suval ki 20
P r o vi n c e Li ubl i n ( o n l y p ar t o f i t

25
be i n g ac c e s s i bl e t o r e l i e f w o r k) . . . .
P r o vi n c e K i e l c e ( o n l y p ar t o f i t be i n g
ac c e s s i bl e t o r e l i e f w o r k) 12
P r o vi n c e Rad o m 15
P r o vi n c e Gr o d n o ( n o w i n c l ud e d i n
s p h e r e o f ac t i vi t y o f Mo s c o w
C o m m i t t e e )
5
P r o vi n c e Lo m z h a( n o w i n c l ud e d i n
s p h e r e o f ac t i vi t y o f Mo s c o w
C o m m i t t e e ) 10
P r o vi n c e P l o t s k( n o w i n c l ud e d i n
s p h e r e o f ac t i vi t y o f Mo s c o w
C o m m i t t e e )

P r o vi n c e K h o l m ( n o w w i t h i n ac t i vi t y
o f K i e van d Od e s s aC o m m i t t e e ) . .
8
10
108
THEJEWSINTHEEASTERNWARZONE
Ap p r o x i m at e Num be r
o f P o p ul at e d C e n t e r s
So ut h w e s t e r n P r o vi n c e -
P r o vi n c e :
P o d o l i a, B e s s ar abi aan d
Vo l y n i a( B o r d e r d i s t r i c t s )
10
Gal i c i a-
P e t r o g r ad C o m m i t t e e
( c o o p e r at i n g
w i t h K i e van d Od e s s aC o m m i t t e e ) .

7 5
Out s i d e War Ar e a10
To t al 3 04
So m e i d e ao f t h e e x p e n d i t ur e s o f t h e Ge n e r al Re l i e f
C o m m i t t e e i n P e t r o g r ad i s g i ve n by t h e f o l l o w i n g f i g ur e s :
FORGENERALRELIEF
3 1, 000
P o l an d -
Ro ubl e s
War s aw 3 50, 000
P r o vi n c e War s aw
10, 000
Lo d z
1, 500
P r o vi n c e Lo m s h a12, 000
P r o vi n c e Suval ki 7 , 000
P r o vi n c e Li ubl i n 7 5, 000
P r o vi n c e Rad o m
4 5, 000
P r o vi n c e C h o l m 4 , 4 00
P r o vi n c e K i e l c e
4 0, 000
54 5, 000
So ut h w e s t e r n P r o vi n c e -
( B o r d e r P l ac e s )
14 , 000
Rad z i vi l o v
14 , 000
C h t i n
5, 000
Vo l o t c h i s k
5, 000
Go r o ko v1, 000
No vo s s e l i t s y 500
Var i o us s m al l p l ac e s 5, 000
RUSSIANJEWISHRELIEFC OMMITTEE

109
No r t h w e s t e r n P r o vi n c e -

Ro ubl e s
P r o vi n c e K o vn o 55, 000
P r o vi n c e Vi l n a3 , 000
P r o vi n c e B i al y s t o c k, Mi n s k, e t c 10, 000
9 5, 000
Gal i c i a112, 000
As s i s t an c e t o Je w s i n P al e s t i n e an d Sy r i a( t h r o ug h
r e p r e s e n t at i ve i n Al e x an d r i a) 10, 000
As s i s t an c e t o Rus s i an - Je w i s h Re f ug e e s f r o m Abr o ad
( w h e n p as s i n g P e t r o g r ad ) 1, 500
As s i s t an c e t o Wo un d e d an d Re c o ve r e d So l d i e r s r e t ur n -
i n g t o t h e Fr o n t 15, 000
P ur c h as e o f Mat z o t h f o r So l d i e r s at t h e Fr o n t ( s ubs i d y
t o t h e Rabbi n i c al C o m m i t t e e ) 15, 000
Subs i d y t o Var i o us Ed uc at i o n al In s t i t ut i o n s ( Ye s h i bo t h ,
Je w i s h t e ac h e r s , e t c .) 16 , 000
Or g an i z at i o n o f c h e ap c r e d i t - t o Je w i s h ar t i s an s , w o r km e n
an d m e r c h an t s ( t h r o ug h Je w i s h C o o p e r at i ve C r e d i t
So c i e t i e s ) 22, 000*
As s i s t an c e t o c l e r ks o f Je w i s h C o o p e r at i ve So c i e t i e s
( af f e c t e d by t h e w ar )
1, 000
Or g an i z at i o n an d s up p o r t o f s an i t ar y an d f e e d i n g e x -
p e d i t i o n s ( t w o e x p e d i t i o n s )
50, 000
To t al 9 14 , 000
Ex p e n d i t ur e o f t h e Mo s c o w , Od e s s a, K i e vC o m m i t t e e s . . .3 50, 000
1, 204 , 000t
Ac c o r d i n g t o ap p r o x i m at e e s t i m at e s w i t h i n t h e n e x t
m o n t h s t h e Ge n e r al Je w i s h Re l i e f C o m m i t t e e , w o r ki n g
c o n jo i n t l y w i t h t h e Je w i s h C o m m i t t e e s i n Mo s c o w , K i e v
*B e s i d e s t h e s um s g r an t e d t o t h e c o o p e r at i ve c r e d i t s o c i e t i e s by t h e Je w i s h
C o l o n i s at i o n As s o c i at i o n .
r o ubl
}
e s
To w ar d s t h e s e e x p e n s e s Rus s i an Je w r y h as c o n t r i but e d al i t t l e o ve r am i l l i o n
.
110
THEJEWSINTHEEASTERNWARZONE
an d Od e s s a, w i l l r e qui r e t h e f o l l o w i n g s um s t o s at i s f y
t h e m o s t ur g e n t n e e d s o f t h e o r g an i z at i o n s n o w i n f ul l
o p e r at i o n an d y e t t o be s t ar t e d :
P o l an d an d No r t h w e s t e r n P r o vi n c e s -

Ro ubl e s
War s aw Fr o m 150, 000t o 200, 000
Gal i c i a-
Out s i d e w ar ar e a
Fr o m 10, 000t o 15, 000
Re s t o r at i o n o f t r ad e an d i n d us t r y am o n g
am o n g w ar s uf f e r e r s Fr o m 100, 000t o 150, 000
Ex t r ao r d i n ar y e x p e n d i t ur e Fr o m 10, 000t o 15, 000
Th us
Fr o m 4 84 , 000
t o 6 50, 000
[ Ex p r e s s e d i n Un i t e d St at e s c ur r e n c y , t h e s um o f $ 24 2, 000t o
$ 3 25, 000p e r m o n t h w i l l be r e qui r e d , ac c o r d i n g t o t h i s e ar l y
e s t i m at e , t o s at i s f y t h e m o s t ur g e n t n e e d s o f t h e s uf f e r e r s
.]
As al r e ad y p o i n t e d o ut , t h e s p h e r e an d e x t e n t o f
d i s t r e s s ar e e ve r i n c r e as i n g w i t h t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e w ar .
Th e Je w i s h r e l i e f o r g an i z at i o n s i n Rus s i at h us s t an d
be f o r e t h e al ar m i n g p r o bl e m : w h e n c e t o o bt ai n ad e quat e
P r o vi n c e War s aw Fr o m 15, 000t o 20, 000
P r o vi n c e Li ubl i n
Fr o m 20, 000t o 25, 000
P r o vi n c e Suval ki
Fr o m 12, 000t o 15, 000
P r o vi n c e Rad o m Fr o m 20, 000t o 25, 000
P r o vi n c e K i e l c e
Fr o m 20, 000t o 25, 000
P r o vi n c e K o vn o
Fr o m 25, 000t o 3 0, 000
P r o vi n c e Vi l n a
Fr o m 10, 000t o 15, 000
P r o vi n c e Gr o d n o Fr o m 8, 000t o 10, 000
P r o vi n c e Lo m z h a
Fr o m 15, 000t o 20, 000
P r o vi n c e P l o t z k
Fr o m 6 , 000t o 8, 000
P r o vi n c e C h o i m Fr o m 10, 000t o 12, 000
So ut h w e s t e r n P r o vi n c e s -
P r o vi n c e Vo l y n i aFr o m 20, 000t o 25, 000
P r o vi n c e P o d o l i a. . . . . . . . . .
Fr o m 4 0, 000t o 6 0, 000
SP EEC HOFDEP UTYFRIEDMAN

111
f un d s t o s at i s f y t h e e ve r g r o w i n g d e m an d
.Th i s p r o bl e m
be c o m e s t h e m o r e ur g e n t as n e w f o r m s o f r e l i e f m us t be
d e vi s e d as t h e t i m e g o e s o n .It w i l l n o t d o m e r e l y t o
f e e d an d s h e l t e r t h e s t r i c ke n p o p ul at i o n .Man y o f t h e
s uf f e r e r s ar e abl e an d w i l l i n g t o w o r k, i f t h e y but h ad t h e
p o s s i bi l i t y o f d o i n g s o .
Th e at t e n t i o n o f t h e Je w i s h p ubl i c w i l l t h e r e f o r e
h ave t o be c o n c e n t r at e d o n an e w p r o bl e m : t o h e l p t h e
r ui n e d ar t i s an s t o r e h abi l i t at e t h e m s e l ve s , t o r e bui l d
t h e i r s h at t e r e d h o m e s an d t o r e s t o r e t h e i r r ui n e d bus i n e s s
by m e an s o f c h e ap c r e d i t p r o vi d e d f o r t h e m .Th e
s o l ut i o n o f t h i s p r o bl e m w i l l , h o w e ve r , r e qui r e i n f i n i t e l y
l ar g e r m e an s , w h i c h Rus s i an Je w r y i s un abl e t o r ai s e . . . .
II.
SP EEC HOFDEP UTYFRIEDMANIN
THEDUMA
( Aug us t 2, 19 15)
( Tr an s l at e d f r o m P e t r o g r ad "Re t c h , "o f Aug us t 3 , 19 15, an d
p ubl i s h e d i n t h e Ne w Yo r k"Ti m e s , " .Se p t e m be r 23 , 19 15)
In s p i t e o f t h e i r o p p r e s s e d c o n d i t i o n , i n s p i t e o f t h e i r
s t at us o f o ut l aw r y , t h e Je w s h ave r i s e n t o t h e e x al t e d
m o o d o f t h e n at i o n an d i n t h e c o ur s e o f t h e l : : t y e ar
h ave p ar t i c i p at e d i n t h e w ar i n , a n o t e w o r t h y m an n e r .
Th e y f e l l s h o r t o f t h e o t h e r s i n n o r e s p e c t .Th e y m o bi l -
i z e d t h e i r e n t i r e e n r o l l m e n t , but , i n d e e d , w i t h t h i s d i f f e r -
e n c e , t h at t h e y
h ave al s o s e n t
t h e i r o n l y s o n s i n t o t h e
w ar . Th e n e w s p ap e r s at t h e be g i n n i n g o f t h e w ar h ad
ar e m ar kabl e n um be r o f Je w i s h vo l un t e e r s t o r e c o r d .
Ge n t l e m e n , t h o s e w e r e vo l un t e e r s w h o
w e r e e n t i t l e d
t h r o ug h
t h e i r e d uc at i o n al qual i f i c at i o n s
t o t h e r an k
112
THEJEWSINTHEEASTERNWARZONE

o f f i c e r s .
Th e y kn e w t h at t h e y
w o ul d n o t r e c e i ve
t h i s r an k
; an d n e ve r t h e l e s s t h e y e n t e r e d t h e w ar
.
Th e Je w i s h y o ut h , w h i c h , as
a r e s ul t o f t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s
as t o ad m i
s s i o n t o t h e h i g h s c h o o l s o f t h e c o un t r y , h ad
be e n f o r c e d t o s t ud y abr o ad , r e t ur n e d h o m e w h e n w ar
w as d e c l ar e d , o r e n t e r e d t h e ar m i e s o f t h e al l i e d n at i o n s .
Al ar g e n um be r o f Je w i s h s t ud e n t s f e l l at
t h e d e f e n s e

Li e g e an d al s o at o t h e r p o i n t s o n t h e w e s t e r n f r o n t .
Th e
Zi o n i s t y o ut h s , w h e n t h e y w e r e c o n f r o n t e d w i t h
t h e d i l e m m ao f ac c e p t i n g Tur ki s h s o ve r e i g n t y o r be i n g
c o m p e l l e d t o e m i g r at e f r o m P al e s t i n e , p r e f e r r e d t o g o
t o Al e x an d r i aan d t h e r e t o jo i n t h e En g l i s h 'ar m y s
Th e Je w s bui l t h o s p i t al s , c o n t r i but e d m o n e y , an d
p ar t i c i p at e d i n t h e w ar i n e ve r y r e s p e c t jus t
as d i d t h e
o t h e r c i t i z e n s
.Man y Je w s r e c e i ve d m ar ks o f d i s t i n c t i o n
f o r t h e i r c o n d uc t at t h e f r o n t .
B e f o r e m e l i e s t h e l e t t e r o f aJe w w h o r e t ur n e d f r o m
t h e .Un i t e d St at e s o f Am e r i c a :
"Ir i s ke d m y l i f e , "h e w r i t e s , "an d i f , n e ve r t h e l e s s ,
Ic am e as f ar as Ar c h an g e l , i t w as o n l y be c aus e Il o ve d
m y f at h e r l an d m o r e t h an m y
l i f e o r t h at Am e r i c an f r e e -
d o m w h i c h Iw as p e r m i t t e d t o
e n jo y .Ibe c am e as o l d i e r ,
an d l o s t m y l e f t ar m al m o s t t o t h e s h o ul d e r .Iw as br o ug h t
i n t o t h e g o ve r n m e n t al d i s t r i c t o f C o ur l an d .Sc ar c e l y
h ad Ir e ac h e d Ri g aw h e n I m e t at t h e s t at i o n m y m o t h e r
an d m y r e l at i ve s , w h o bad jus t ar r i ve d t h e r e , an d w h o
t h at s am e d ay w e r e c o m p e l l e d t o l e ave t h e i r h e ar t h
an d , h o m e at t h e o r d e r o f
t h e m i l i t ar y aut h o r i t i e s .Te l l
t h e g e n t l e m e n w h o
s i t o n t h e be n c h e s o f t h e Ri g h t t h at
Id o n o t m o ur n
m y l o s t ar m , but t h at I d o m o ur n d e e p l y
t h e s e l f - r e s p e c t t h at w as n o t d e n i e d t o
m e i n al i e n l an d s
but i s n o w l o s t t o m e ."
Suc h w as t h e s e n t i m e n t o f t h e Je w s t h at f o un d e x -
p r e s s i o n i n n um e r o us ap p e al s an d
m an i f e s t at i o n s i n t h e
SP EEC HOFDEP UTYFRIEDMAN

113
p r e s s , an d f i n al l y al s o i n t h i s Ho us e .Sur e l y t h e s e
s e n t i m e n t s 's h o ul d h ave be e n t ake n i n t o ac c o un t .On e
s h o ul d h ave ar i g h t t o as s um e t h at t h e Go ve r n m e n t
w o ul d ad o p t m e as ur e s f o r t h e am e l i o r at i o n o f t h e f at e
o f t h e Je w s w h o f o un d t h e m s e l ve s i n t h e ve r y c e n t r e o f
t h e w ar - l i ke o c c ur r e n c e s .Li ke w i s e , o n e s h o ul d h ave
t ake n i n t o ac c o un t t h e s e n t i m e n t s o f h un d r e d s o f t h o us -
an d s o f Je w s w h o s h e d t h e i r bl o o d o n t h e f i e l d o f bat t l e
.
In s t e ad o f t h at , h o w e ve r , w e s e e t h at f r o m t h e be g i n -
n i n g o f t h e w ar t h e m e as ur e s o f r e p r i s al s ag ai n s t t h e
Je w i s h p o p ul ac e w e r e n o t o n l y n o t w e ake n e d but , o n t h e
c o n t r ar y , m ad e m uc h s t r o n g e r .B an i s h e d w e r e Je w i s h
m e n an d w o m e n w h o s e h us ban d s , c h i l d r e n , an d br o t h e r s ,
w e r e s h e d d i n g t h e i r bl o o d f o r t h e f at h e r l an d .Aw o un d e d
s o l d i e r n am e d Al e x an d e r Ro s kh o v, w h o h ad be e n s h o t
i n t h e e y e , c am e t o C h ar ko f f o r f ur t h e r t r e at m e n t .
On
h i s p as s p o r t w e r e t h e w o r d s , "To be s e n t t o as e t t l e -
m e n t ."Th e p r i vat e s o l d i e r Go d l e w s ki , o n e o f w h o s e
l e g s h ad be e n am p ut at e d , an d w h o f o un d h i m s e l f at
Ro s t o f o n t h e Do n f o r r e c up e r at i o n , t h e y t r i e d t o s e n d
t o h i s n at i ve
vi l l ag e
i n t h e Go ve r n m e n t o f K al i s e h , al -
r e ad y un d e r Ge r m an o c c up at i o n ; an d i t w as o n l y d ue
t o t h e ac t i vi t i e s o f t h e Rur al Le ag ue t h at h e w as p e r -
m i t t e d t o s t ay . , An ap o t h e c ar y 's h e l p e r , w h o l i ke w i s e
h ad be e n w o un d e d o n t h e bat t l e f i e l d , w as n o t al l o w e d
t o r e m ai n i n P e t r o g r ad f o r h i s c ur e , an d i t w as o n l y by
vi r t ue o f s p e c i al i n t e r c e s s i o n t h at h e w as l at e r al l o w e d
t o s o jo ur n t w o m o n t h s m o r e at P e t r o g r ad , w i t h t h e
n o t i c e , h o w e ve r , t h at at t h e e x p i r at i o n o f t h i s p e r i o d
n o f ur t h e r e x t e n s i o n o f h i s s o jo ur n w o ul d be g r an t e d .
In al o n g w ar l uc ky e ve n t s al t e r n at e w i t h , un l uc ky
o n e s , an d i n an y c as e i t i s n at ur al l y us e f ul t o h ave s c ap e -
g o at s i n r e s e r ve .Fo r t h i s p ur p o s e t h e r e e x i s t s t h e o l d
f i r m ; t h e Je w .Sc ar c e l y h as t h e e n e m y r e ac h e d o ur
i
114 THEJEWSINTHEEASTERNWARZONE
f r o n t i e r s w h e n t h e r um o r
i s ,
s p r e ad t h at Je w i s h g o l d
i s f l o w i n g o ve r t o t h e Ge r m an s , an d t h at , t o o , i n ae r o -
p l an e s , i n c o f f i n s , an d - i n t h e e n t r ai l s o f g e e s e l
Sc ar c e l y h ad t h e e n e m y p r e s s e d f ur t h e r , t h an t h e r e
ap p e ar e d ag ai n be y o n d d i s p ut e t h e e t e r n al Je w "o n t h e
w h i t e h o r s e , "p e r h ap s t h e s am e o n e w h o o n c e r o d e o n t h e
w h i t e h o r s e t h r o ug h t h e c i t y i n o r d e r t o p r o vo ke ap o g r o m .
Th e .Je w s h ave s e t up t e l e p h o n e s , h ave d e s t r o y e d t h e
t e l e g r ap h l i n e s .Th e l e g e n d g r e w , an d w i t h t h e e ag e r
s up p o r t o f t h e p o w e r s o f Go ve r n m e n t an d t h e ag i t at i o n
i n o f f i c i al c i r c l e s , as s um e d e ve r g r e at e r p r o p o r t i o n s .A
s e r i e s o f un p r e c e d e n t e d , un h e ar d o f , c r ue l m e as ur e s w as
ad o p t e d ag ai n s t t h e Je w s .Th e s e m e as ur e s , w h i c h w e r e
c ar r i e d o ut be f o r e t h e e y e s o f t h e e n t i r e p o p ul at i o n ,
s ug g e s t e d t o t h e p e o p l e an d t o t h e ar m y t h e r e c o g n i t i o n
o f t h e f ac t t h at t h e Je w s w e r e t r e at e d as e n e m i e s by t h e
Go ve r n m e n t , an d t h at t h e Je w i s h p o p ul at i o n w as o ut s i d e
t h e l aw .
In t h e - f i r s t p l ac e t h e s e m e as ur e s c o n s i s t e d o f t h e
c o m p l e t e t r an s p l an t i n g o f t h e Je w i s h p o p ul at i o n f r o m
m an y d i s t r i c t s , t o t h e ve r y l as t m an .Th e s e c o m p ul s o r y
m i g r at i o n s t o o kp l ac e
i n t h e K i n g d o m o f P o l an d an d i n
m an y o t h e r t e r r i t o r i e s .Al l t o l d , abo ut ah al f m i l l i o n
p e r s o n s h ave be e n d o o m e d t o as t at e o f be g g ar y an d
vag abo n d ag e .An y o n e w h o h as s e e n w i t h h i s o w n e y e s
h o w t h e s e e x p ul s i o n s t ake p l ac e , w i l l n e ve r f o r g e t t h e m
as l o n g as h e l i ve s .Th e
e x i l i n g
t o o kp l ac e w i t h i n t w e n t y -
f o ur h o ur s , s o m e t i m e s w i t h i n t w o d ay s .Wo m e n , o l d
m e n , an d c h i l d r e n , an d s o m e t i m e s i n val i d s , w e r e ban -
i s h e d .Eve n t h e f e e bl e m i n d e d w e r e t ake n f r o m t h e
l un at i c as y l um s an d t h e Je w s w e r e f o r c e d t o t ake t h e s e
w i t h t h e m .In Mo h i l n i t s e , 5, 000p e r s o n s w e r e e x p e l l e d
w i t h i n t w e n t y - f o ur h o ur s .Th e i r w ay l e d t o War s aw
t h r o ug h K al w ay r a .Me an t i m e t h e y w e r e f o r c e d t o
SP EEC HOFDEP UTYFRIEDMAN

11 5
t r ave l ac r o s s f i e l d s t h r o ug h t h e Go ve r n m e n t o f Lubl i n ,
an d w e r e d e p r i ve d o f t h e p o s s i bi l i t y o f t aki n g al o n g
t h e i r i n ve n t o r i e s
.Man y w e r e o bl i g e d t o t r ave l o n f o o t .
Wh e n t h e y r e ac h e d Lubl i n , t h e Je w i s h C o m m i t t e e t h e r e
h ad p r o vi d e d
br c ad 'an d f o o d f o r t h e m ; but t h e y w e r e
n o t al l o w e d t o t ar r y , an d t h e y h ad t o t r ave l
o n at
o n c e .
On t h e w ay an ac c i d e n t o c c ur r e d ; as i x - y e ar - o l d
c h i l d w as ki l l e d by af al l .Th e p ar e n t s w e r e n o t
p e r -
m i t t e d t o bur y
t h e c h i l d .
Is aw al s o t h e r e f ug e e s o f t h e Go ve r n m e n t o f K o vn o .
P e r s o n s w h o o n l y y e s t e r d ay w e r e s t i l l ac c o un t e d w e al t h y
w e r e be g g ar s t h e n e x t d ay .Am o n g t h e r e f ug e e s Im e t
Je w i s h w o m e n an d g i r l s , w h o h ad w o r ke d t o g e t h e r w i t h
Rus s i an w o m e n , h ad s e w e d g ar m e n t s w i t h t h e m an d
c o l l e c t e d c o n t r i but i o n s w i t h t h e m , an d w h o w e r e n o w
f o r c e d t o e n c am p o n t h e r ai l w ay e m ban km e n t .Is aw
f am i l i e s o f r e s e r vi s t s .Is aw am o n g t h e e x i l e s w o un d e d
s o l d i e r s w e ar i n g t h e C r o s s o f St .Ge o r g e .It i s s ai d
t h at Je w i s h s o l d i e r s i n m ar c h i n g t h r o ug h t h e P o l i s h
c i t i e s w e r e f o r c e d t o w i t n e s s t h e e x p ul s i o n o f t h e i r w i ve s
an d c h i l d r e n .Th e Je w s w e r e l o ad e d i n f r e i g h t c ar s
l i ke c at t l e . Th e bi l l s o f l ad i n g w e r e w o r d e d as f o l l o w s :
"Fo ur h un d r e d an d f i f t y Je w s , e n r o ut e t o

."
Th e r e w e r e c as e s i n w h i c h t h e Go ve r n o r s r e f us e d
o ut r i g h t t o t ake i n t h e Je w s at al l
.Im y s e l f w as i n Vi l n a
at
t h e ve r y t i m e w h e n aw h o l e t r s .i n l o ad o f Je w s w as
s t al l e d f o r f o ur d ay s
i n No vo - Wi l e js ks t at i o n .Th o s e
w e r e Je w s w h o h ad be e n s e n t f r o m t h e Go ve r n m e n t o f
K o vn o t o t h e Go ve r n m e n t o f P o l t aw a, but t h e Go ve r n o r
t h e r e w o ul d n o t r e c e i ve t h e m an d s e n t t h e m bac kt o
K o vn o , w h e n c e t h e y w e r e ag ai n r e s h i p p e d t o P o l t aw a .
Im ag i n e , at at i m e w h e n e ve r y r ai l w ay c ar i s n e e d e d f o r
t h e t r an s p o r t at i o n o f m un i t i o n s , w h e n f r o m al l s i d e s
116 THEJEWSINTHEEASTERNWARZONE
ar e h e ar d c o m p l ai n t s abo ut t h e l ac ko f m e an s o f t r an s -
p o r t at i o n , t h e Go ve r n m e n t p e r m i t s i t s e l f t o d o s uc h a
t h i n g ! At o n e s t at i o n t h e r e s t o o d 110f r e i g h t c ar s c o n -
t ai n i n g Je w i s h e x i l e s .
An o t h e r m e as ur e w h i c h l i ke w i s e i s un p r e c e d e n t e d
i n t h e e n t i r e h i s t o r y o f - t h e c i vi l i z e d w o r l d , i s t h e i n t r o -
d uc t i o n o f t h e s o - c al l e d s y s t e m o f "Ho s t ag e s , "an d ,
i n d e e d , h o s t ag e s w e r e t ake n n o t f r o m t h e e n e m y , but
f r o m t h e c o un t r y 's o w n s ubje c t s , i t s o w n c i t i z e n s .Ho s t -
ag e s w e r e t ake n i n Rad o m , K i e l t s e , Lo m s c h a, K o vn o ,
Ri g a, Lubl i n , e t c .Th e h o s t ag e s w e r e h e l d un d e r t h e
m o s t r i g o r o us r e g i m e
; an d at p r e s e n t t h e r e ar e s t i l l un d e r
ar r e s t i n P o l t avaJe w i s h h o s t ag e s f r o m t h e Go ve r n m e n t s
o f K i e l t s e an d Rad o m .
So m e t i m e ag o , i n c o m m e n t i n g up o n t h e p r o c e d ur e
ag ai n s t t h e Je w s , t h e l e ad e r o f t h e Op p o s i t i o n , e ve n
be f o r e t h e o ut br e ako f t h e w ar , us e d t h e e x p r e s s i o n
t h at w e w e r e ap p r o ac h i n g t h e t i m e s o f Fe r d i n an d an d
Is abe l l a .In o w as s e r t t h at w e
h ave al r e ad y s ur p as s e d
t h at e r a .No Je w i s h bl o o d w as s h e d i n d e f e n c e o f Sp ai n ,
but o ur s f l o w e d t h e m o m e n t t h e Je w s h e l p e d d e f e n d t h e
Fat h e r l an d
.
Ye s , w e ar e be y o n d t h e p al e o f t h e l aw s , w e ar e
o p p r e s s e d , w e h ave ah ar d l i f e , but w e kn o w t h e s o ur c e
o f t h at e vi l ; i t c o m e s f r o m t h o s e be n c h e s ( p o i n t i n g t o
t h e bo x e s o f t h e Mi n i s t e r s ) .We ar e be i n g o p p r e s s e d
by t h e Rus s i an Go ve r n m e n t , n o t by
t h e Rus s i an p e o p l e
.
Wh y , t h e n , i s i t s ur p r i s i n g i f
w e
w i s h t o un i t e o ur d e s -
t i n i e s , n o t w i t h t h at o f t h e Rus s i an Go ve r n m e n t , but
w i t h t h at o f t h e Rus s i an p e o p l e ? Wh e n t h r e e y e ar s
ag o t h e r e w as p e n d i n g h e r e t h e C h o i m l aw p r o p o s al ,
d i d t h e t h o ug h t e ve r o c c ur at t h e t i m e t o t h e s p o n s o r s
o f t h e bi l l t h at i n as h o r t t i m e t h e y w o ul d h ave t o s c r ap e
an d bo w be f o r e f r e e aut o n o m o us P o l an d ? We l i ke w i s e
SP EEC HOFB ARONROSEN 117
h o p e t h at t h e t i m e i s n o t d i s t an t w h e n w e c an be c i t i z e n s
o f t h e Rus s i an St at e w i t h f ul l e qual i t y o f p r i vi l e g e s
w i t h t h e f r e e Rus s i an p e o p l e .
B e f o r e t h e f ac e o f t h e e n t i r e c o un t r y , be f o r e t h e
e n t i r e c i vi l i z e d w o r l d , Id e c l ar e t h at t h e c al um n i e s ag ai n s t
t h e Je w s ar e t h e m o s t r e p ul s i ve l i e s an d c h i m e r as o f
p e r s o n s w h o w i l l h ave t o be r e s p o n s i bl e f o r t h e i r c r i m e s .
[ Ap p l aus e o n Le f t .]
It d e p e n d s up o n y o u, g e n t l e m e n o f t h e Im p e r i al Dum a,
t o s p e akt h e w o r d o f e n c o ur ag e m e n t , t o p e r f o r m _t h e
ac t i o n t h at c an d e l i ve r t h e Je w i s h p e o p l e f r o m t h e t e r r i bl e
p l i g h t i n w h i c h i t i s at p r e s e n t , an d t h at c an l e ad t h e m
bac ki n t o t h e r an ks o f t h e Rus s i an c i t i z e n s w h o ar e
d e f e n d i n g t h e i r Fat h e r l an d .[ C r i e s o f "Ri g h t ."]
Id o n o t kn o w i f t h e Im p e r i al Dum aw i l l s o ac t , but i f
i t d o e s s o ac t i t w i l l be f ul f i l l i n g an o bl i g at i o n o f h o n o r
an d an ac t o f w i s e s t at e s m an s h i p t h at i s n e c e s s ar y f o r t h e
p r o f i t an d f o r t h e g r e at n e s s o f t h e Fat h e r l an d .[ Ap p l aus e
o n t h e Le f t .]
III.
AB STRAC TOFSP EEC HOFB ARONR
.
.R.ROSEN
INTHEC OUNC ILOFTHEEMP IRE*
Aug us t 22( Se p t e m be r 4 ) , 19 15
( Tr an s l at i o n f r o m "Re t c h , "No
.23 1, Aug us t 23
( Se p t e m be r 5) , 19 15)
B ar o n Ro s e n be g an w i t h t h e s t at e m e n t t h at w h i l e
t h e que s t i o n o f s up p l i e s f o r t h e ar m y an d n avy w as
p ar am o un t , t h e r e w as n e ve r t h e l e s s an o t h e r s i d e t o i t ,
an d t h at w as t h e que s t i o n o f t h e d o m e s t i c p o l i c y o f t h e
* B ar o n Ro s e n w as f o r m e r l y Rus s i an Am bas s ad o r t o t h e Un i t e d St at e s .
118 THEJEWSINTHEEASTERNWARZONE
Em p i r e . He r e m i n d e d h i s h e ar e r s t h at i n May , 19 13 ,
h e h ad w ar n e d t h e C o un c i l o f t h e Em p i r e o f t h e c at as -
t r o p h e i m m i n e n t i n Eur o p e , but t h at h i s s t at e m e n t
h ad be e n m e t w i t h r i d i c ul e an d
s ke p t i c i s m .Th e r e s ul t
o f s uc h an at t i t ud e i n n o w o bvi o us t o al l
.In t h i s g r e at
c o n f l i c t , i t h as be c o m e c l e ar t h at
n e i t h e r s i d e w i l l be
abl e t o c r us h t h e o t h e r , as w as e x p e c t e d at t h e .o ut s e t
o f t h i s w ar .B ut e ve n as i t i s , t h i s w ar o f e x t e r m i n at i o n
o f t h e w h i t e r ac e m us t , i n t h e e n d , be d e c i d e d i n f avo r
o f o n e o f t h e t w o p ar t i e s at c o n f l i c t .He t h o ug h t t h at
c e r t ai n i n t an g i bl e e l e m e n t s e n t e r i n g i n t o t h e que s t i o n
w o ul d be o f g r e at i m p o r t an c e i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f t h i s
w ar .P ut t i n g as i d e t h e p o l i t i c al , e c o n o m i c an d p s y c h o l -
o g i c al que s t i o n s t h at l e d t o t h i s c o n f l i c t , h e t h o ug h t
t h at t h e ul t i m at e i s s ue w as t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e w o r l d
t o bat t l e ag ai n s t t h e d i c t um o f Ge r m an y t h at "m i g h t
i s g r e at e r t h an r i g h t an d r i g h t i s c r e at e d o n l y by m i g h t
."
Un d e r t h e c i r c um s t an c e s , i t w o ul d s e e m t h at t h e s y m -
p at h i e s o f t h e e n t i r e w o r l d s h o ul d be o n t h e s i d e o f t h e
al l i e s .B ut i n r e al i t y t h i s i s n o t t h e c as e ; an d f o r t h i s
t h e r e ar e s e ve r al r e as o n s .
"It i s un d o ubt e d l y w i t h i n o ur p o w e r t o d o aw ay w i t h
o n e o f t h e f ac t o r s m i l i t at i n g ag ai n s t us i n t h e p ubl i c
o p i n i o n o f n e ut r al c o un t r i e s .In t h e s t r ug g l e t h at w e ,
t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e m o s t c i vi l i z e d n at i o n s o f Eur o p e , ar e
w ag i n g ag ai n s t t h e P an - Ge r m an i s m , i m p e r i al i s m an d
abs o l ut i s m , an d f o r r i g h t an d jus t i c e , f o r t h e l i be r t y
an d i n d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e w e ake r n at i o n s , w e s h al l ac h i e ve
t h e f ul l s y m p at h y o f t h e c i vi l i z e d w o r l d o n l y w h e n w e
s h al l h ave p ut o ur i n n e r f r o n t i f Im ay us e t h at e x p r e s -
s i o n - o n al e ve l w i t h t h e p o l i t i c al i d e o l o g y o f o ur val i an t
al l i e s ; f o r i n s t an c e , i n t h e c o n d uc t o f o ur p o l i t y w i t h
r e f e r e n c e t o t h e , bo r d e r l an d s , an d t h e s o - c al l e d al i e n
r ac e s c o m p o s i n g i t s p o p ul at i o n ."
SP EEC HOFB ARONROSEN

1 1 9
Af t e r s t at i n g t h at t h e r e w e r e t w o d i am e t r i c al l y o p p o s e d
p o l i t i c al s y s t e m s , o n e c ur r e n t am o n g t h e Al l i e s an d t h e
o t h e r am o n g t h e Ge r m an s , B ar o n Ro s e n c o n t i n ue d :
"To t h e m ax i m um i n jur y o f t h e t r ue i n t e r e s t s o f Rus s i a,
w e h ave ad o p t e d an d h ave c ar r i e d o ut un s w e r vi n g l y t h e
t r ue Ge r m an s y s t e m o f p o l i t i c s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o o ur
bo r d e r l an d s an d t h e s o - c al l e d f o r e i g n r ac e s an d f o r e i g n
f ai t h s , ap o l i c y w h i c h .h as be e n m ad e e ve n m o r e p e r f e c t
by t h e ad m i x t ur e o f m e d i e val r e l i g i o us i n t o l e r an c e .
"It m ay be r e t o r t e d t h at t h e f at e o f ac am p ai g n i s
d e c i d e d by m i l i t ar y p o w e r an d n o t by t h e g r e at e r o r
l e s s e r s y m p at h y o f n e ut r al c o un t r i e s f o r t h e p o l i c y o f
ag i ve n s t at e .Th e Ge r m an Go ve r n m e n t d o e s n o t t h i n k
s o ; f o r o t h e r w i s e i t w o ul d n o t s p e n d c o un t l e s s m i l l i o n s
f o r p an - Ge r m an p r o p ag an d ai n al l t h e c o un t r i e s o f t h e
w o r l d , e ve n t h e m o s t r e m o t e
.B ut w e , o n t h e o t h e r
h an d , n o t o n l y f ai l t o o p p o s e an y t h i n g t o t h i s p r o p a-
g an d a, but by t h e c o ur s e o f o ur d o m e s t i c p o l i c i e s w e p l ac e
i n t h e h an d s o f t h i s p r o p ag an d ap o w e r f ul ar g um e n t s
f o r ar o us i n g ag ai n s t us p ubl i c o p i n i o n o f s uc h c o un t r i e s
as t h e Un i t e d St at e s , t h e o n l y g r e at n e ut r al p o w e r , an d
o f Sw e d e n , o ur n e i g h bo r .
"It i s i n c o n c e i vabl e t h at t h e f r am e r s o f o ur p o l i c y
s h o ul d f ai l t o r e al i z e t h at t h e p r o p ag an d ad i r e c t e d ag ai n s t
us , c o n d uc t e d un d e r o f f i c i al aus p i c e s an d e qui p p e d w i t h
t h e am p l e s t r e s o ur c e s , w i l l s c ar c e l y c aus e o ur o w n i n t e r -
e s t s an d t h e i n t e r e s t s o f o ur Al l i e s o n e - t e n t h o f t h e h ar m
w h i c h i s c aus e d t o t h e s e i n t e r e s t s by o ur at t i t ud e t o w ar d s
t h e Je w i s h p o p ul at i o n o f Rus s i aan d o ur s y s t e m at i c
vi o l at i o n o f t h e l e g al c o n s c i e n c e o f t h e Fi n n i s h p o p ul at i o n
- an at t i t ud e w h i c h s m ac ks o f t h e d ar kt i m e s o f m e d i e -
val i s m .
"Th e que s t i o n n o w i s , w h y d i d n o t t h e Go ve r n m e n t
f i n d i t p o s s i bl e t o p ut an e n d t o t h i s p r o bl e m d e c i s i ve l y
120 ui i JEWSIN1ki JEASTERNWARZONE
an d f o r e ve r , as i t h as f i n al l y , an d , al as , w i t h s uc h d e l ay ,
s e t t l e d t h e que s t i o n o f t h e aut o n o m y o f P o l an d ? Th i s
m ay be e x p l ai n e d o n l y by t h e f ac t t h at t h e Go ve r n m e n t
h e s i t at e d t o br e akw i t h t h e t r ad i t i o n al p o l i c y s o d e ar
t o t h e m i l i t an t n at i o n al i s m .
"Ac c o r d i n g l y t h e Dum aan d t h e C o un c i l ar e i n d ut y
bo un d t o c o m e t o t h e ai d o f t h e Go ve r n m e n t i n t h i s
r e g ar d an d t ake up o n t h e m s e l ve s t h e i n i t i at i ve o f i n t r o -
d uc i n g abi l l f o r t h e abo l i t i o n o f al l l aw s r e s t r i c t i n g t h e
r i g h t s o f t h e Je w s an d f o r t h e abr o g at i o n o f t h e l aw o f
Jul y 17 ( 3 0) c o n c e r n i n g Fi n l an d .Th e p as s ag e o f t h e s e
m e as ur e s w o ul d un d o ubt e d l y l i g h t e n t h e _h e avy ., t as k
n o w c o n f r o n t i n g t h e Go ve r n m e n t i n t h e s p h e r e o f i n t e r -
n at i o n al r e l at i o n s an d i t w o ul d be m e t by o ur val i an t
al l i e s w i t h t h e l i ve l i e s t s at i s f ac t i o n .
"We m us t r e m e m be r t h at t h i s g r e at , Eur o p e an w ar
i s n o t o n l y as t r ug g l e o f
- i n t e r e s t s
, but i s al s o a s t r ug g l e
o f i d e as an d p r i n c i p l e s . In t h e bat t l e ag ai n s t Ge r m an
m i l i t ar i s m , Rus s i ah as p l ac e d h e r s e l f o n t h e s i d e o f r i g h t
an d f r e e d o m , an d f o r t h e t r i um p h o f t h e i d e af o r w h i c h
w e ar e n o w f i g h t i n g , i t i s n e c e s s ar y t h at
i n Rus s i a, t o o ,
t h e r e s h o ul d
be
n o l o n g e r
an y
p e o p l e w i t h o ut r i g h t s o r
an y p e o p l e o p p r e s s e d ."